Genetic polymorphisms in IL-2, IL-10, TGF-β1, and IL-2RB and acute rejection in renal transplant patients

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    Acute rejection (AR) remains a concern for kidney transplantation. Cytokines are key mediators in the induction and effector phases of all immune and inflammatory responses. Single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytokines and their receptors may relate to AR. We investigated the relation between AR and SNPs in the genes encoding for IL-2(-330G>T), IL-10(-592C>A and -1082G>A), TGF-β1(915G>C), and IL-2RB(rs228942 C>A and rs228953 C>T) in 325 renal transplant patients during the first year after transplantation. The overall incidence of AR was 15.4%. In multivariate analysis, only the use of induction therapy was correlated with AR (odds ratio 1.9; 95%-confidence interval 1.1 - 3.7; p = 0.04). No statistically significant associations between the SNPs studied and AR were observed. SNPs in the investigated cytokines and their receptors were not associated with the risk of AR. Genotyping patients for these SNPs is unlikely to aid the clinician in adjusting the immunosuppressive therapy for individual patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.status: publishe

    What Asteroseismology can do for Exoplanets: Kepler-410A b is a Small Neptune around a Bright Star, in an Eccentric Orbit Consistent with Low Obliquity

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    We confirm the Kepler planet candidate Kepler-410A b (KOI-42b) as a Neptune-sized exoplanet on a 17.8 day, eccentric orbit around the bright (K p = 9.4) star Kepler-410A (KOI-42A). This is the third brightest confirmed planet host star in the Kepler field and one of the brightest hosts of all currently known transiting exoplanets. Kepler-410 consists of a blend between the fast rotating planet host star (Kepler-410A) and a fainter star (Kepler-410B), which has complicated the confirmation of the planetary candidate. Employing asteroseismology, using constraints from the transit light curve, adaptive optics and speckle images, and Spitzer transit observations, we demonstrate that the candidate can only be an exoplanet orbiting Kepler-410A. We determine via asteroseismology the following stellar and planetary parameters with high precision; M sstarf = 1.214 ± 0.033 M ☉, R sstarf = 1.352 ± 0.010 R ☉, age =2.76 ± 0.54 Gyr, planetary radius (2.838 ± 0.054 R ⊕), and orbital eccentricity (0.17^{+0.07}_{-0.06}). In addition, rotational splitting of the pulsation modes allows for a measurement of Kepler-410A's inclination and rotation rate. Our measurement of an inclination of 82.5^{+7.5}_{-2.5} [°] indicates a low obliquity in this system. Transit timing variations indicate the presence of at least one additional (non-transiting) planet (Kepler-410A c) in the system.status: publishe
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