178 research outputs found

    Search for supernova-produced 60Fe in a marine sediment

    Full text link
    An 60Fe peak in a deep-sea FeMn crust has been interpreted as due to the signature left by the ejecta of a supernova explosion close to the solar system 2.8 +/- 0.4 Myr ago [Knie et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 171103 (2004)]. To confirm this interpretation with better time resolution and obtain a more direct flux estimate, we measured 60Fe concentrations along a dated marine sediment. We find no 60Fe peak at the expected level from 1.7 to 3.2 Myr ago. However, applying the same chemistry used for the sediment, we confirm the 60Fe signal in the FeMn crust. The cause of the discrepancy is discussed.Comment: 15 pages, 5 figures, submitted to PR

    A 400 kA Pulsed Power Supply for Magnetic Horn at the pbar Separator

    Get PDF

    41Ca in tooth enamel. part I: A biological signature of neutron exposure in atomic bomb survivors

    Get PDF
    The detection of 41Ca atoms in tooth enamel using accelerator mass spectrometry is suggested as a method capable of reconstructing thermal neutron exposures from atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In general, 41Ca atoms are produced via thermal neutron capture by stable 40Ca. Thus any 41Ca atoms present in the tooth enamel of the survivors would be due to neutron exposure from both natural sources and radiation from the bomb. Tooth samples from five survivors in a control group with negligible neutron exposure were used to investigate the natural 41Ca content in tooth enamel, and 16 tooth samples from 13 survivors were used to estimate bomb-related neutron exposure. The results showed that the mean 41Ca/Ca isotope ratio was (0.17 ¬Ī 0.05) √ó 10-14 in the control samples and increased to 2 √ó 10-14 for survivors who were proximally exposed to the bomb. The 41Ca/Ca ratios showed an inverse correlation with distance from the hypocenter at the time of the bombing, similar to values that have been derived from theoretical free-in-air thermal-neutron transport calculations. Given that ő≥-ray doses were determined earlier for the same tooth samples by means of electron spin resonance (ESR, or electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR), these results can serve to validate neutron exposures that were calculated individually for the survivors but that had to incorporate a number of assumptions (e.g. shielding conditions for the survivors).Fil: Wallner, A.. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; Alemania. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; Alemania. Universidad de Viena; AustriaFil: Ruhm, W.. Helmholtz Center Munich German Research Center For Environmental Health; Alemania. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; AlemaniaFil: Rugel, G.. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; Alemania. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; AlemaniaFil: Nakamura, N.. Radiation Effects Research Foundation; Jap√≥nFil: Arazi, Andres. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; Alemania. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas; ArgentinaFil: Faestermann, T.. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; AlemaniaFil: Knie, K.. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; Alemania. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; AlemaniaFil: Maier, H. J.. Ludwig Maximilians Universitat; AlemaniaFil: Korschinek, G.. Universitat Technical Zu Munich; Alemani

    The Search for Supernova-produced Radionuclides in Terrestrial Deep-sea Archives

    Full text link
    An enhanced concentration of 60Fe was found in a deep ocean's crust in 2004 in a layer corresponding to an age of ~2 Myr. The confirmation of this signal in terrestrial archives as supernova-induced and detection of other supernova-produced radionuclides is of great interest. We have identified two suitable marine sediment cores from the South Australian Basin and estimated the intensity of a possible signal of the supernova-produced radionuclides 26Al, 53Mn, 60Fe and the pure r-process element 244Pu in these cores. A finding of these radionuclides in a sediment core might allow to improve the time resolution of the signal and thus to link the signal to a supernova event in the solar vicinity ~2 Myr ago. Furthermore, it gives an insight on nucleosynthesis scenarios in massive stars, the condensation into dust grains and transport mechanisms from the supernova shell into the solar system

    Opportunities for Nuclear Astrophysics at FRANZ

    Full text link
    The "Frankfurter Neutronenquelle am Stern-Gerlach-Zentrum" (FRANZ), which is currently under development, will be the strongest neutron source in the astrophysically interesting energy region in the world. It will be about three orders of magnitude more intense than the well-established neutron source at the Research Center Karlsruhe (FZK)

    On identifying the neutron star that was born in the supernova that placed 60Fe onto the Earth

    Get PDF
    Recently, 60Fe was found in the Earth crust formed in a nearby recent supernova (SN). If the distance to the SN and mass of the progenitor of that SN was known, then one could constrain SN models. Knowing the positions, proper motions, and distances of dozens of young nearby neutron stars, we can determine their past flight paths and possible kinematic origin. Once the birth place of a neutron star in a SN is found, we would have determined the distance of the SN and the mass of the SN progenitor star.Comment: refereed NPA5 conference proceedings, in pres

    Beiträge der Pädagogischen Psychologie zur Wissenschaftspolitik

    Get PDF
    Wild E, Esdar W. Beiträge der Pädagogischen Psychologie zur Wissenschaftspolitik. In: Simon D, Knie A, Hornbostel S, Zimmermann K, eds. Handbuch Wissenschaftspolitik. 2nd ed. Wiesbaden: Springer; 2016: 191-205

    Mass extinctions and supernova explosions

    Full text link
    A nearby supernova (SN) explosion could have negatively influenced life on Earth, maybe even been responsible for mass extinctions. Mass extinction poses a significant extinction of numerous species on Earth, as recorded in the paleontologic, paleoclimatic, and geological record of our planet. Depending on the distance between the Sun and the SN, different types of threats have to be considered, such as ozone depletion on Earth, causing increased exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet radiation, or the direct exposure of lethal x-rays. Another indirect effect is cloud formation, induced by cosmic rays in the atmosphere which result in a drop in the Earth's temperature, causing major glaciations of the Earth. The discovery of highly intensive gamma ray bursts (GRBs), which could be connected to SNe, initiated further discussions on possible life-threatening events in Earth's history. The probability that GRBs hit the Earth is very low. Nevertheless, a past interaction of Earth with GRBs and/or SNe cannot be excluded and might even have been responsible for past extinction events.Comment: Chapter for forthcoming book: Handbook of Supernovae, P. Murdin and A. Alsabeti (eds.), Springer International Publishing (in press

    Measurement of the stellar Ni 58 (n,ő≥) Ni 59 cross section with accelerator mass spectrometry

    Get PDF
    The Ni58(n,ő≥)Ni59 cross section was measured with a combination of the activation technique and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The neutron activations were performed at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator using the quasistellar neutron spectrum at kT=25 keV produced by the Li7(p,n)Be7 reaction. The subsequent AMS measurements were carried out at the 14 MV tandem accelerator of the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory in Garching using the gas-filled analyzing magnet system (GAMS). Three individual samples were measured, yielding a Maxwellian-averaged cross section at kT=30 keV of (ŌÉ)30keV = 30.4 (23)syst(9)stat mbarn. This value is slightly lower than two recently published measurements using the time-of-flight (TOF) method, but agrees within the uncertainties. Our new results also resolve the large discrepancy between older TOF measurements and our previous value
    • ‚Ķ
    corecore