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    23313 research outputs found

    He Said, She Said: Gender Differences in the Disclosure of Positive and Negative Information

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    Research on gender differences in (self-)disclosure has produced mixed results, and, where differences have emerged, they may be an artifact of the measures employed. The present paper explores whether gender – defined as self-identified membership in one’s sociocultural group – can indeed account for differences in the desire and propensity to divulge information to others. We additionally identify a possible moderator for such differences. In three studies employing two distinct research approaches – a free recall task for the extreme desire to disclose (Study 1, N = 195) and scaled responses to scenarios that manipulate valence experimentally in an exploratory study (Study 2, N = 547) and a preregistered replication (Study 3, N = 405) – we provide evidence of a robust interaction between gender and information valence. Male participants appear similar to female participants in their desire and likelihood to disclose positive information but are less likely than women to want to share negative information with others, and less likely to ultimately act on that desire. Men are reportedly more motivated than women to disclose as a means of self-enhancement, and self-reports reveal that women perceive their sharing behavior to be relatively normative, while men believe themselves to be more withholding than what is optimal. Information disclosure is increasingly pervasive and permanent in the digital age, and is accompanied by an array of social and psychological consequences. Given their disparate disclosing behaviors, men and women may thus be differentially advantaged by, or susceptible to, the positive and negative consequences of information sharing

    Surface gravity wave-induced drift of floating objects in the diffraction regime

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    Floating objects will drift due to the action of surface gravity waves. This drift will depart from that of a perfect Lagrangian tracer due to both viscous effects (non-potential flow) and wave–body interaction (potential flow). We examine the drift of freely floating objects in regular (non-breaking) deep-water wave fields for object sizes that are large enough to cause significant diffraction. Systematic numerical simulations are performed using a hybrid numerical solver, qaleFOAM, which deals with both viscosity and wave–body interaction. For very small objects, the model predicts a wave-induced drift equal to the Stokes drift. For larger objects, the drift is generally greater and increases with object size (we examine object sizes up to 10% of the wavelength). The effects of different shapes, sizes and submergence depths and steepnesses are examined. Furthermore, we derive a ‘diffraction-modified Stokes drift’ akin to Stokes (Trans. Camb. Phil. Soc., vol. 8, 1847, pp. 411–455), but based on the combination of incident, diffracted and radiated wave fields, which are based on potential-flow theory and obtained using the boundary element method. This diffraction-modified Stokes drift explains both qualitatively and quantitatively the increase in drift. Generally, round objects do not diffract the wave field significantly and do not experience a significant drift enhancement as a result. For box-shape objects, drift enhancement is greater for larger objects with greater submergence depths (we report an increase of 92% for simulations without viscosity and 113% with viscosity for a round-cornered box whose size is 10% of the wavelength). We identify the specific standing wave pattern that arises near the object because of diffraction as the main cause of the enhanced drift. Viscosity plays a small positive role in the enhanced drift behaviour of large objects, increasing the drift further by approximately 20%

    Reallocation with priorities

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    We consider a reallocation problem with priorities where each agent is initially endowed with a house and is willing to exchange it but each house has a priority ordering over the agents of the market. In this setting, it is well known that there is no individually rational and stable mechanism. As a result, the literature has introduced a modified stability notion called μ0-stability. In contrast to college admission problems, in which prioritie s are present but there is no initial endowment, we show that the ownership-adjusted Deferred Acceptance mechanism identified in the literature is not the only individually rational, strategy-proof and μ0-stable mechanism. By introducing a new axiom called the independence of irrelevant agents and using the standard axiom of unanimity, we show that the ownership-adjusted Deferred Acceptance mechanism is the unique mechanism that is individually rational, strategy-proof, μ0-stable, unanimous and independent of irrelevant agents

    Intimate partner violence and children's health outcomes

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    A growing body of literature has established that childhood health is a crucial determinant of human capital formation. Shocks experienced in utero and during early life may have far-reaching consequences that extend well into adulthood. Nevertheless, there is relatively little evidence regarding the effects of parental behaviour on child health. This paper contributes to the literature by examining the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on the child's health production function. Using data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study and leveraging information on both child health and IPV, our analysis reveals that exposure to IPV is negatively associated to child's health. Children witnessing IPV in their household see their probability of being in excellent health reduced by 7 percentage points. Our results also suggest that children exposed to IPV are subject to increased morbidity, manifested in elevated risks of hearing and respiratory problems, as well as long-term health conditions and are less likely to get fully immunised

    Three Approaches for Winning the Platform Competition

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    The notion of platforms isn't novel, yet digital platforms have become the dominant business models across various industries. Today, many of the world's most valuable companies are platform-based, deriving their success from disrupting conventional businesses and innovating new products and services in emerging areas. Digital platforms are not exclusive to tech giants or digital startups. Companies in established sectors, such as banking, automotive, pharmaceuticals, airlines, and retail, are increasingly leveraging digital platforms to transform their operations and industries, with many already delivering remarkable results. Digital platforms are fundamentally reshaping strategy and competition. Unlike traditional manufacturing or product-centric organizations, the unique attributes of platforms, like network effects and winner-takes-all market dynamics, create a fiercely competitive environment, making it particularly challenging when competing against platform leaders with formidable capabilities and resources and dominant market positions. This study delves into critical questions: What are the main strategies used by platforms to gain market dominance? How do emerging platforms challenge and overtake established ones? Under what conditions are these strategies successful? Addressing these questions is essential for business leaders, entrepreneurs, and policymakers, and they constitute the central focus of this research

    Centralized vs Decentralized Markets: The Role of Connectivity

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    We consider a setting in which privately informed agents are located in a network and trade a risky asset with other agents with whom they are directly connected. We compare the performance, both theoretically and experimentally, of a complete network (centralized market) to incomplete networks with differing levels of connectivity (decentralized markets). We show that decentralized markets can deliver higher informational efficiency, with prices closer to fundamentals, as well as higher welfare for mean-variance investors

    Going through it together: Dyadic associations between parents' birth experience, relationship satisfaction, and mental health

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    BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that a negative birth experience is associated with symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety in mothers and partners. However, this has mostly been investigated within the first year postpartum and research on the long-term effects is lacking. Additionally, the role of relationship satisfaction and the interdependence between parents have not been considered so far. METHODS: Couples (N = 1992) completed questionnaires on their birth experience, relationship satisfaction, and symptoms of depression and anxiety at two months, 14 months, and two years after birth, respectively. RESULTS: Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Models indicated no partner effects, but several significant actor and indirect effects. A more positive birth experience was associated with higher relationship satisfaction and less depression and anxiety symptoms for both parents. Higher relationship satisfaction was in turn associated with less depression (mothers and partners) and anxiety symptoms (mothers). The association between birth experience and depression symptoms was partially mediated by relationship satisfaction for mothers and partners, while the association between birth experience and anxiety symptoms was partially mediated by relationship satisfaction only for mothers. LIMITATIONS: Due to the highly educated, very healthy sample with low levels of depression and anxiety as well as high relationship satisfaction, results cannot be generalized to less privileged parents. Moreover, all effects were very small. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight the importance of a positive birth experience for parents' relationship satisfaction and mental health. Negative birth experiences need to be avoided to prevent a negative impact on the whole family

    Spray process of multi-component gasoline surrogate fuel under ECN Spray G conditions

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    As modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines utilize sophisticated injection strategies, a detailed understanding of the air-fuel mixing process is crucial to further improvements in engine emission and fuel economy. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of the spray process of single-component iso-octane (IC8) and multi-component gasoline surrogate E00 (36% n-pentane, 46% iso-octane, and 18% n-undecane, by volume) fuels was conducted using an Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G injector. High-speed extinction, schlieren, and microscopy imaging campaigns were carried out under engine-like ambient conditions in a spray vessel. Experimental results including liquid/vapor penetration, local liquid volume fraction, droplet size, and projected liquid film on the nozzle tip were compared under ECN G1 (573 K, 3.5 kg/m³), G2 (333 K, 0.5 kg/ m³), and G3 (333 K, 1.01 kg/ m³) conditions. In addition to the experiments, preferential evaporation process of the E00 fuel was elucidated by Large-Eddy Simulations (LES). The three-dimensional liquid volume fraction measurement enabled by the computed tomographic reconstruction showed substantial plume collapse for E00 under the G2 and G3 conditions having wider plume growth and plume-to-plume interaction due to the fuel high vapor pressure. The CFD simulation of E00 showed an inhomogeneity in the way fuel components vaporized, with more volatile components carried downstream in the spray after the end of injection. The high vapor pressure of E00 also results in ~4 μm smaller average droplet diameter than IC8, reflecting a higher rate of initial vaporization even though the final boiling point temperature is higher. Consistent with high vapor pressure, E00 had a wider plume cone angle and enhanced interaction with the wall to cover the entire surface of the nozzle tip in a film. However, the liquid fuel underwent faster evaporation, so the final projected tip wetting area was smaller than the IC8 under the flash-boiling condition

    Shahnameh in the Classroom: Iranian Music and DIY Cultural Diplomacy in the UK

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    On 23rd May 2012, Price Zal and the Simorgh, an orchestral piece based on a story from the Iranian epic poem, the Shahnameh, was premiered at two Brightsparks schools concerts at London’s Royal Festival Hall. This was the result of a collaboration between the Education and Community Department at the London Philharmonic Orchestra, City, University of London and London Music Masters. The project included a strong educational focus, including workshops, teacher resources and training sessions. The central aim was to introduce Iran, by way of its music and storytelling, as well as broader aspects of culture and history, to British school children, and in particular to counter negative associations that children experience via the mainstream media. A follow-on project to create a children’s picture book with music, composed and performed by Iranian musicians and based on the same story, led to The Phoenix of Persia which was published in 2019. Drawing on personal observations, feedback from participants and wider project evaluations, this chapter will explore these projects in light of current debates around cultural diplomacy. To what extent might educational work promoting cultural understanding be understood as a form of cultural diplomacy and what are the challenges to using music and other arts in such an instrumentalised way

    Integrated Value Model for Sustainable Assessment of Modular Residential Towers: Case Study: Ten Degrees Croydon and Apex House in London

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    Modular construction can become sustainable by making all aspects of the design and construction process more effective during all phases. This paper aims to develop and use a sustainability assessment model for modular residential buildings in two case studies. This research uses the Integrated Value Model for Sustainable Assessment (MIVES), which is a multi-criteria decision-making model for sustainability assessment. This model considers all aspects of sustainability, environmental, economic and social, and helps stakeholders make decisions. Few previous studies have assessed all these aspects in full and MIVES make this assessment possible. For assessment purposes, two modular buildings have been chosen, namely “Ten Degrees Croydon” as the tallest high-rise modular residential building in the world and “Apex House” as the second tallest modular building in the world, both in London. These residential towers were assessed using MIVES, demonstrating a very satisfactory sustainability index in all the above aspects


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