59 research outputs found

    Exploring the cost-effectiveness of high versus low perioperative fraction of inspired oxygen in the prevention of surgical site infections among abdominal surgery patients in three low- and middle-income countries

    No full text

    The Mantle Section of Neoproterozoic Ophiolites from the Pan-African Belt, Eastern Desert, Egypt: Tectonomagmatic Evolution, Metamorphism, and Mineralization

    No full text
    The Eastern Desert (ED) Neoproterozoic ophiolites are tectonically important elements of the Arabian–Nubian Shield. Although affected by various degrees of dismemberment, metamorphism, and alteration, almost all of the diagnostic Penrose-type ophiolite components can be found, namely, lower units of serpentinized peridotite tectonite and cumulate ultramafics and upper units of layered and isotropic gabbros, plagiogranites, sheeted dykes and pillow lavas. The contacts between the lower unit (mantle section) and the upper unit (crustal section) were originally magmatic, but in all cases are now disrupted by tectonism. The mantle sections of the ED ophiolites are exposed as folded thrust sheets bearing important and distinctive lithologies of serpentinized peridotites of harzburgite and dunite protoliths with occasional podiform chromitites. The ED ophiolites show a spatial and temporal association with suture zones that indicate fossil subduction zone locations. Multiple episodes of regional metamorphism mostly reached greenschist facies with less common amphibolite facies localities. CO₂-metasomatism resulted in the development of talc–carbonate, listvenite, magnesite, and other carbonate-bearing meta-ultramafic rocks. Geochemical data from the ED serpentinites, despite some confounding effects of hydration and alteration, resemble modern oceanic peridotites. The ED serpentinites show high LOI (≤20 wt%); Mg# mostly higher than 0.89; enrichment of Ni, Cr, and Co; depletion of Al₂O₃ and CaO; and nearly flat, depleted, and unfractionated chondrite-normalized REE patterns. The modal abundance of clinopyroxene is very low if it is present at all. Chromian spinel survived metamorphism and is widely used as the most reliable petrogenetic and geotectonic indicator in the ED ophiolite mantle sections. The high-Cr# (mostly ~0.7) and low-TiO₂ (mostly ≤ 0.1 wt%) characters of chromian spinel indicate a high degree of partial melt extraction (≥30%), which is commonly associated with fore-arc settings and equilibration with boninite-like or high-Mg tholeiite melts. Based on the general petrological characteristics, the ED ophiolitic chromitites are largely similar to Phanerozoic examples that have been attributed to melt–peridotite interaction and subsequent melt mixing in fore-arc settings. The comparison between the ED Neoproterozoic mantle peridotites and Phanerozoic equivalents indicates considerable similarity in tectonomagmatic processes and does not support any major changes in the geothermal regime of subduction zones on Earth since the Neoproterozoic era. The mantle sections of ED ophiolites are worthy targets for mining and exploration, hosting a variety of ores (chromite, gold, and iron/nickel laterites) and industrial minerals (talc, asbestos, and serpentine)

    Surgical site infection after gastrointestinal surgery in high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: a prospective, international, multicentre cohort study

    Get PDF
    Background Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most common infections associated with health care, but its importance as a global health priority is not fully understood. We quantified the burden of SSI after gastrointestinal surgery in countries in all parts of the world. Methods This international, prospective, multicentre cohort study included consecutive patients undergoing elective or emergency gastrointestinal resection within 2-week time periods at any health-care facility in any country. Countries with participating centres were stratified into high-income, middle-income, and low-income groups according to the UN's Human Development Index (HDI). Data variables from the GlobalSurg 1 study and other studies that have been found to affect the likelihood of SSI were entered into risk adjustment models. The primary outcome measure was the 30-day SSI incidence (defined by US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for superficial and deep incisional SSI). Relationships with explanatory variables were examined using Bayesian multilevel logistic regression models. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02662231. Findings Between Jan 4, 2016, and July 31, 2016, 13 265 records were submitted for analysis. 12 539 patients from 343 hospitals in 66 countries were included. 7339 (58·5%) patient were from high-HDI countries (193 hospitals in 30 countries), 3918 (31·2%) patients were from middle-HDI countries (82 hospitals in 18 countries), and 1282 (10·2%) patients were from low-HDI countries (68 hospitals in 18 countries). In total, 1538 (12·3%) patients had SSI within 30 days of surgery. The incidence of SSI varied between countries with high (691 [9·4%] of 7339 patients), middle (549 [14·0%] of 3918 patients), and low (298 [23·2%] of 1282) HDI (p<0·001). The highest SSI incidence in each HDI group was after dirty surgery (102 [17·8%] of 574 patients in high-HDI countries; 74 [31·4%] of 236 patients in middle-HDI countries; 72 [39·8%] of 181 patients in low-HDI countries). Following risk factor adjustment, patients in low-HDI countries were at greatest risk of SSI (adjusted odds ratio 1·60, 95% credible interval 1·05–2·37; p=0·030). 132 (21·6%) of 610 patients with an SSI and a microbiology culture result had an infection that was resistant to the prophylactic antibiotic used. Resistant infections were detected in 49 (16·6%) of 295 patients in high-HDI countries, in 37 (19·8%) of 187 patients in middle-HDI countries, and in 46 (35·9%) of 128 patients in low-HDI countries (p<0·001). Interpretation Countries with a low HDI carry a disproportionately greater burden of SSI than countries with a middle or high HDI and might have higher rates of antibiotic resistance. In view of WHO recommendations on SSI prevention that highlight the absence of high-quality interventional research, urgent, pragmatic, randomised trials based in LMICs are needed to assess measures aiming to reduce this preventable complication. Funding DFID-MRC-Wellcome Trust Joint Global Health Trial Development Grant, National Institute of Health Research Global Health Research Unit Grant