Masaryk University Journals / Časopisy Masarykovy univerzity
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    Journals and chronicle as a crucial source of historical pedagogical cognition

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    Diaries and journals play a special role in the historical and pedagogical knowledge. The significance of sources in this situation will refer to the knowledge of specific areas of education. First of all, are they related with: school atmosphere, exceptional lessons and school activities, relationships with school staff, participation in youth organizations and circles of interests

    Ukrainian Academy of Economics in Poděbrady

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    The article highlights the Czech-Ukrainian educational and economic dialogue in the context of development of the agricultural technology education in Western Ukraine and the activities of the Ukrainian Academy of Economics in Poděbrady. The analysis of the cooperation of the Ukrainian Academy in Poděbrady with the Ukrainian economic institutions in Halychyna, in particular with the company “Silskyi Hospodar” and the Greek Catholic Metropolitanate of Halych has been carried out. The works of such scientists and economists as V. Domanytskyi, S. Borodayevskyi, M. Kholevchuk, Ye. Khraplyvyi, who were the theorists and practitioners of economic education development, were reviewed

    Pseudomonas prosekii isolated in Antarctica inhibits plantpathogenic strains of Pseudomonas viridiflava and Pseudomonas fluorescens

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    Pseudomonas-caused plant diseases are present worldwide and affect most of the major lineages of higher plants which, as a consequence, may result in significant economic losses. Despite the use of bacteriocins produced by rhizosphere and soil bacteria has been nowadays considered as novel crop protection approach, antagonistic interactions of cold-adapted isolates toward agriculturally important phytopathogenic bacteria have not been studied yet. In this study, we tested inhibition activity of Antarctic Pseudomonas spp. against phytopathogenic pseudomonads. Four Antarctic stains (P. prosekii CCM 8878, CCM 8879, and CCM 8881 and Pseudomonas sp. CCM 8880) inhibited several phytopathogenic strains of P. viridiflava and P. fluorescens. Based on inhibition zone character and previous genome research we suggest that L-pyocin activity was responsible for this effect against P. viridiflava strains and that tailocin inhibited P. fluorescens isolate

    Women in the Service of Independent Poland

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    The paper presents the ideological assumptions of the educational work of National Organisation of Women and Women’s Citizen Work Association. What is also discussed are the aims, the forms, and the means of the educational work used by the activists-leaders of the organisations, thanks to which Polish women, aware of their rights and duties, were educated to participate in service to the state and the society

    Actions of the Ministry of Religions and Public Enlightenment aimed at removing educational differences between the former Partitions of Poland in the Second Polish Republic

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    After 1918, the schooling authorities started to build of a national school system in Poland with proper legal acts (acts, edicts, and circulars). These pertained to such crucial issues as the establishment of school administration, the curricula, the rules of maturity exams, the establishment of state schools, and the implementation of obligatory schooling. The particular legal acts made it possible to systematically introduce the solutions to the organisation of schooling and to pedagogical practice. The legislative solutions were the first step in the removing of the differences between the former Partitions of Poland. That was not easy, because it was necessary to overcome the differences that were superimposed by the occupation governments as well as those developed by Polish society in the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century

    Theoretical Aspects of Future Teachers Intellectuality Development

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    The purpose of the study is to identify the main problems and prospects of the education system in the context of innovative development, as well as the intellectualism of future teachers. The authors of the article conducted a factor analysis of the ongoing reforms in the education system. The transition of the economy to the innovative way of development and the overall socio-economic situation in Kazakhstan and other countries requires a rethinking of some priorities prevailing in politics and focusing on building a new type of society based on the development and mutual integration of three main elements such as education, innovation, and research. These elements are impossible without intellectualism and critical thinking. The formation of innovation policy should contribute to the development of a set of measures in the system of higher professional pedagogical education that organize and stimulate innovative activities and promote the integration of education in the scientific and technical space. This integration process will serve as the basis for the formation of the strategy and tactics of innovative development based on intellectualism and critical thinking

    Features of the structural organization and biomorphology of dominant plant species of Holarctic seas’ coasts along the tidal gradient

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    Investigations of the population and biomorphology of dominant species Plantago maritima L. (fam. Plantaginaceae) and Triglochin maritima L. (fam. Juncaginaceae) along the tidal gradient of the coasts of the White Sea are presented. The western coast of the White Sea has been chosen as a sample of Holarctic seas’ coasts. These 2 euhalophyte species represent a group of the allochthonous elements that came from to the Arctic coasts the Middle Asia in the Pliocene-Pleistocene time. In our study, we evaluated structural and functional characteristics of populations of the two species along the tidal gradient. We found that vitality-ontogenetic structure of the populations and their biomorphological characteristics significantly differ depending on the tidal level and substrate structure. The different adaptive peculiarities of these species growing in these habitats were observed. Along the gradient from sea level to the native shore, the biomorphological indexes (number of shoots per plant, number of leaves per shoots, leaves parameters, length of the floriferous stem and spike, dry mass of aboveground shoots of plants) of the Triglochin maritima populations significantly decreased, while the same indexes of the Plantago maritima populations increased. The obtained results show the significant variability of all morphometric parameters of vegetative organs as well as generative features along the tidal gradient of these circumpolar plant species

    Phenotypic and ecological diversity of freshwater coccoid cyanobacteria from maritime Antarctica and islands of NW Weddell Sea. I. Synechococcales.

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    The review of freshwater natural populations of coccoid cyanobacteria from the ecosystems of the coastal Antarctica in the vicinity of Antarctic Peninsula is presented in two consequent articles. The natural cyanobacterial populations were studied from deglaciated regions with aquatic and terrestrial habitats, mainly from the islands Nelson and King George (South Shetland Islands) and from the northern deglaciated part of the James Ross Island (NW part of the Weddell Sea). Majority of identified morphospecies was distinctly ecologically restricted and their cultivation was not successful; the molecular evaluation was therefore not possible. All morphotypes appeared also in small quantities, and only few morphospecies created locally more intense populations. However, the knowledge of phenotype variation is important for the classification of Antarctic cyanobacterial diversity. This first article contains 11 taxa (morphospecies) from 9 genera from the simple phylogenetic clade, classified recently in the order Synechococcales (the second part will contain species from more complicated unicellular cyanobacterial orders). Our results were compared with literary data, but several populations occurred only rarely in atypical stages and their taxonomic classification was difficult. The modern cyanobacterial system (Hoffmann et al. 2005, Komárek et al. 2013) is used for the classification

    Diurnal changes in photosynthetic activity of the biological soil crust and lichen: Effects of abiotic factors (Petuniabukta, Svalbard)

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    In polar ecosystems, primary producers have to cope with a very harsh climate that limits the time available for growth and biomass production. In this study, diurnal measurement of photosynthetic processes in biological soil crust and a lichen were carried out in Petuniabukta, Spitsbergen. For field measurements, a method of induced fluorescence of chlorophyll was used. Measurements of photosynthetic activity were taken as repetitive measurements of effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII). The short-term field measurements were carried out for 10 days in summer 2014. ΦPSII was recorded each 5 minutes as well as microclimatic data (air temperature, air humidi-ty, photosynthetically active radiation - PAR). The microclimatic parameters were recorded by a datalogger. In general, physiological activity of both biological soil crust and a lichen showed daily courses. Tested lichen was Cladonia rangiferina and the most dominant species in biological soil crust was Nostoc sp. Typically, most of ΦPSII values ranged 0.6 – 0.7 in both model organisms. The results have shown that photosynthetic activity was strongly correlated with all observed abiotic factors in both study objects. Particularly important was the relation found between PAR and ΦPSII in biological soil crust. When the biological soil crust was exposed to high PAR doses of irradiation (about 2300 µmol m-2 s-1) photoinhibition of primary processes of photosynthesis was observed as ΦPSII decrease, while photosynthetic activity of lichen remained at same level. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated increasing that in situ photosynthetic activity increased in both biological soil crust and lichen with a decrease in temperature

    Longitudinal development of clast shape characteristics from different material sources in Hrbye River, Central Svalbard

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    The sediment transport in polar regions is highly changeable and it is getting faster in connection with a climate change. This study describes the Hrbye River catchment located in the northern Billefjorden, Central Svalbard. The Czech Arctic Station and AMUPS - Adam Mickiewicz University Polish Polar Station are located in near this locality Petunia Bay. The material for this study was sampled in August 2016, during the summer research campaign of Czech Arctic Station together with a cooperation between Masaryk University in Brno and the University of Oslo via Norway Grants. The catchment area is 60 km2. The area of interest lies around the 10 km long Hrbye River in its braidplain, which is 2.3 km wide and 4.5 km long. In the Hrbye Glacier forefield, 27 sediment sampling localities were selected and defined into seven groups: (i) esker complex; (ii) debris stripes; (iii) till plain; (iv) hummocky moraine; (v) post-LIA braidplain; (vi) LIA moraine; (vii) LIA braidplain. Three main petrological types of rocks were studied (SVP – sandstone, VAP – limestone, ORT – orthogneiss). Lithology and roundness of the clasts were evaluated in order to study clast shape properties from various glacial sediments. The results show the dominant role of lithology on the clast shape modification in the Hrbye Glacier forefield


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