272 research outputs found

    Constraints on Incremental Assembly of Upper Crustal Igneous Intrusions, Mount Ellen, Henry Mountains, Utah

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    Magma systems within the shallow crust drive volcanic processes at the surface. Studying active magma systems directly poses significant difficulty but details of ancient magma systems can provide insight to modern systems. The ancient intrusions now exposed in the Henry Mountains of southern Utah provide an excellent opportunity to study the emplacement of igneous intrusions within the shallow crust. The five main intrusive centers of the Henry Mountains are Oligocene in age and preserve different stages in the development of an igneous system within the shallow crust. Recent studies worldwide have demonstrated that most substantial (> 0.5 km3) igneous intrusions in the shallow crust are incrementally assembled from multiple magma pulses. In the Henry Mountains, smaller component intrusions (< 0.5 km3) clearly demonstrate incremental assembly but an evaluation of incremental assembly for an entire intrusive center has yet to be performed. The Mount Ellen intrusive complex is the largest intrusive center (~ 100 km3, 15 √Ę‚ā¨‚Äú 20 km diameter) in the Henry Mountains. This thesis research provides constraints on the construction history and emplacement of Mount Ellen using a combination of multiple techniques, including fieldwork, whole-rock major and trace element geochemistry, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, and crystal size distribution analysis. Field work and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data suggest that Mount Ellen is a laccolith that in cross section is built a network of stacked igneous sheets. In map-view, the laccolith has an elliptical shape built from numerous igneous lobes radiating away from the central portion of the intrusion. Field observations suggest most lobes are texturally homogenous and likely emplaced from a single magma batch. Samples collected throughout Mount Ellen were divided into five groups based on a qualitative evaluation of texture. Possible distinctions between these textural groups were then tested using several different techniques. Geochemistry, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, and phenocryst crystal size distribution data are individually not sufficient to distinguish all five textural groups. However, limited datasets for two textures can be consistently distinguished using these techniques. These new results can be integrated with existing constraints to create a comprehensive model for the construction history of Mount Ellen. The intrusive center was constructed in approximately 1 million years at a time-averaged magma injection rate of 0.0004 km3 y-1. The laccolith geometry was built from a radiating network of stacked igneous sheets. The sheets are lobate in map-view (longer than they are wide) and were fed radially outward from a central feeder zone. These component intrusions were emplaced by a minimum of 5 texturally distinct magma pulses, with periods of little or no magmatism between sequential pulses

    Depressive mood ratings are reduced by MDMA in female polydrug ecstasy users homozygous for the l-allele of the serotonin transporter

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    Altres ajuts: Dutch Organisation for Scientifc Research, 400-07-213, 400-05-096, 400-07-2013MDMA exerts its main effects via the serotonergic system and the serotonin transporter. The gene coding for this transporter determines the expression rate of the transporter. Previously it was shown that healthy individuals with the short allelic variant ('s-group') of the 5-HTTLPR-polymorphism displayed more anxiety and negative mood, and had a lower transcriptional efficiency compared to individuals who are homozygous for the l-allele ('l-group'). The present study aimed to investigate the role of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in MDMA-induced mood effects. Four placebo-controlled, within-subject studies were pooled, including in total 63 polydrug ecstasy users (N = 48; N = 15) receiving MDMA 75 mg and placebo on two test days, separated by minimally 7 days. Mood was assessed by means of the Profile of Mood States. Findings showed that MDMA induced -independent of sex- a positive mood state, and as a side effect also increased two negative affect states, anxiety and confusion. Anxiety ratings were higher in the l-group and independent of treatment or sex. Depression ratings were lowered by MDMA in the female l-group. Findings indicate that the MDMA-induced reduction in self-rated depressive feelings is sex- and genotype-dependent, with females homozygous for the l-allele showing this beneficial effect

    High-Throughput Analysis of Calcium Signalling Kinetics in Astrocytes Stimulated with Different Neurotransmitters

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    Astrocytes express a wide range of receptors for neurotransmitters and hormones that are coupled to increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration, enabling them to detect activity in both neuronal and vascular networks. There is increasing evidence that astrocytes are able to discriminate between different Ca2+-linked stimuli, as the efficiency of some Ca2+ dependent processes ‚Äď notably release of gliotransmitters ‚Äď depends on the stimulus that initiates the Ca2+ signal. The spatiotemporal complexity of Ca2+ signals is substantial, and we here tested the hypothesis that variation in the kinetics of Ca2+ responses could offer a means of selectively engaging downstream targets, if agonists exhibited a ‚Äúsignature shape‚ÄĚ in evoked Ca2+ response. To test this, astrocytes were exposed to three different receptor agonists (ATP, glutamate and histamine) and the resultant Ca2+ signals were analysed for systematic differences in kinetics that depended on the initiating stimulus. We found substantial heterogeneity between cells in the time course of Ca2+ responses, but the variation did not correlate with the type or concentration of the stimulus. Using a simple metric to quantify the extent of difference between populations, it was found that the variation between agonists was insufficient to allow signal discrimination. We conclude that the time course of global intracellular Ca2+ signals does not offer the cells a means for distinguishing between different neurotransmitters

    The population history of northeastern Siberia since the Pleistocene.

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    Northeastern Siberia has been inhabited by humans for more than 40,000 years but its deep population history remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the late Pleistocene population history of northeastern Siberia through analyses of 34 newly recovered ancient genomes that date to between 31,000 and 600 years ago. We document complex population dynamics during this period, including at least three major migration events: an initial peopling by a previously unknown Palaeolithic population of 'Ancient North Siberians' who are distantly related to early West Eurasian hunter-gatherers; the arrival of East Asian-related peoples, which gave rise to 'Ancient Palaeo-Siberians' who are closely related to contemporary communities from far-northeastern Siberia (such as the Koryaks), as well as Native Americans; and a Holocene migration of other East Asian-related peoples, who we name 'Neo-Siberians', and from whom many contemporary Siberians are descended. Each of these population expansions largely replaced the earlier inhabitants, and ultimately generated the mosaic genetic make-up of contemporary peoples who inhabit a vast area across northern Eurasia and the Americas

    Influence of socioeconomic status on community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in elderly patients requiring hospitalization: a multicenter observational study

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    The associations between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in adults have been studied although studies did not always document a relationship. The aim of this multicenter observational study was to determine the association between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in the elderly, in the context of a public health system providing universal free care to the whole population

    In Vitro Model of Vascularized Bone: Synergizing Vascular Development and Osteogenesis

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    Tissue engineering provides unique opportunities for regenerating diseased or damaged tissues using cells obtained from tissue biopsies. Tissue engineered grafts can also be used as high fidelity models to probe cellular and molecular interactions underlying developmental processes. In this study, we co-cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under various environmental conditions to elicit synergistic interactions leading to the colocalized development of capillary-like and bone-like tissues. Cells were encapsulated at the 1‚ą∂1 ratio in fibrin gel to screen compositions of endothelial growth medium (EGM) and osteogenic medium (OM). It was determined that, to form both tissues, co-cultures should first be supplied with EGM followed by a 1‚ą∂1 cocktail of the two media types containing bone morphogenetic protein-2. Subsequent studies of HUVECs and MSCs cultured in decellularized, trabecular bone scaffolds for 6 weeks assessed the effects on tissue construct of both temporal variations in growth-factor availability and addition of fresh cells. The resulting grafts were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice to determine the phenotype stability and functionality of engineered vessels. Two important findings resulted from these studies: (i) vascular development needs to be induced prior to osteogenesis, and (ii) the addition of additional hMSCs at the osteogenic induction stage improves both tissue outcomes, as shown by increased bone volume fraction, osteoid deposition, close proximity of bone proteins to vascular networks, and anastomosis of vascular networks with the host vasculature. Interestingly, these observations compare well with what has been described for native development. We propose that our cultivation system can mimic various aspects of endothelial cell ‚Äď osteogenic precursor interactions in vivo, and could find utility as a model for studies of heterotypic cellular interactions that couple blood vessel formation with osteogenesis

    Genotype and phenotype landscape of MEN2 in 554 medullary thyroid cancer patients: the BrasMEN study

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    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease caused by RET gene germline mutations that is characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) associated with other endocrine tumors. Several reports have demonstrated that the RET mutation profile may vary according to the geographical area. In this study, we collected clinical and molecular data from 554 patients with surgically confirmed MTC from 176 families with MEN2 in 18 different Brazili an centers to compare the type and prevalence of RET mutations with those from other countries. The most frequent mutations, classified by the number of families affected, occur in codon 634, exon 11 (76 families), followed by codon 918, exon 16 (34 families: 26 with M918T and 8 with M918V) and codon 804, exon 14 (22 families: 15 with V804M and 7 with V804L). When compared with other major published series from Europe, there are several similarities and some differences. While the mutations in codons C618, C620, C630, E768 and S891 present a similar prevalence, some mutations have a lower prevalence in Brazil, and others are found mainly in Brazil (G533C and M918V). These results reflect the singular proportion of European, Amerindian and African ancestries in the Brazilian mosaic genome83289298CONSELHO NACIONAL DE DESENVOLVIMENTO CIENT√ćFICO E TECNOL√ďGICO - CNPQCOORDENA√á√ÉO DE APERFEI√áOAMENTO DE PESSOAL DE N√ćVEL SUPERIOR - CAPESFUNDA√á√ÉO DE AMPARO √Ä PESQUISA DO ESTADO DE S√ÉO PAULO - FAPESPFUNDA√á√ÉO DE AMPARO √Ä PESQUISA DO ESTADO DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL - FAPERGSSem informa√ß√£oSem informa√ß√£o2006/60402-1; 2010/51547-1; 2013/01476-9; 2014/06570-6; 2009/50575-4; 2010/51546-5; 2012/21942-116/2551-0000482-

    Actin-interacting and flagellar proteins in Leishmania spp.: Bioinformatics predictions to functional assignments in phagosome formation

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    Several motile processes are responsible for the movement of proteins into and within the flagellar membrane, but little is known about the process by which specific proteins (either actin-associated or not) are targeted to protozoan flagellar membranes. Actin is a major cytoskeleton protein, while polymerization and depolymerization of parasite actin and actin-interacting proteins (AIPs) during both processes of motility and host cell entry might be key events for successful infection. For a better understanding the eukaryotic flagellar dynamics, we have surveyed genomes, transcriptomes and proteomes of pathogenic Leishmania spp. to identify pertinent genes/proteins and to build in silico models to properly address their putative roles in trypanosomatid virulence. In a search for AIPs involved in flagellar activities, we applied computational biology and proteomic tools to infer from the biological meaning of coronins and Arp2/3, two important elements in phagosome formation after parasite phagocytosis by macrophages. Results presented here provide the first report of Leishmania coronin and Arp2/3 as flagellar proteins that also might be involved in phagosome formation through actin polymerization within the flagellar environment. This is an issue worthy of further in vitro examination that remains now as a direct, positive bioinformatics-derived inference to be presented

    Implementation outcome instruments for use in physical healthcare settings: a systematic review

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    BACKGROUND: Implementation research aims to facilitate the timely and routine implementation and sustainment of evidence-based interventions and services. A glaring gap in this endeavour is the capability of researchers, healthcare practitioners and managers to quantitatively evaluate implementation efforts using psychometrically sound instruments. To encourage and support the use of precise and accurate implementation outcome measures, this systematic review aimed to identify and appraise studies that assess the measurement properties of quantitative implementation outcome instruments used in physical healthcare settings. METHOD: The following data sources were searched from inception to March 2019, with no language restrictions: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, HMIC, CINAHL and the Cochrane library. Studies that evaluated the measurement properties of implementation outcome instruments in physical healthcare settings were eligible for inclusion. Proctor et al.'s taxonomy of implementation outcomes was used to guide the inclusion of implementation outcomes: acceptability, appropriateness, feasibility, adoption, penetration, implementation cost and sustainability. Methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. Psychometric quality of the included instruments was assessed using the Contemporary Psychometrics checklist (ConPsy). Usability was determined by number of items per instrument. RESULTS: Fifty-eight publications reporting on the measurement properties of 55 implementation outcome instruments (65 scales) were identified. The majority of instruments assessed acceptability (n = 33), followed by appropriateness (n = 7), adoption (n = 4), feasibility (n = 4), penetration (n = 4) and sustainability (n = 3) of evidence-based practice. The methodological quality of individual scales was low, with few studies rated as 'excellent' for reliability (6/62) and validity (7/63), and both studies that assessed responsiveness rated as 'poor' (2/2). The psychometric quality of the scales was also low, with 12/65 scales scoring 7 or more out of 22, indicating greater psychometric strength. Six scales (6/65) rated as 'excellent' for usability. CONCLUSION: Investigators assessing implementation outcomes quantitatively should select instruments based on their methodological and psychometric quality to promote consistent and comparable implementation evaluations. Rather than developing ad hoc instruments, we encourage further psychometric testing of instruments with promising methodological and psychometric evidence. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO 2017 CRD42017065348

    Seagrass and submerged aquatic vegetation (VAS) habitats off the Coast of Brazil: state of knowledge, conservation and main threats

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    Seagrass meadows are among the most threatened ecosystems on earth, raising concerns about the equilibrium of coastal ecosystems and the sustainability of local fisheries. The present review evaluated the current status of the research on seagrasses and submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) habitats off the coast of Brazil in terms of plant responses to environmental conditions, changes in distribution and abundance, and the possible role of climate change and variability. Despite an increase in the number of studies, the communication of the results is still relatively limited and is mainly addressed to a national or regional public; thus, South American seagrasses are rarely included or cited in global reviews and models. The scarcity of large-scale and long-term studies allowing the detection of changes in the structure, abundance and composition of seagrass habitats and associated species still hinders the investigation of such communities with respect to the potential effects of climate change. Seagrass meadows and SAV occur all along the Brazilian coast, with species distribution and abundance being strongly influenced by regional oceanography, coastal water masses, river runoff and coastal geomorphology. Based on these geomorphological, hydrological and ecological features, we characterised the distribution of seagrass habitats and abundances within the major coastal compartments. The current conservation status of Brazilian seagrasses and SAV is critical. The unsustainable exploitation and occupation of coastal areas and the multifold anthropogenic footprints left during the last 100 years led to the loss and degradation of shoreline habitats potentially suitable for seagrass occupation. Knowledge of the prevailing patterns and processes governing seagrass structure and functioning along the Brazilian coast is necessary for the global discussion on climate change. Our review is a first and much-needed step toward a more integrated and inclusive approach to understanding the diversity of coastal plant formations along the Southwestern Atlantic coast as well as a regional alert the projected or predicted effects of global changes on the goods and services provided by regional seagrasses and SAV
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