Cadernos Espinosanos (E-Journal)

    Problemas enfrentados por alunas de graduação em ciência da computação: uma revisão sistemática

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    Este estudo apresenta uma revisão sistemática da literatura sobre os problemas sofridos por universitárias de cursos de ciência da computação, com o objetivo de examinar os motivos que levam à evasão de meninas desse curso. Uma gama completa de periódicos indexados foi pesquisada usando os bancos de dados da ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science e Springer. Um total de 818 artigos foram obtidos nas bibliotecas digitais, mas apenas 24 trabalhos foram aceitos para extração de dados desta revisão. Os resultados revelam que existem vários problemas que levam as meninas a evadir dos cursos de graduação em informática. Tais problemas foram descritos e classificados em seis categorias principais. Também foram abordadas iniciativas que vêm sendo aplicadas para minimizar o abandono dos cursos pelas alunas de graduação em ciência da computação. Apontar os principais problemas das estudantes de informática e identificar as limitações das iniciativas tomadas para solucioná-los é o primeiro passo para trabalhos futuros que proponham boas formas de contorná-los e delineiem soluções específicas para a sala de aula, conscientizando profissionais da educação e até colegas sobre estes problemas. A atenção a essas questões pode despertar o interesse dos pesquisadores, enquanto fazem a pós-graduação em STEM, em trabalhar para tornar mais positivas as experiências das alunas de graduação, diminuindo suas chances de evasão. Além disso, a partir dos resultados desta pesquisa, é possível tomar decisões acadêmicas, gerenciais e administrativas com base teórica em relação às questões de gênero.This systematic literature review on the issues faced by female computer science undergraduates sought to examine the reported reasons for female evasion from computer science major. A full range of indexed journals was surveyed using the ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, and Springer databases. Of the 818 articles retrieved from the digital libraries, only 24 papers were selected for data extraction. The several issues cited as reasons for female evasion from computer science undergraduate courses were divided into six major categories and described. Initiatives that have been implemented to minimize the dropout rate among undergraduate computer science female students were also addressed. Pointing out the main issues faced by female computer science students and identifying the limitations of the initiatives taken to solve them is the first step for future work, proposing good ways around them and outlining specific solutions for the classroom, making education professionals and even classmates aware of these problem. Attention to these issues may pique the researchers’ interest, while pursuing a graduate STEM degree, in working to make the experience of female undergraduate students more positive, thus decreasing their chances of evasion. Moreover, based on the results of this research, it is possible to make theory-based academic, managerial and administrative decisions concerning gender issues

    Gene-Xpert Ultra for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in children and adolescents

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    This prospective study describes the use of Gene-Xpert Ultra for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) in children and adolescents, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Eighteen patients were studied; the final diagnosis of EPTB was established in 13 (72%). Gene-Xpert Ultra results showed detection in 10/13 (77%) of EPTB cases (7 of these 10 with trace-positive results). Gene-Xpert Ultra proved to be a promising method for the diagnosis of childhood EPTB

    Implementation of Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy in primary care

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    OBJECTIVE To show the implementation process of IPT-G in primary care, including facilitating and obstructing factors, implementation strategies, and training and supervision of primary care professionals. METHODS Quantitative (cross-sectional and longitudinal) analysis of pre and post-knowledge tests; qualitative analyses of the training courses; patient recruitment; conduction of IPT-G sessions; supervision of IPT-G therapists; application of a semi-structured questionnaire to assess, investigate, and develop strategies against the identified barriers. RESULTS About 120 clinicians answered the pre-test; 84 completed the post-test. Pre- and post-test scores of IPT-G knowledge were significantly different. Twenty initially trained clinicians completed additional supervision in IPT-G. Qualitative analysis identified twelve barriers and six facilitators to IPT-G implementation in individual, organizational, and systemic contexts. CONCLUSIONS Implementation of IPT-G in primary care is a complex process with several steps. In the first step, health professionals were successfully trained in IPT-G. However, subsequent steps were more complex. Therefore, careful planning of IPT-G implementation is essential to maximize the success of this innovation

    Episiotomy in Southern Brazil: prevalence, trend, and associated factors

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    OBJECTIVE To identify and analyze the prevalence, trend, and factors associated with episiotomy in Rio Grande, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. METHODS A single, standardized questionnaire was applied to all pregnant women, residents in the municipality of Rio Grande, who had children in local hospitals between January 1 and December 12 of the years 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 e 2019. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were investigated, as well as the assistance received during pregnancy and delivery. Chi-square test was used to compare proportions and Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment was used for multivariable analysis. Prevalence ratio (PR) was used as effect measure. RESULTS Among the 12,645 births that occurred in the five years, 5,714 (45.2%) were vaginal delivery. Of these mothers, 2,930 (51.3%; 95%CI: 50.0%–52.6%) underwent episiotomy. Over this period, the episiotomy rate decreased from 70.9% (68.4–73.5) in 2007 to 19.4% (17.1–21.7) in 2019. Adjusted analysis showed a high PR of episiotomy occurrence among women who were young (PR = 2.23; 95%CI: 1.89–2.63), had higher education (PR = 1.21; 95%Cl: 1.03–1.42), had a higher family income (PR = 1.25; 95%CI: 1.10–1.41), were primiparous (PR = 3.41; 95%CI: 2.95–3.95), had prenatal care in the private sector (PR = 1.25; 95%CI: 1.07–1.46), had oxytocin-induced labor (PR = 1.18; 95%CI:1.09–1.27), underwent forceps (PR = 1.32; 95%CI: 1.16–1.50), and whose newborn weighed 4,000 g or more (PR = 1.43; 95%CI: 1.14–1.80). CONCLUSION Although the prevalence of episiotomy fell sharply within the studied period, its occurrence is more likely among women at lower risk of birth complications

    Cobertura de políticas públicas e acesso a medicamentos no Brasil

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    OBJETIVO Descrever padrões de consumo de medicamentos com e sem desembolso direto de recursos, segundo faixas de idade e de renda, destacando os fármacos associados a programas de saúde com garantias específicas de acesso. MÉTODOS Estudo descritivo observacional usando microdados da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (POF/IBGE) 2017–2018. Inicialmente, foram definidas as garantias específicas de acesso a medicamentos do SUS pela sistematização de programas/políticas com essa previsão. A partir dos medicamentos do quadro 29 do questionário de despesas individuais (POF-4), foram selecionados tipos de medicamentos associados a essas garantias. Foram descritas as frequências e os percentuais de pessoas sem consumo e com consumo (aquisição com e sem desembolso direto de recursos), segundo faixas de idade e de renda. Para medicamentos vinculados a garantias específicas, comparou-se valores médios mensais de aquisições e padrões de consumo por faixa etária e renda. RESULTADOS Entre as pessoas com renda domiciliar até dois salários mínimos, 63% não declararam consumo de medicamentos no mês. Entre as acima de 25 salários mínimos, foram 44,3%. Aquisições sem desembolso direto foram feitas principalmente por pessoas na faixa com até 10 salários mínimos e entre os mais idosos. O consumo sem desembolso direto representou 20,5% do consumo total de medicamentos (em valor). Para políticas com garantias específicas de acesso, o consumo sem desembolso foi de 33,6% com variações desse percentual entre os medicamentos selecionados no estudo: vacinas, 83,3%; medicamentos para câncer, 70,3%; diabetes, 47,9%; hipertensão, 35,9%; asma e bronquite, 29,2%; problemas oftalmológicos, 14%; medicamentos para próstata e vias urinárias, 10,7%; para problemas ginecológicos, 11,6%; e anticoncepcionais, 9,7%. CONCLUSÃO O consumo sem desembolso ainda é baixo, mas beneficia principalmente pessoas de menor renda e idosos. Políticas e programas com garantias específicas de acesso a medicamentos têm aumentado esse acesso. Os resultados sugerem a necessidade de fortalecer e ampliar as políticas de assistência farmacêutica.OBJECTIVE Describe consumption patterns for monetary and non-monetary acquisition of medicines according to age and income groups, highlighting pharmaceuticals associated with health programs with specific access guarantees. METHODS Descriptive observational study using microdata from the 2017–2018 Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares (Household Budget Survey, POF/IBGE). We initially reviewed programs/policies with specific guarantees of access to medicines in the SUS. Using the pharmaceutical product list of POF-4 (chart 29 of the questionnaire on individual expenditures), we selected the medicines related to these programs. We then described frequencies and percentages for not reporting medicine consumption and for reporting consumption (either through monetary or non-monetary acquisition) according to age and income groups. For medicines with distinctive access guarantees, we compared average monthly values of acquisitions and consumption patterns by age and income. RESULTS 63% of those in the ≤ 2 minimum wage (MW) household income group did not report consuming medicines in the last month. Among those earning > 25 MW, 44.3% did not report consumption. Non-monetary acquisitions of medicines were mainly reported for the < 10 MW group and for the elderly and accounted for 20.5% of the total consumption of medicines (in value). For policies with specific access guarantees, non-monetary acquisitions reached 33.6% of total consumption. This percentage varied for the various selected medicines: vaccines, 83.3%; cancer drugs, 70.3%; diabetes, 47.9%; hypertension, 35.9%; asthma and bronchitis, 29.2%; eye problems, 14%; prostate and urinary tract, 10.7%; gynecological, 11.6%; and contraceptives, 9.7%. CONCLUSION Shares for non-monetary acquisitions of medicines are still low but benefit mainly lower-income and older age groups. Policies and programs with specific access guarantees to medicines have increased access. Results suggest the need to strengthen and expand pharmaceutical care policies

    Direct costs of prematurity and factors associated with birth and maternal conditions

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    OBJETIVOS Estimar os custos diretos advindos com a assistência hospitalar a recém-nascidos prematuros extremos, moderados e tardios, sob a perspectiva de um hospital público em 2018. O segundo objetivo foi investigar se fatores associados ao nascimento e às condições maternas explicam os custos e o tempo de permanência hospitalar. MÉTODOS Estudo de custo da doença, com extração de dados a partir das autorizações de internação hospitalares e prontuários de um hospital público de grande porte do Distrito Federal. Estimou-se a associação de características dos recém-nascidos prematuros e das genitoras nos custos por meio de regressão linear com distribuição gamma. Na análise, adotou-se o cálculo dos parâmetros das estimativas (B), com intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%). Os parâmetros de incerteza foram estimados pelo intervalo de confiança de 95% e erro padrão por meio do método de Bootstrapping, com 1.000 amostragens. Realizou-se análise de sensibilidade determinística, considerando limites inferiores e superiores do IC95% na variação de cada componente de custo. RESULTADOS Foram incluídos 147 recém-nascidos prematuros. Verificamos um custo médio de R1.120paraprematurostardios,R 1.120 para prematuros tardios, R 6.688 para prematuros moderados e R$ 17.395 para prematuros extremos. Verificamos também que os fatores associados ao custo foram idade gestacional (B = -123,00; IC95% -241,60 a -4,50); internação em UTI neonatal (B = 6.932,70; IC95% 5.309,40–8.556,00) e número de consultas pré-natal (B = -227,70; IC95% -403,30 a -52,00). CONCLUSÕES Verificamos um custo direto considerável advindo da assistência a recém-nascidos prematuros. A prematuridade extrema demonstrou um custo 15,5 vezes maior comparado à tardia. Verificamos ainda que uma maior quantidade de consultas pré-natal e a idade gestacional foram associadas a uma redução dos custos da prematuridade.OBJECTIVE To estimate the direct costs due to hospital care for extremely, moderate, and late preterm newborns, from the perspective of a public hospital in 2018. The second objective was to investigate whether factors associated with birth and maternal conditions explain the costs and length of hospital stay. METHODS This is a cost-of-illness study, with data extracted from hospital admission authorization forms and medical records of a large public hospital in the Federal District, Brazil. The association of characteristics of preterm newborns and mothers with costs was estimated by linear regression with gamma distribution. In the analysis, the calculation of the parameters of the estimates (B), with a confidence interval of 95% (95%CI), was adopted. The uncertainty parameters were estimated by the 95% confidence interval and standard error using the Bootstrapping method, with 1,000 samples. Deterministic sensitivity analysis was performed, considering lower and upper limits of 95%CI in the variation of each cost component. RESULTS A total of 147 preterm newborns were included. We verified an average cost of BRL 1,120 for late preterm infants, BRL 6,688 for moderate preterm infants, and BRL 17,395 for extremely preterm infants. We also observed that factors associated with the cost were gestational age (B = -123.00; 95%CI: -241.60 to -4.50); hospitalization in neonatal ICU (B = 6,932.70; 95%CI: 5,309.40–8,556.00), and number of prenatal consultations (B = -227.70; 95%CI: -403.30 to -52.00). CONCLUSIONS We found a considerable direct cost resulting from the care of preterm newborns. Extreme prematurity showed a cost 15.5 times higher than late prematurity. We also verified that a greater number of prenatal consultations and gestational age were associated with a reduction in the costs of prematurity
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