21,473 research outputs found

    The problem of artificial precision in theories of vagueness: a note on the role of maximal consistency

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    The problem of artificial precision is a major objection to any theory of vagueness based on real numbers as degrees of truth. Suppose you are willing to admit that, under sufficiently specified circumstances, a predication of "is red" receives a unique, exact number from the real unit interval [0,1]. You should then be committed to explain what is it that determines that value, settling for instance that my coat is red to degree 0.322 rather than 0.321. In this note I revisit the problem in the important case of {\L}ukasiewicz infinite-valued propositional logic that brings to the foreground the role of maximally consistent theories. I argue that the problem of artificial precision, as commonly conceived of in the literature, actually conflates two distinct problems of a very different nature.Comment: 11 pages, 2 table

    Astrophysicists and physicists as creators of ArXiv-based commenting resources for their research communities. An initial survey

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    This paper conveys the outcomes of what results to be the first, though initial, overview of commenting platforms and related 2.0 resources born within and for the astrophysical community (from 2004 to 2016). Experiences were added, mainly in the physics domain, for a total of 22 major items, including four epijournals, and four supplementary resources, thus casting some light onto an unexpected richness and consonance of endeavours. These experiences rest almost entirely on the contents of the database ArXiv, which adds to its merits that of potentially setting the grounds for web 2.0 resources, and research behaviours, to be explored. Most of the experiences retrieved are UK and US based, but the resulting picture is international, as various European countries, China and Australia have been actively involved. Final remarks about creation patterns and outcome of these resources are outlined. The results integrate the previous studies according to which the web 2.0 is presently of limited use for communication in astrophysics and vouch for a role of researchers in the shaping of their own professional communication tools that is greater than expected. Collaterally, some aspects of ArXiv s recent pathway towards partial inclusion of web 2.0 features are touched upon. Further investigation is hoped for.Comment: Journal article 16 page

    Delegation, Knowledge Integration, and Cooperation: How to Solve Problems of Coordination in Structural Fund Programs. Findings From Comparative Case Studies in the South of Italy

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    European cohesion policies are increasingly relying on grassroots networks tapping into tacit knowledge and participatory decision-making processes. Regional governments delegate their decision making power to local institutions with the assumption that local agents possess both contextual knowledge and political legitimacy to integrate different policy measures in a cooperative fashion. Delegation of decision making power is therefore presumed to minimize the unintended or conflicting outcomes emerging, for instance, when environmental protection and infrastructure building are not designed consistently to local contextual needs nor are these pursued through a cooperative effort of local networks of actors. Different agents, including resource users and government agencies try to work together to resolve shared dilemmas of coordination, as an increasingly common alternative to centralized institutions. Coordination consists of managing interdependencies among multiple individuals or organizations involved in the overall program or project management. Several studies classify different types of coordination mechanisms, including standards, hierarchy, targets or plans, slack resources, vertical information systems, direct contact, liaison roles, task forces, and integrating roles. Other ways of classifying coordination include formal impersonal, formal interpersonal, and informal interpersonal; non-coordination, standards, schedules and plans, mutual adjustment, and teams; task-task, task-resource, and resource-resource coordination; vertical and horizontal coordination; coordination by programming and by feedback; and coordination by standards, plans, and mutual adjustment. Building upon a current field research in four regions of the South of Italy, this paper examines how coordination occurs across local development programs, which are embedded within multilevel governance structures and relations. The paper presents a number of cases of local collaborations in which large numbers of local actors representing a wide range of contending groups have, with the help of mediating institutions, worked out agreements for integrating development programs. In some circumstances, specific coordination mechanisms encouraged consensus building offering all relevant groups the knowledge and skills needed to participate in these negotiations. In other circumstances, though, delegation of decision making power opened the door for opportunistic participation, lacking vision and trust for mutual cooperation.

    Null tests of the standard model using the linear model formalism

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    We test both the FLRW geometry and Λ\LambdaCDM cosmology in a model independent way by reconstructing the Hubble function H(z)H(z), the comoving distance D(z)D(z) and the growth of structure fσ8(z)f\sigma_8(z) using the most recent data available. We use the linear model formalism in order to optimally reconstruct the latter cosmological functions, together with their derivatives and integrals. We then evaluate four of the null tests available in literature: Om1Om_{1} by Sahni et al., Om2Om_{2} by Zunckel \& Clarkson, OkOk by Clarkson et al., and nsns by Nesseris \& Sapone. For all the four tests we find agreement, within the errors, with the standard cosmological model.Comment: 8 pages, 7 figures and 1 tabl

    Stone duality above dimension zero: Axiomatising the algebraic theory of C(X)

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    It has been known since the work of Duskin and Pelletier four decades ago that KH^op, the category opposite to compact Hausdorff spaces and continuous maps, is monadic over the category of sets. It follows that KH^op is equivalent to a possibly infinitary variety of algebras V in the sense of Slominski and Linton. Isbell showed in 1982 that the Lawvere-Linton algebraic theory of V can be generated using a finite number of finitary operations, together with a single operation of countably infinite arity. In 1983, Banaschewski and Rosicky independently proved a conjecture of Bankston, establishing a strong negative result on the axiomatisability of KH^op. In particular, V is not a finitary variety--Isbell's result is best possible. The problem of axiomatising V by equations has remained open. Using the theory of Chang's MV-algebras as a key tool, along with Isbell's fundamental insight on the semantic nature of the infinitary operation, we provide a finite axiomatisation of V.Comment: 26 pages. Presentation improve