844 research outputs found

    Selection of mutants with resistance or diminished susceptibility to ceftazidime/avibactam from ESBL- and AmpC- producing Enterobacteriaceae

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    Introduction: Difficult Gram-negative infections are increasingly treated with new β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, e.g. ceftazidime/avibactam. Disturbingly, mutations in KPC carbapenemases can confer ceftazidime/avibactam resistance, which is sometimes selected during therapy. We explored whether this risk extended to AmpC and ESBL enzymes. Methods: Mutants were selected by plating AmpC-derepressed strains, ESBL producers and ceftazidime-susceptible controls on agar containing ceftazidime + avibactam (1 or 4 mg/L). MICs were determined by CLSI agar dilution; WGS was by Illumina methodology. Results: Using 2× MIC of ceftazidime + 1 mg/L avibactam, mutants were selected from all strain types at frequencies of 10−7–10−9. Rates diminished to <10−9 with 4 mg/L avibactam or higher MIC multiples, except with AmpC-derepressed Enterobacteriaceae. Characterized mutants (n = 10; MICs 4–64 mg/L) of AmpC-derepressed strains had modifications in ampC, variously giving Arg168Pro/His, Gly176Arg/Asp, Asn366Tyr or small deletions around positions 309–314. Mutants of ESBL producers (n = 19; MICs 0.5–16 mg/L) mostly had changes affecting permeability, efflux or β-lactamase quantity; only one had an altered β-lactamase, with an Asp182Tyr substitution in CTX-M-15, raising the ceftazidime/avibactam MIC, but abrogating other cephalosporin resistance. Mutants of ceftazidime-susceptible strains were not sequenced, but phenotypes suggested altered drug accumulation or, for Enterobacter cloacae only, AmpC derepression. In further experiments, avibactam reduced, but did not abolish, selection of AmpC-derepressed Enterobacteriaceae by ceftazidime. Conclusions: Most mutants of AmpC-derepressed Enterobacteriaceae had structural mutations in ampC; those of ESBL producers mostly had genetic modifications outside β-lactamase genes, commonly affecting uptake, efflux, or β-lactamase quantity. The clinical significance of these observations remains to be determined

    AmpC β-lactamase induction by avibactam and relebactam

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    Background: Diazabicyclooctanes, e.g. avibactam and relebactam, are a new class of β-lactamase inhibitors. Their spectrum includes AmpC enzymes, but it is important to understand whether they also induce these enzymes.  Methods: Levels of ampC mRNA were measured by RT–PCR during 4 h of exposure of Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 5 strains per species) to avibactam, relebactam and cefoxitin at 0, 1, 4 and 32 mg/L. The method had low precision compared with conventional specific-activity-based induction assays, which are impracticable for inhibitors. Accordingly, induction was only considered to be significant if induction ratios >10 were found at two consecutive time intervals, with ‘strong induction’ if one or more of these ratios was >100.  Results: Cefoxitin, as expected, gave concentration-dependent induction for all strains, with strong induction for 13/15. At the other extreme, relebactam caused no significant induction for any strain. Avibactam gave strain-variable results, with strong concentration-dependent induction for 2/5 E. cloacae and 2/5 P. aeruginosa, but little or no induction for the other strains, including all the C. freundii strains.  Conclusions: Avibactam, but not relebactam, had some strain-variable ability to induce AmpC enzymes, though at concentrations (32 mg/L) above those reached in the patient

    Avibactam Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Targets

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    Horizontal scales of variability over the Middle Atlantic Bight shelf break and continental rise from finescale observations

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    Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 43 (2013): 222–230, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-12-099.1.Observations with fine horizontal resolution are used to identify the horizontal scales of variability over the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) shelf break and continental rise. Spray gliders collected observations along two alongshelf transects over the continental rise in March–April 2006 and along 16 cross-shelf transects over the shelf break and continental rise during July–October 2007. Horizontal resolution varied from 1 km or finer over the shelf to 6 km in deep water. These observations allow horizontal thermohaline variability offshore of the MAB shelf break to be examined for the first time. Structure functions of temperature and salinity, the mean square difference between observations separated by specified distances, reveal the horizontal spatial scales in the region. Exponential (e-folding) scales of temperature and salinity increase from 8–13 km near the shelf break to about 30 km over the continental rise. Just offshore of the shelf break, alongshelf structure functions exhibit periodicity with a 40–50-km wavelength that matches the wavelength of shelfbreak frontal meanders. Farther offshore, alongshelf structure functions suggest a dominant wavelength of 175–250 km, but these scales are only marginally resolved by the available observations. Examination of structure functions of along-isopycnal salinity (i.e., spice) suggests that interleaving of shelf and slope water masses contributes most of the horizontal variability near the MAB shelf break, but heaving of isopycnals is the primary source of horizontal variability over the continental rise.Glider observations in March–April 2006 were supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant OCE-0220769. Glider observations in July–October 2007 were supported by a grant from Raytheon. RET was supported by the Postdoctoral Scholar Program at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, with funding provided by the Cooperative Institute for the North Atlantic Region. GGG was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant OCE-1129125.2013-07-0

    In vitro activity of ceftazidime, ceftaroline and aztreonam alone and in combination with avibactam against European Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical isolates

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    Recent clinical isolates of key Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were collected in 2012 from hospitalised patients in medical centres in four European countries (France, Germany, Italy and Spain) and were tested using standard broth microdilution methodology to assess the impact of 4 mg/L avibactam on the in vitro activities of ceftazidime, ceftaroline and aztreonam. Against Enterobacteriaceae, addition of avibactam significantly enhanced the level of activity of these antimicrobials. MIC90 values (minimum inhibitory concentration that inhibits 90% of the isolates) of ceftazidime, ceftaroline and aztreonam for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii and Morganella morganii were reduced up to 128-fold or greater when combined with avibactam. A two-fold reduction in the MIC90 of ceftazidime to 8 mg/L was noted in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates when combined with avibactam, whereas little effect of avibactam was noted on the MIC values of the test compounds when tested against Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. Avibactam had little effect on the excellent activity of ceftazidime, ceftaroline and aztreonam against Haemophilus influenzae. It had no impact on the in vitro activity of ceftazidime and ceftaroline against staphylococci and streptococci. This study demonstrates that addition of avibactam enhances the activities of ceftazidime, ceftaroline and aztreonam against Enterobacteriaceae and P. aeruginosa but not against A. baumannii

    Ceftazidime-Avibactam Susceptibility Breakpoints Against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

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    Clinical susceptibility breakpoints against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the ceftazidime-avibactam dosage regimen of 2000-500 mg every 8 hours (q8h) by 2-h intravenous infusion (adjusted for renal function) have been established by the FDA, CLSI and EUCAST as susceptible, MIC ≤8 mg/L, and resistant, MIC >8 mg/L. The key supportive data from PK/PD analyses, in vitro surveillance including molecular understanding of relevant resistance mechanisms, and efficacy in regulatory clinical trials, are collated and analyzed here

    Multi-site genetic analysis of diffusion images and voxelwise heritability analysis : a pilot project of the ENIGMA–DTI working group

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    The ENIGMA (Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Consortium was set up to analyze brain measures and genotypes from multiple sites across the world to improve the power to detect genetic variants that influence the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) yields quantitative measures sensitive to brain development and degeneration, and some common genetic variants may be associated with white matter integrity or connectivity. DTI measures, such as the fractional anisotropy (FA) of water diffusion, may be useful for identifying genetic variants that influence brain microstructure. However, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) require large populations to obtain sufficient power to detect and replicate significant effects, motivating a multi-site consortium effort. As part of an ENIGMA–DTI working group, we analyzed high-resolution FA images from multiple imaging sites across North America, Australia, and Europe, to address the challenge of harmonizing imaging data collected at multiple sites. Four hundred images of healthy adults aged 18–85 from four sites were used to create a template and corresponding skeletonized FA image as a common reference space. Using twin and pedigree samples of different ethnicities, we used our common template to evaluate the heritability of tract-derived FA measures. We show that our template is reliable for integrating multiple datasets by combining results through meta-analysis and unifying the data through exploratory mega-analyses. Our results may help prioritize regions of the FA map that are consistently influenced by additive genetic factors for future genetic discovery studies. Protocols and templates are publicly available at (http://enigma.loni.ucla.edu/ongoing/dti-working-group/)

    Suppressed Far-UV stellar activity and low planetary mass-loss in the WASP-18 system

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    WASP-18 hosts a massive, very close-in Jupiter-like planet. Despite its young age (R′HK activity parameter lies slightly below the basal level; there is no significant time-variability in the log R′HK value; there is no detection of the star in the X-rays. We present results of far-UV observations of WASP-18 obtained with COS on board of HST aimed at explaining this anomaly. From the star’s spectral energy distribution, we infer the extinction (E(B − V) ≈ 0.01mag) and then the ISM column density for a number of ions, concluding that ISM absorption is not the origin of the anomaly. We measure the flux of the four stellar emission features detected in the COS spectrum (C II, C III, C IV, Si IV). Comparing the C II/C IV flux ratio measured for WASP-18 with that derived from spectra of nearby stars with known age, we see that the far-UV spectrum of WASP-18 resembles that of old (>5Gyr), inactive stars, in stark contrast with its young age. We conclude that WASP-18 has an intrinsically low activity level, possibly caused by star-planet tidal interaction, as suggested by previous studies. Re-scaling the solar irradiance reference spectrum to match the flux of the Si IV line, yields an XUV integrated flux at the planet orbit of 10.2 erg s−1 cm−2. We employ the rescaled XUV solar fluxes to model of the planetary upper atmosphere, deriving an extremely low thermal mass-loss rate of 10−20MJ Gyr−1. For such high-mass planets, thermal escape is not energy limited, but driven by Jeans escape

    The difference that tenure makes

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    This paper argues that housing tenures cannot be reduced to either production relations or consumption relations. Instead, they need to be understood as modes of housing distribution, and as having complex and dynamic relations with social classes. Building on a critique of both the productionist and the consumptionist literature, as well as of formalist accounts of the relations between tenure and class, the paper attempts to lay the foundations for a new theory of housing tenure. In order to do this, a new theory of class is articulated, which is then used to throw new light on the nature of class-tenure relations

    Isolation and Immunocytochemical Characterization of Three Tachykinin-Related Peptides from the Mosquito, Culex salinarius

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    Three myotropic peptides belonging to the Arg-amide insect tachykinin family were isolated from whole-body extracts of the mosquito, Culex salinarius . The peptides, APSGFMGMR-NH 2 , APYGFTGMR-NH 2 and APSGFFGMR-NH 2 (designated culetachykinin I, II, and III) were isolated and purified on the basis of their ability to stimulate muscle contractions of isolated Leucophaea maderae hindgut. Biologically inactive methionine sulfoxides of two of the three peptides were isolated using an ELISA system based upon antiserum raised against APYGFTGMR-NH 2 and identified with mass spectrometry. Immunocytochemistry localized these peptides in cells in the brain, antennae, subesophageal, thoracic and abdominal ganglion, proventriculus and midgut. Nerve tracts containing these peptides were found in the median nerve of the brain, central body, nervi corpus cardiaci, cervical nerve, antennal lobe and on the surface of the midgut.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/45417/1/11064_2004_Article_419298.pd