275,625 research outputs found

    Fractal von Neumann entropy

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    We consider the {\it fractal von Neumann entropy} associated with the {\it fractal distribution function} and we obtain for some {\it universal classes h of fractons} their entropies. We obtain also for each of these classes a {\it fractal-deformed Heisenberg algebra}. This one takes into account the braid group structure of these objects which live in two-dimensional multiply connected space.Comment: latex, 9 pages, typos correcte

    Exactly solvable one-qubit driving fields generated via non-linear equations

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    Using the Hubbard representation for SU(2)SU(2) we write the time-evolution operator of a two-level system in the disentangled form. This allows us to map the corresponding dynamical law into a set of non-linear coupled equations. In order to find exact solutions, we use an inverse approach and find families of time-dependent Hamiltonians whose off-diagonal elements are connected with the Ermakov equation. The physical meaning of the so-obtained Hamiltonians is discussed in the context of the nuclear magnetic resonance phenomeno

    Leaky modes of waveguides as a classical optics analogy of quantum resonances

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    A classical optics waveguide structure is proposed to simulate resonances of short range one-dimensional potentials in quantum mechanics. The analogy is based on the well known resemblance between the guided and radiation modes of a waveguide with the bound and scattering states of a quantum well. As resonances are scattering states that spend some time in the zone of influence of the scatterer, we associate them with the leaky modes of a waveguide, the latter characterized by suffering attenuation in the direction of propagation but increasing exponentially in the transverse directions. The resemblance is complete since resonances (leaky modes) can be interpreted as bound states (guided modes) with definite lifetime (longitudinal shift). As an immediate application we calculate the leaky modes (resonances) associated with a dielectric homogeneous slab (square well potential) and show that these modes are attenuated as they propagate.Comment: The title has been modified to describe better the contents of the article. Some paragraphs have been added to clarify the result

    Superpositions of bright and dark solitons supporting the creation of balanced gain and loss optical potentials

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    Bright and dark solitons of the cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation are used to construct complex-valued potentials with all-real spectrum. The real part of these potentials is equal to the intensity of a bright soliton while their imaginary part is defined by the product of such soliton with its concomitant, a dark soliton. Considering light propagation in Kerr media, the real part of the potential refers to the self-focusing of the signal and the imaginary one provides the system with balanced gain-and-loss rates.Comment: 6 figures, 17 pages, LaTeX file. The manuscript has been re-organized (abstract, introduction and conclusions rewritten), and it now includes an appendix with detailed calculations of some relevant results reported in the paper. New references were adde

    Dynamical Equations, Invariants and Spectrum Generating Algebras of Mechanical Systems with Position-Dependent Mass

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    We analyze the dynamical equations obeyed by a classical system with position-dependent mass. It is shown that there is a non-conservative force quadratic in the velocity associated to the variable mass. We construct the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian for this system and find the modifications required in the Euler-Lagrange and Hamilton's equations to reproduce the appropriate Newton's dynamical law. Since the Hamiltonian is not time invariant, we get a constant of motion suited to write the dynamical equations in the form of the Hamilton's ones. The time-dependent first integrals of motion are then obtained from the factorization of such a constant. A canonical transformation is found to map the variable mass equations to those of a constant mass. As particular cases, we recover some recent results for which the dependence of the mass on the position was already unnoticed, and find new solvable potentials of the P\"oschl-Teller form which seem to be new. The latter are associated to either the su(1,1) or the su(2) Lie algebras depending on the sign of the Hamiltonian

    The Schnitzel Squad

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    Postcard from Cruz Morey, during the Linfield College Semester Abroad Program at the Austro-American Institute of Education in Vienna, Austri