13,359 research outputs found

    Lightning current detector

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    An apparatus for measuring the intensity of current produced in an elongated electrical conductive member by a lightning strike for determining the intensity of the lightning strike is presented. The apparatus includes an elongated strip of magnetic material that is carried within an elongated tubular housing. A predetermined electrical signal is recorded along the length of said elongated strip of magnetic material. One end of the magnetic material is positioned closely adjacent to the electrically conductive member so that the magnetic field produced by current flowing through said electrically conductive member disturbs a portion of the recorded electrical signal directly proportional to the intensity of the lightning strike

    Life-Expectancy Augmented Rational Addition: A Note.

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    The Becker-Murphy equality between the addictive commodity's full price and marginal utility is modified by discounting the market price and marginal utility of the addictive commodity by the probability of living at least until the time under consideration. the rate of change of the shadow price of addiction is lower than that obtained with models ignoring the effectof addiction on the probability of dying.RATIONAL EXPECTATIONS

    Material Hardship, Poverty, and Disability among Working-Age Adults

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    We use longitudinal data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) spanning the 1996 to 1999 period to estimate the prevalence of several types of material hardships among working-age people with and without disabilities. The hardships studied relate to: the ability to meet expenses; ability to pay rent or mortgage and utility bills; ability to obtain needed medical and dental care; and food security. Several alternative measures of disability are used, including distinctions between short and long-term disability. We find that, regardless of the disability measure used, people with disabilities experience various kinds of material hardship at substantially higher rates than their counterparts without disabilities. Hardship experiences did not differ dramatically between those with short and long-term disabilities. We estimate logit models of the likelihood of reporting material hardships to assess the importance of disability after controlling for income and other sociodemographic characteristics. We find that disability is an important determinant of material hardship even after controlling for these factors. All else constant, the odds of reporting hardship are 70 to 280 percent greater among people with disabilities compared with people without disabilities, depending on the measure of disability and the specific hardship considered. To illustrate the differences between those with and without disabilities from another perspective, we use the logit estimates to calculate the household income individuals with disabilities would need to attain the same likelihood of reporting a given material hardship as those without disabilities with household income at the official poverty level. We find that people with disabilities living alone would need annual incomes on the order of 18,000to18,000 to 38,000 to experience the same level of hardship, on average, as those without disabilities with incomes at the poverty level (about $10,000), depending on the nature of the disability and the hardship considered. We also estimate disability prevalence among working-age people with incomes at or below 200 percent of the federal poverty level and reporting hardships. A large majority of the low-income respondents reporting a material hardship in 1998 also reported a disability of some sort between 1996 and 1999. Among the hardships studied, people with disabilities made up the largest shares of those not getting needed medical care (64 percent) and those reporting food insecurity with hunger (72 percent). The findings suggest that comparisons of conventional poverty rates for people with and without disabilities may understate the differences in the relative economic well-being of these two populations. At a given level of income, people with disabilities will not, on average, achieve the same level of material well-being as those without disabilities. The findings provide support for policies that account for disability-related expenditures and needs when determining eligibility for means-tested assistance programs. The findings also highlight an important limitation of the official poverty measure; it overstates the economic relative well-being of a group that represents a large share of the low-income population, people with disabilities

    A Review of Recent Evaluation Efforts Associated with Programs and Policies Designed to Promote the Employment of Adults with Disabilities

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    The purpose of this report is to provide a review of the recent evaluation activities being conducted for a number of state and federal programs, policies, and initiatives designed to promote the employment of people with disabilities. The review is intended to provide a single source for information on the nature of the initiatives and the evaluation efforts that have been recently completed or are currently under way and the findings to date related to the effectiveness of these initiatives. This broad review is also intended to provide some evidence of the progress we are making. The report also suggests avenues where further efforts and progress might be warranted. We identified 27 initiatives or programs and their associated evaluations that represent a federally sponsored program, policy, or initiative designed specifically to improve employment of the working-age adult population with disabilities. Because of resource constraints, we did not review initiatives designed to improve the adult employment outcomes of youth with disabilities, such as the Social Security Administration (SSA) sponsored Youth Transition Demonstrations. We also did not review small-scale studies evaluating the effectiveness of specific clinical, supported employment, or vocational rehabilitation (VR) approaches. We only looked at information related to the major federal programs serving people with disabilities, general legislation and policies, and initiatives that were fairly large-scale in nature

    Costs and Benefits of Eliminating the Medicare Waiting Period for SSDI Beneficiaries

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    Examines how the two-year waiting period for Medicare eligibility affects disabled workers and how eliminating it would affect costs, private coverage crowd-out, and demand for Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI). Considers broader implications

    Emission Abatement with Per Capita and Trade Considerations

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    In the absence of a comprehensive international agreement, each country unilaterally sets her abatement of greenhouse gas emissions at a level that possibly maximizes her expected net benefit. In addition to a cleaner and healthier domestic environment and a slower global warming, a country’s benefit from self emission-abatement may include improved image and, in turn, bilateral economic and political relations. This paper analyses a country’s cooperative and non-cooperative emission abatements within a cost-benefit framework that, for equality consideration, is centered on per capita emission and takes international rewards for commitment to be responsive to per capita income and output composition.Emissions; Inequality; International Relations; Cooperative Abatement; Unilateral Abatement

    The Effect of Motherhood on Wages and Wage Growth: Evidence for Australia

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    Labour market theory provides several reasons why mothers are likely to earn lower hourly wages than non-mothers. However, the size of any motherhood penalty is an empirical matter and the evidence for Australia is limited. This paper examines the effect of motherhood on Australian women’s wages and wage growth using a series of panel-data models which control for other relevant factors, both observed and unobserved. Using data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, an unexplained motherhood wage penalty of around four per cent for one child, and eight per cent for two or more children, is found. Further analysis suggests that the wage penalty emerges over time through reduced wage growth, rather than through an immediate wage decline after the birth of a child. This reduction in wage growth is consistent with discrimination but also with a reduction in mothers’ work effort.Motherhood Wage Penalty, Wage Growth, Fixed Effects