310 research outputs found

    Qualitätsentwicklung in der Kinder- und Jugendhilfe: zwischen Selbstverständlichkeit im Anspruch und Zurückhaltung in der Praxis

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    Die Divergenz zwischen der selbstverständlichen Proklamation von "Qualität" als Leitorientierung einerseits sowie einer Zurückhaltung und teilweise Skepsis der Praxisakteure gegenüber Qualitätsmanagement andererseits bedarf der Erklärung, um zu fachlich tragfähigen Perspektiven in der Praxis der Qualitätsentwicklung zu gelangen. Mögliche Erklärungen liegen in einer mangelnden Ausrichtung von Verfahren an den Handlungslogiken in der Kinder- und Jugendhilfe, in der unzureichenden Erzeugung und Kommunikation des Sinngehalts von Qualitätsentwicklung sowie in der mangelnden Wahrnehmung und Verarbeitung von Spannungsfeldern und Paradoxien, mit denen Qualitätsentwicklung in der Sozialen Arbeit durchzogen ist. Daraus lassen sich Leitorientierungen für eine differenzierende Praxis der Qualitätsentwicklung in der Kinder- und Jugendhilfe zwischen Verfahrensstandardisierung und reflexiven Verfahren formulieren.The divergence between the self-evident proclamation of "quality" as a guiding orientation on the one hand, and a reluctance and partial scepticism of social workers and other practice agents towards quality management on the other hand requires an explanation in order to develop a professionally viable approach of quality development. A possible explanation - first - comprises the fact that too often these procedures do not refer to the logic of action in child and youth welfare. Second, that too often the meaning of quality development is not sufficiently communicated, and finally that too often there is a lack of perception and moreover of active processing of paradoxes and fields of tension, quality development in social work is concerned with. By answering these questions, it is possible to develop guidelines for a differentiated practice of quality development in child and youth welfare in between simple process standardization and reflection of procedures

    AMS measurements of cosmogenic and supernova-ejected radionuclides in deep-sea sediment cores

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    Samples of two deep-sea sediment cores from the Indian Ocean are analyzed with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to search for traces of recent supernova activity around 2 Myr ago. Here, long-lived radionuclides, which are synthesized in massive stars and ejected in supernova explosions, namely 26Al, 53Mn and 60Fe, are extracted from the sediment samples. The cosmogenic isotope 10Be, which is mainly produced in the Earths atmosphere, is analyzed for dating purposes of the marine sediment cores. The first AMS measurement results for 10Be and 26Al are presented, which represent for the first time a detailed study in the time period of 1.7-3.1 Myr with high time resolution. Our first results do not support a significant extraterrestrial signal of 26Al above terrestrial background. However, there is evidence that, like 10Be, 26Al might be a valuable isotope for dating of deep-sea sediment cores for the past few million years.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, Proceedings of the Heavy Ion Accelerator Symposium on Fundamental and Applied Science, 2013, will be published by the EPJ Web of conference

    The Search for Supernova-produced Radionuclides in Terrestrial Deep-sea Archives

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    An enhanced concentration of 60Fe was found in a deep ocean's crust in 2004 in a layer corresponding to an age of ~2 Myr. The confirmation of this signal in terrestrial archives as supernova-induced and detection of other supernova-produced radionuclides is of great interest. We have identified two suitable marine sediment cores from the South Australian Basin and estimated the intensity of a possible signal of the supernova-produced radionuclides 26Al, 53Mn, 60Fe and the pure r-process element 244Pu in these cores. A finding of these radionuclides in a sediment core might allow to improve the time resolution of the signal and thus to link the signal to a supernova event in the solar vicinity ~2 Myr ago. Furthermore, it gives an insight on nucleosynthesis scenarios in massive stars, the condensation into dust grains and transport mechanisms from the supernova shell into the solar system

    10Be in the Akademii Nauk ice core – first results for CE 1590-1950 and implications for future chronology validation

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    Temporal variations of the radionuclide 10Be are broadly synchronous across the globe and thus provide a powerful tool to synchronize ice core chronologies from different locations. We compared the 10Be record of the Akademii Nauk (AN) ice core (Russian Arctic) for the time period CE 1590–1950 to the 10Be records of two well-dated Greenland ice cores (Dye3 and NGRIP). A high correlation (r = 0.59) was found between the AN and Dye3 records whereas the correlation with NGRIP was distinctly lower (r = 0.45). Sources of deviations may include local fluctuations in the deposition of 10Be due to changes in the precipitation patterns, and artefacts due to the core-sampling strategy. In general, the existing age model was validated, confirming the AN ice core to be a unique and well-dated source of palaeoclimate parameters for the Russian Arctic. We further used numerical simulations to test the influence of the core-sampling strategy on the results and derived an optimized sampling strategy for the deeper parts of the ice core

    The Akademii Nauk ice core and solar activity

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    Ice cores are well established archives for paleo-environmental studies, but this requires a reliable ice core chronology. The concentration of cosmogenic radionuclides in ice cores reflects the solar activity in the past and can be used as dating tool for ice cores. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) allows the determination of nuclides in high resolution. Here we present results of a 10Be study in an ice core from Akademii Nauk (Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic). AMS analyses of more than 500 samples were carried out using the 6 MV accelerator facility of the Ion Beam Centre of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. For the time period 400 to 2000 CE the temporal variations of 10Be reflect the centennial variations of solar activity known from similar studies of Greenlandic ice cores and from 14C production reconstructions. The 10Be peak of 775 CE, today understood as result of the strongest known solar particle storm, was found by high resolution core analysis. This peak is used as tie point (additionally to volcanic reference horizons) for the development of the depth-age relationship of the Akademii Nauk ice core. Indications of the so called “Carrington Event” of 1859 CE, 20 to 30 times weaker than 775 CE, could also be detected in the core

    Year-round record of bulk and size-segregated aerosol composition in central Antarctica (Concordia site) Part 2: Biogenic sulfur (sulfate and methanesulfonate) aerosol

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    Multiple year-round (2006-2015) records of the bulk and size-segregated composition of aerosol were obtained at 15 the inland site of Concordia located in East Antarctica. The well-marked maximum of non-sea-salt sulfate (nssSO4) in January (84 ± 25 ng m-3 against 4.4 ± 2.3 ng m-3 in July) is consistent with observations made at the coast (280 ± 78 ng m-3 in January against 16 ± 9 ng m-3 in July at Dumont d’Urville, for instance). In contrast, the well-marked maximum of MSA at the coast in January (60 ± 23 ng m-3 at Dumont d’Urville) is not observed at Concordia (4.6 ± 2.4 ng m-3 in January). Instead, the MSA level at Concordia peaks in October (5.6 ± 1.9 ng m-3) and March (13.2 ± 6.1 ng m-3). As a result, a surprisingly low MSA to nssSO4 ratio (RMSA) is observed at Concordia in mid-summer (0.05 ± 0.02 in January against 0.25 ± 0.09 in March). We find that the low value of RMSA in mid-summer at Concordia is mainly driven by a drop of MSA levels that takes place in submicron aerosol (0.3 μm diameter). The drop of MSA coincides with periods of high photochemical activity as indicated by high ozone levels, strongly suggesting the occurrence of an efficient chemical destruction of MSA over the Antarctic plateau in mid-summer. The relationship between MSA and nssSO4 levels is examined separately for each season and indicates that concentration of non-biogenic sulfate over the Antarctic plateau does not exceed 1 ng m-3 in fall and winter and remains below 5 ng m-3 in spring. This weak non-biogenic sulfate level is discussed in the light of radionuclides (210Pb, 10Be, and 7Be) also measured on bulk aerosol samples collected at Concordia. The findings highlight the complexity in using MSA in deep ice cores extracted from inland Antarctica as a proxy of past DMS emissions from the southern ocean

    Tolerance to Glutaraldehyde in Escherichia coli Mediated by Overexpression of the Aldehyde Reductase YqhD by YqhC

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    Glutaraldehyde is a widely used biocide on the market for about 50 years. Despite its broad application, several reports on the emergence of bacterial resistance, and occasional outbreaks caused by poorly disinfection, there is a gap of knowledge on the bacterial adaptation, tolerance, and resistance mechanisms to glutaraldehyde. Here, we analyze the effects of the independent selection of mutations in the transcriptional regulator yqhC for biological replicates of Escherichia coli cells subjected to adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) in the presence of glutaraldehyde. The evolved strains showed improved survival in the biocide (11–26% increase in fitness) as a result of mutations in the activator yqhC, which led to the overexpression of the yqhD aldehyde reductase gene by 8 to over 30-fold (3.1–5.2 log2FC range). The protective effect was exclusive to yqhD as other aldehyde reductase genes of E. coli, such as yahK, ybbO, yghA, and ahr did not offer protection against the biocide. We describe a novel mechanism of tolerance to glutaraldehyde based on the activation of the aldehyde reductase YqhD by YqhC and bring attention to the potential for the selection of such tolerance mechanism outside the laboratory, given the existence of YqhD homologs in various pathogenic and opportunistic bacterial species
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