106,279 research outputs found

    New results on atmospheric neutrinos from Soudan 2

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    Neutrino interactions recorded in a 5.1 fiducial kiloton-year exposure of the Soudan-2 iron tracking calorimeter are analyzed for effects of neutrino oscillations. Using contained single track and single shower events, we update our measurement of the atmospheric nu_mu/nu_e ratio-of-ratios and find R = 0.68 \pm 0.11 \pm 0.06. Assuming this anomalously low R-value is the result of nu_mu flavor disappearance via nu_mu to nu_tau oscillation, we select samples of charged current events which offer good resolution, event-by-event, for L/Enu reconstruction. Oscillation-weighted Monte Carlo events are fitted to these data events using a chisq function summed over bins of log(L/E_nu). The region allowed in the (sin^2 2\theta, \Delta m^2) plane at 90% CL is obtained using the Feldman-Cousins procedure: 0.46 < sin^2 2\theta < 1.0 and 2.2x10^-4 < \Delta m^2 < 2.2x10^-2 ev^2. A small but relatively energetic sample of partially contained nu_mu events has also been isolated. Their distribution in log(L/E_vis) relative to null oscillation Monte Carlo is compatible with nu_mu to nu_tau oscillation scenarios within the parameter region allowed by our contained events.Comment: 7 pages, 7 figures; presented at NU2000, the XIXth Int. Conf. on Nuetrino Physics and Astrophysics, June 16-21, 2000, Sudbury, canad

    Supporting sustainable e‐learning

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    This paper draws upon work carried out within phase one of a national forum for support staff, funded by the UK Learning and Teaching Support Network Generic Centre. It sets out themes in current Learning Technology research within the context of institutional practice. It reports the responses of a range of e‐learning support staff to new developments in the reuse and sharing of Learning Objects. The article highlights tensions across support units, inconsistencies in support provision and confusion over issues concerning different modes of teaching. It also forewarns a growing gap between institutional practice and research in the development of approaches to sustainable e‐learning

    Effects of Eat Better, Move More (EBMM) Educational Program on Obesity Rates in Latino Children Residing in Northwest Arkansas

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    Background: Childhood obesity, especially in ethnic minority populations, is a growing problem with no signs of improvement over the past decade. The Latino population is one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. Unfortunately, they have experienced substantial health disparities and socioeconomic disadvantages that contribute to the high rates of obesity in their youth. Decreasing obesity rates would not only have many health advantages, but also financial benefits as well. It would reduce the risk of co-morbidities such as cardiovascular disease and depression. Healthy children are more likely to grow into healthy adults, ultimately lowering the cost of healthcare for this population. Objective: The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge of proper nutrition and foster positive attitudes towards healthy habits. It aims to specifically target behaviors that decrease the likelihood of childhood obesity, in 4th-5th grade children by educating their parents. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, parental knowledge of healthy lifestyle behaviors of parents at the study site elementary school were collected prior to and after the education sessions. “Healthy Habits” and “Parental Feeding Style” pre-test and post-test were completed by the caregiver group in their native language. The data gathered compared the knowledge of the students and guardians before and after four education sessions to evaluate the effectiveness of the Eat Better, Move More (EBMM) program. The program was designed to answer the following research question: What is the effect of Eat Better, Move More education program on parents of school-age children on healthy lifestyle behaviors (self and home), including food choices, physical activity and sleep habits? Results: Although the results were not statistically significant due to the inconsistency of the sample size, exposure to the educational program positively influenced healthy habits and increased the knowledge of the caregivers involved. With the limitations of time, only the preliminary data was collected and analyzed. The post-survey will be administered and the results will be compared in May 2019. Conclusion: It is hoped that the Eat Better, Move More educational program will increase understanding of the behaviors and practices contributing to the complicated nature of the obesity epidemic among school age children. Ultimately, the program aims to decrease the prevalence of childhood obesity in ethnic minorities throughout Northwest Arkansas

    Testimony of Allison Porter Before the Commission on the Future of Worker-Management Relations

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    Includes a sample strike notice simulation beginning on page 5.Testimony_Porter_022494.pdf: 263 downloads, before Oct. 1, 2020

    Studies on the release of neutrophil extracellular traps and IFN-Îł as part of the innate immune response to Aspergillus fumigatus and on the fungal stress response via the hybrid sensor kinase TcsC

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    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic mold that naturally inhabits the soil. Asexual reproduction yields hardy conidia that circulate in the air and are inhaled daily by humans. The fungus seems not to have evolved distinct mechanisms of pathogenicity, but is capable of responding to many stressful environmental cues present in its naturally harsh niche. The robust conidia present no problem to a fully functioning immune system, but if the innate immune system is compromised, the conidia can become activated and differentiate within the lung tissue to form invasive and disseminating hyphae. The resulting disease is called aspergillosis and is difficult to detect and to treat. To date, scientists have yet to find the factor(s) missing during immunosuppression that allow a healthy patient to easily dispose of A. fumigatus. We explored two possibilities: the production of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and the release of IFN-γ by natural killer (NK) cells. We report here that NETs alone cannot kill the fungus, but do inhibit polar growth. Elongation of hyphal tips is abrogated due to zinc starvation, likely a consequence of the zinc-chelating, NETs-associated protein calprotectin. NK cells alone are also incapable of fungicidal activity, but their release of IFN-γ upon contact with A. fumigatus abrogates hyphal growth by a yet unknown mechanism. In vitro studies of the innate immune response, though helpful, are far from representative of the in vivo response. Neither NETs nor IFN-γ alone can manage Aspergillus infection, but in combination, these and other immune assaults certainly can. The difficulty lies in identifying the precise combination of immune cells and cytokine milieu that in a healthy individual prevent infection. Additionally, we explored mechanisms by which the fungus responds to stress, namely the HOG MAPK pathway, historically involved in osmotic stress response. In filamentous fungi, certain stress signals are sensed by a cytoplasmic hybrid histidine kinase sensor and then passed through the HOG system via phosphorylation. We identified the putative hybrid sensor kinase in A. fumigatus, and generated a corresponding knockout mutant. The ΔtcsC mutant was indeed sensitive to osmotic stress, and resistant to the phenolpyrrole fungicide fludioxonil. In the wild type the addition of either osmotic stress or fludioxonil resulted in SakA phosphorylation and translocation to the nucleus. SakA, the Hog1 homolog in A. fumigatus, is located at the end of the HOG pathway, confirming the role of TcsC as the cytoplasmic sensor upstream of SakA. In hypoxia, on farnesol, and in high concentrations of divalent cations the ΔtcsC mutant exhibited a striking “fluffy” phenotype characterized by the production of tremendous aerial hyphae and little or no differentiation, i.e., no conidiation. Though the ΔtcsC mutant showed no change in virulence compared to wild type, components of the TcsC signalling pathway remain promising targets for antifungal agents

    Trends in American Newspaper Coverage of Autism

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    The public\u27s understanding of disabilities is cultivated via several media resources, including news media. Disability scholars often cite negative representations of disabilities in mass media, yet analyses of newspaper journalists\u27 coverage of autism remain scarce. The present study explores the frames, stereotypes, stigmatizing cues, and individuals cited in news coverage of autism through a content analysis of The New York Times and USA Today coverage of autism from 2013-2016. The findings revealed that episodic frames are consistently utilized to discuss autism. References to abnormal social tendencies and coupling autism with adverse circumstances were the most common stereotypes in newspaper coverage. The study’s results show that the presence of stigmatizing cues increased over time, with label references representing the most common stigmatizing cue. Episodic coverage was more stigmatizing than thematic news coverage. Medical professional and journalist sources were most present in news coverage. Theoretical and practical applications for media and disability scholars are discussed

    Pediatric Type II Diabetes Mellitus: Examining the Upward Trend

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    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in pediatric onset of type II diabetes. This paper will examine elements contributing to this trend. Type II diabetes will be discussed, including related pathophysiology, manifestations, diagnosis, and complications, with differentiation between adult and pediatric onset. Possible prevention and treatment methods appropriate for pediatric patients will also be discussed, along with possible outcomes in pediatric patients that could result from this disease. Overall, this paper will provide insight on the causes of this growing trend, and ways to improve the risks imposed on pediatric patients

    Learning and Work: Professional Learning Analytics

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    Learning for work takes various forms, from formal training to informal learning through work activities. In many work settings, professionals collaborate via networked environments leaving various forms of digital traces and “clickstream” data. These data can be exploited through learning analytics (LA) to make both formal and informal learning processes traceable and visible to support professionals with their learning. This chapter examines the state-of-the-art in professional learning analytics (PLA) by considering how professionals learn, putting forward a vision for PLA, and analyzing examples of analytics in action in professional settings. LA can address affective and motivational learning issues as well as technical and practical expertise; it can intelligently align individual learning activities with organizational learning goals. PLA is set to form a foundation for future learning and work

    Utah's Economy: The Future Is Here

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    Provides a snapshot of the state's working poor families and educational and economic trends. Makes policy recommendations for education reforms to meet the needs of a knowledge-based economy, tax reforms to provide work incentives, and support services