811 research outputs found

    Cosmogenesis Backgrounds, Experiment Depth and the Solar Neutrino TPC

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    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is one of the promising candidates to perform unique measurements in solar neutrino physics. Its features will enable it to work at depths of the order of 2000 mwe. This paper describes an estimation of the expected cosmogenic background at different depths including also the background due to fission activation of the TPC material above ground.Comment: 15 pages, 3 figure

    Compilation of cosmogenic radionuclides in meteorites

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    All available data for the concentration of cosmogenic nuclides Mn-53(t(1/2) = 3.7 x 10(6) years), Al-26 (7.05 x 10(5) years), Be-10 (1.6 x 10(6) years), Cl-36 (3.0 x 10(5) years) and Ne-21, and Ne-22/Ne-21 ratios in stony, iron, and stony-iron meteorites were compiled. For iron meteorites, the He-4/Ne-21 ratio was adopted instead of Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio, because the He-4/Ne-21 ratio in iron meteorites indicates the shielding condition of the sample. The compilation contains over 2000 different analyses for four cosmogenic radionuclides

    Terrestrial and exposure histories of Antarctic meteorites

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    Records of cosmogenic effects were studied in a large suite of Antarctic meteorites. The cosmogenic nuclide measurements together with cosmic ray track measurements on Antartic meteorites provide information such as exposure age, terrestrial age, size and depth in meteoroid or parent body, influx rate in the past, and pairing. The terrestrail age is the time period between the fall of the meteorite on the Earth and the present. To define terrestrial age, two or more nuclides with different half-lives and possibly noble gases are required. The cosmogenic radionuclides used are C-14, Kr-81, Cl-36, Al-26, Be-10, Mn-53, and K-40

    Nuclide production in (very) small meteorites

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    One of the most interesting open questions in the study of cosmic-ray effects in meteorites is the expected behavior of objects which are very small compared to the mean interaction length of primary galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles. A reasonable limit might be a pre-atmospheric radius of 5 gram/cm(2), or 1.5 cm for chondrites. These are interesting for at least three reasons: (1) this is a limiting case for large objects, and can help us make better models; (2) this size is intermediate between usual meteorites and irradiated grams (spherules); and (3) these are the most likely objects to show solar cosmic ray (SCR) effects. Reedy (1984) has recently proposed a model for production by GCR of radioactive and stable nuclides in spherical meteorites. Very small objects are expected to deviate from this model in the direction of fewer secondary particles (larger spectral shape parameter), at all depths. The net effect will be significantly lower production of such low-energy products as Mn-53 and Al-26. The SCR production of these and other nuclides will be lower, too, because meteorite orbits extend typically out into the asteroid belt, and the mean SCR flux must fall off approximately as r(-2) with distance from the Sun. Kepler's laws insure that for such orbits most of the exposure time is spent near aphelion. None the less the equivalent mean exposure distance, R(exp), is slightly less than the semimajor axis A because of the weighting by R(-2). For the three meteorite orbits we have, R(exp) has a narrow range, from about 1.6 to 2.1 a.u. This is probably true for the great majority of meteorites

    Solar particle history: 1983 version

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    It has long been known that the great majority of nuclear active solar particles are emitted in a few large storms in each 11 year cycle. A single storm in August 1972 dominated the fluence of particles of energy >10 MeV. Such storms can occur, it seems, at any time within the more active half ot the cycle. On a time scale long compared to 11 years, the knowledge comes from two sources. Terrestrial C-14 sets limits on the largest proton bursts that can have taken place in the 8000 years. Lunar surface samples have yielded data on mean fluxes on a time scale from the C-14 to the Mn-53 mean life. A mean flux was found of 70 protons >10 MeV and a rigidity constant R sub o = 100 MV to be robust on the 1,000,000 to 10,000,000 year time scale. Over the shorter periods represented by C-14 and Kr-81 the fluxes seem to have been higher by a factor of roughly three. Some examples of dating are discussed

    Measurements of long-lived cosmogenic nuclides in returned comet nucleus samples

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    Measurements of long lived cosmic ray produced radionuclides have given much information on the histories and rates of surface evolution for meteorites, the Moon and the Earth. These nuclides can be equally useful in studying cometary histories and post nebular processing of cometary surfaces. The concentration of these nuclides depends on the orbit of the comet (cosmic ray intensity changes with distance from the sun), the depth of the sampling site in the comet surface, and the rate of continuous evolution of the surface (erosion rate of surface materials). If the orbital parameters and the sampling depth are known, production rates of cosmogenic nuclides can be fairly accurately calculated by theoretical models normalized to measurement on lunar surface materials and meteoritic samples. Due to the continuous evaporation of surface materials, it is expected that the long lived radioactivities will be undersaturated. Accurate measurements of the degree of undersaturation in nuclides of different half-lives allows for the determination of the rate of surface material loss over the last few million years

    Exposure Histories of Yamato Shergottites.

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    第2回極域科学シンポジウム/第34回南極隕石シンポジウム 11月18日(金) 国立国語研究所 2階講

    Update on terrestrial ages and pairing studies of Antarctic meteorites.

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    第2回極域科学シンポジウム/第34回南極隕石シンポジウム 11月17日(木) 国立国語研究所 2階講

    Depth profile of 10Be in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice core

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    第2回極域科学シンポジウム 氷床コアセッション 11月16日(水) 国立極地研究所 2階大会議