861 research outputs found

    Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in Antarctic lichen Usnea antarctica. II. Analysis of non-photochemical quenching mechanisms activated by low to medium light doses

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    The paper focus sensitivity of an Antarctic lichen Usnea antarctica to photoinhibition studied under controlled laboratory conditions. Main emphasis was given to the analysis of quenching mechanisms, i.e. deexcitation pathways of absorbed light energy exploited in non-photochemical processes. Thalli of U. antarctica were collected at the James Ross Island, Antarctica (57°52´57´´ W, 63°48´02´´ S) and transferred in dry state to the Czech Republic. After rewetting in a laboratory, they were exposed to medium light intensities (300, 600 and 1000 mmol m-2 s-1 of photosynthetically active radiation) for 6 h. Before and during photoinhibitory treatments, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, photoinhibitory (qI), state 1-2 transition (qT), and energy-dependent quenching (qE) in particular were measured to evaluate dose- and time-dependent changes in these parameters. The results showed that among the components forming non-photochemical quenching (qN), qI contributes to the largest extent to qN, while qE and qT contribute less. This finding differs from our earlier studies made in a short term-, and high light-treated U. antarctica that found qE together with qI is the most important part of non-photochemical quenching. Possible explanation is that photoinhibition in PS II in U. ant-arctica, when induced by low to medium light, activates qE to only limited extend and for a relatively short time (tens of minutes). With prolonged high light treatment lasting several hours, qE tends to be reduced to the values close to zero and qI then forms a major part of qN

    The Functional Significance of Black-Pigmented Leaves: Photosynthesis, Photoprotection and Productivity in Ophiopogon planiscapus ‘Nigrescens’

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    Black pigmented leaves are common among horticultural cultivars, yet are extremely rare across natural plant populations. We hypothesised that black pigmentation would disadvantage a plant by reducing photosynthesis and therefore shoot productivity, but that this trait might also confer protective benefits by shielding chloroplasts against photo-oxidative stress. CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll a fluorescence, shoot biomass, and pigment concentrations were compared for near isogenic green- and black-leafed Ophiopogon planiscapus ‘Nigrescens’. The black leaves had lower maximum CO2 assimilation rates, higher light saturation points and higher quantum efficiencies of photosystem II (PSII) than green leaves. Under saturating light, PSII photochemistry was inactivated less and recovered more completely in the black leaves. In full sunlight, green plants branched more abundantly and accumulated shoot biomass quicker than the black plants; in the shade, productivities of the two morphs were comparable. The data indicate a light-screening, photoprotective role of foliar anthocyanins. However, limitations to photosynthetic carbon assimilation are relatively small, insufficient to explain the natural scarcity of black-leafed plants

    Model for the Fluorescence Induction Curve of Photoinhibited Thylakoids

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    AbstractThe fluorescence induction curve of photoinhibited thylakoids measured in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea was modeled using an extension of the model of Lavergne and Trissl (Biophys. J. 68:2474–2492), which takes into account the reversible exciton trapping by photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers and exciton exchange between PSII units. The model of Trissl and Lavergne was modified by assuming that PSII consists of photosynthetically active and photoinhibited (inactive in oxygen evolution) units and that the inactive PSII units can efficiently dissipate energy even if they still retain the capacity for the charge separation reaction. Comparison of theoretical and experimental fluorescence induction curves of thylakoids, which had been subjected to strong light in the presence of the uncoupler nigericin, suggests connectivity between the photoinhibited and active PSII units. The model predicts that photoinhibition lowers the yield of radical pair formation in the remaining active PSII centers. However, the kinetics of PSII inactivation in nigericin-treated thylakoids upon exposure to photoinhibitory light ranging from 185 to 2650μmol photons m−2 s−1 was strictly exponential. This may suggest that photoinhibition occurs independently of the primary electron transfer reactions of PSII or that increased production of harmful substances by photoinhibited PSII units compensates for the protection afforded by the quenching of excitation energy in photoinhibited centers

    Photoinhibition of Photosystem II. Kinetics, Photoprotection and Mechanism

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    Photosystem II (PSII) is susceptible to light-induced damage defined as photoinhibition. In natural conditions, plants are capable of repairing the photoinhibited PSII by on-going degradation and re-synthesis of the D1 reaction centre protein of PSII. Photoinhibition is induced by both visible and ultraviolet light and photoinhibition occurs under all light intensities with the same efficiency per photon. In my thesis work, I studied the reaction kinetics and mechanism of photoinhibition of PSII, as well as photoprotection in leaves of higher plants. Action spectroscopy was used to identify photoreceptors of photoinhibition. I found that the action spectrum of photoinhibition in vivo shows resemblance to the absorption spectra of manganese model compounds of the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) suggesting a role for manganese as a photoreceptor of photoinhibition under UV and visible light. In order to study the protective effect of non-photochemical quenching, the action spectrum was measured from leaves of wild type Arabidopsis thaliana and two mutants impaired in nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll a excitations. The findings of action spectroscopy and simulations of chlorophyll-based photoinhibition mechanisms suggested that quenching of antenna excitations protects less efficiently than would be expected if antenna chlorophylls were the only photoreceptors of photoinhibition. The reaction kinetics of prolonged photoinhibition was studied in leaves of Cucurbita maxima and Capsicum annuum. The results indicated that photoinhibitory decrease in both the oxygen evolution activity and ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence follows firstorder kinetics in vivo. The persistence of first-order kinetics suggests that already photoinhibited reaction centres do not protect against photoinhibition and that the mechanism of photoinhibition does not have a reversible intermediate. When Cucurbita maxima leaves were photoinhibited with saturating single-turnover flashes and continuous light, the light response curve of photoinhibition was found to be essentially a straight line with both types of illumination, suggesting that similar photoinhibition mechanisms might function during illumination with continuous light and during illumination with short flashes.Siirretty Doriast

    Evidence for the role of the oxygen-evolving manganese complex in photoinhibition of Photosystem II

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    AbstractPhotoinhibition of PSII occurs at the same quantum efficiency from very low to very high light, which raises a question about how important is the rate of photosynthetic electron transfer in photoinhibition. We modulated electron transfer rate and light intensity independently of each other in lincomycin-treated pea leaves and in isolated thylakoids, in order to elucidate the specific effects of light and PSII electron transport on photoinhibition. Major changes in the rate of electron transport caused only small changes in the rate of photoinhibition, suggesting the existence of a significant photoinhibitory pathway that contains an electron-transfer-independent phase. We compared the action spectrum of photoinhibition with absorption spectra of PSII components that could function as photoreceptors of the electron-transfer-independent phase of photoinhibition and found that the absorption spectra of Mn(III) and Mn(IV) compounds resemble the action spectrum of photoinhibition, showing a steep decrease from UV-C to blue light and a low visible-light tail. Our results show that the release of a Mn ion to the thylakoid lumen is the earliest detectable step of both UV- and visible-light-induced photoinhibition. After Mn release from the oxygen-evolving complex, oxidative damage to the PSII reaction center occurs because the Mn-depleted oxygen-evolving complex cannot reduce P680+ normally

    Quantifying and monitoring functional Photosystem II and the stoichiometry of the two photosystems in leaf segments: Approaches and approximations

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    Given its unique function in light-induced water oxidation and its susceptibility to photoinactivation during photosynthesis, photosystem II (PS II) is often the focus of studies of photosynthetic structure and function, particularly in environmental stress conditions. Here we review four approaches for quantifying or monitoring PS II functionality or the stoichiometry of the two photosystems in leaf segments, scrutinizing the approximations in each approach. (1) Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters are convenient to derive, but the information-rich signal suffers from the localized nature of its detection in leaf tissue. (2) The gross O2 yield per single-turnover flash in CO2-enriched air is a more direct measurement of the functional content, assuming that each functional PS II evolves one O2 molecule after four flashes. However, the gross O2 yield per single-turnover flash (multiplied by four) could overestimate the content of functional PS II if mitochondrial respiration is lower in flash illumination than in darkness. (3) The cumulative delivery of electrons from PS II to P700? (oxidized primary donor in PS I) after a flash is added to steady background far-red light is a whole-tissue measurement, such that a single linear correlation with functional PS II applies to leaves of all plant species investigated so far. However, the magnitude obtained in a simple analysis (with the signal normalized to the maximum photo-oxidizable P700 signal), which should equal the ratio of PS II to PS I centers, was too small to match the independently-obtained photosystem stoichiometry. Further, an under-estimation of functional PS II content could occur if some electrons were intercepted before reaching PS I. (4) The electrochromic signal from leaf segments appears to reliably quantify the photosystem stoichiometry, either by progressively photoinactivating PS II or suppressing PS I via photo-oxidation of a known fraction of the P700 with steady far-red light. Together, these approaches have the potential for quantitatively probing PS II in vivo in leaf segments, with prospects for application of the latter two approaches in the field

    Effect of moderate and high light on photosystem II function in Arabidopsis thaliana depleted in digalactosyl-diacylglycerol

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    AbstractThe response of the heat-sensitive dgd1-2 and dgd1-3 Arabidopsis mutants depleted in the galactolipid DGDG to photoinhibition of chloroplasts photosystem II was studied to verify if there is a relationship between heat stress vulnerability due to depletion in DGDG and the susceptibility to photoinhibitory damage. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is known to dissipate excessive absorbed light energy as heat to protect plants against photodamage. The main component of NPQ is dependent of the transthylakoid pH gradient and is modulated by zeaxanthin (Zx) synthesis. These processes together with chlorophyll fluorescence induction were used to characterize the response of the genotypes. The mutants were more sensitive to photoinhibition to a small extent but this was more severe for dgd1-3 especially at high light intensity. It was deduced that DGDG was not a main factor to influence photoinhibition but other lipid components could affect PSII sensitivity towards photoinhibition in relation to the physical properties of the thylakoid membrane. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial

    Photodamage to Oxygen Evolving Complex - An Initial Event in Photoinhibition of Photosystem II.

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    Photosystem II (PSII) of oxygenic photosynthesis is susceptible to photoinhibition. Photoinhibition is defined as light induced damage resulting in turnover of the D1 protein subunit of the reaction center of PSII. Both visible and ultraviolet (UV) light cause photoinhibition. Photoinhibition induced by UV light damages the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) via absorption of UV photons by the Mn ion(s) of OEC. Under visible light, most of the earlier hypotheses assume that photoinhibition occurs when the rate of photon absorption by PSII antenna exceeds the use of the absorbed energy in photosynthesis. However, photoinhibition occurs at all light intensities with the same efficiency per photon. The aim of my thesis work was to build a model of photoinhibition that fits the experimental features of photoinhibition. I studied the role of electron transfer reactions of PSII in photoinhibition and found that changing the electron transfer rate had only minor influence on photoinhibition if light intensity was kept constant. Furthermore, quenching of antenna excitations protected less efficiently than it would protect if antenna chlorophylls were the only photoreceptors of photoinhibition. To identify photoreceptors of photoinhibition, I measured the action spectrum of photoinhibition. The action spectrum showed resemblance to the absorption spectra of Mn model compounds suggesting that the Mn cluster of OEC acts as a photoreceptor of photoinhibition under visible light, too. The role of Mn in photoinhibition was further supported by experiments showing that during photoinhibition OEC is damaged before electron transfer activity at the acceptor side of PSII is lost. Mn enzymes were found to be photosensitive under visible and UV light indicating that Mn-containing compounds, including OEC, are capable of functioning as photosensitizers both in visible and UV light. The experimental results above led to the Mn hypothesis of the mechanism of continuous-light-induced photoinhibition. According to the Mn hypothesis, excitation of Mn of OEC results in inhibition of electron donation from OEC to the oxidized primary donor P680+ both under UV and visible light. P680 is oxidized by photons absorbed by chlorophyll, and if not reduced by OEC, P680+ may cause harmful oxidation of other PSII components. Photoinhibition was also induced with intense laser pulses and it was found that the photoinhibitory efficiency increased in proportion to the square of pulse intensity suggesting that laser-pulse-induced photoinhibition is a two-photon reaction. I further developed the Mn hypothesis suggesting that the initial event in photoinhibition under both continuous and pulsed light is the same: Mn excitation that leads to the inhibition of electron donation from OEC to P680+. Under laser-pulse-illumination, another Mn-mediated inhibitory photoreaction occurs within the duration of the same pulse, whereas under continuous light, secondary damage is chlorophyll mediated. A mathematical model based on the Mn hypothesis was found to explain photoinhibition under continuous light, under flash illumination and under the combination of these two.Siirretty Doriast
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