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    L’éducation des jeunes en institution : une responsabilité partagée entre parents et professionnel·le·s: Les stratégies et moyens mobilisés afin d’établir une collaboration entre parents et professionnel·le·s dans le but d’assurer une cohérence dans les pratiques éducatives

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    Educateur·trice·s et parents de jeunes fréquentant ou vivant dans une institution se retrouvent régulièrement en contact. Qu’il s’agisse d’un simple partage d’informations ou d’une réelle collaboration, leurs échanges ont principalement pour but d’assurer une cohérence dans les pratiques éducatives, a fortiori lorsque le jeune est en transition constante entre institution et foyer familial. La responsabilité partagée de son éducation induit un travail de collaboration entre parents et éducateur·trice·s donnant parfois lieu à des négociations, des divergences, voire des conflits. Pour approfondir ce sujet qui représente un aspect important des métiers de l’éducation, je me suis penché sur la relation entre éducateur·trice·s et parents de jeunes en institution que j’ai questionnés pour essayer de comprendre ce qui se joue durant leurs échanges. Afin de mener à bien ma recherche, j’ai interrogé deux binômes (parent-éducatrice) ayant en commun un jeune du Centre Orif de Sion (Organisation romande pour la formation et l’intégration). Dans ce contexte de jeunes en placement à des fins de formation, la collaboration avec les parents est relativement ouverte. Ce travail vise donc à explorer la question de la collaboration parents éducateur·trice·s dans ce contexte précis. La mise en perspective des données recueillies avec les éléments théoriques du cadre conceptuel a pour but dans un premier temps d’identifier les stratégies et moyens que les uns et les autres disent mobiliser pour collaborer, puis, dans un second temps, de comprendre les nombreux enjeux en lien avec le déroulement de leurs entretiens, le partage des tâches et des rôles ainsi que les visions et les repères de chacun. Le présent travail a donc pour objectif d’enrichir mes connaissances personnelles et vise à proposer aux parents et aux professionnel·le·s concerné·e·s par l’accompagnement d’un jeune dans ce type de contexte, un soutien quant à la posture et aux stratégies à adopter ainsi qu’un recueil d’éléments agissant, selon les personnes interrogées, comme des facilitateurs ou des freins à la collaboration

    Parvalbumin deficiency affects network properties resulting in increased susceptibility to epileptic seizures

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    Networks of GABAergic interneurons are of utmost importance in generating and promoting synchronous activity and are involved in producing coherent oscillations. These neurons are characterized by their fast-spiking rate and by the expression of the Ca²⁺-binding protein parvalbumin (PV). Alteration of their inhibitory activity has been proposed as a major mechanism leading to epileptic seizures and thus the role of PV in maintaining the stability of neuronal networks was assessed in knockout (PV-/-) mice. Pentylenetetrazole induced generalized tonic–clonic seizures in all genotypes, but the severity of seizures was significantly greater in PV-/- than in PV+/+ animals. Extracellular single-unit activity recorded from over 1000 neurons in vivo in the temporal cortex revealed an increase of units firing regularly and a decrease of cells firing in bursts. In the hippocampus, PV deficiency facilitated the GABAAergic current reversal induced by high-frequency stimulation, a mechanism implied in the generation of epileptic activity. We postulate that PV plays a key role in the regulation of local inhibitory effects exerted by GABAergic interneurons on pyramidal neurons. Through an increase in inhibition, the absence of PV facilitates synchronous activity in the cortex and facilitates hypersynchrony through the depolarizing action of GABA in the hippocampus

    Schlieren laser Doppler flowmeter for the human optical nerve head with the flicker stimuli

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    We describe a device to measure blood perfusion for the human optic nerve head (ONH) based on laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) with a flicker stimuli of the fovea region. This device is self-aligned for LDF measurements and includes near-infrared pupil observation, green illumination, and observation of the ONH. The optical system of the flowmeter is based on a Schlieren arrangement which collects only photons that encounter multiple scattering and are back-scattered out of the illumination point. LDF measurements are based on heterodyne detection of Doppler shifted back-scattered light. We also describe an automated analysis of the LDF signals which rejects artifacts and false signals such as blinks. By using a Doppler simulator consisting of a lens and a rotating diffusing wheel, we demonstrate that velocity and flow vary linearly with the speed of the wheel. A cohort of 12 healthy subjects demonstrated that flicker stimulation induces an increase of 17.8% of blood flow in the ONH

    National survey of colistin resistance among carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and outbreak caused by colistin-resistant OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae , France, 2014

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    From January 2014 to December 2014, 972 consecutive non-replicate carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates from colonised or infected patients were collected at the Associated French National Reference Centre as part of the French national survey on antimicrobial resistance. It included 577 Klebsiella spp. (59%), 236 Escherichia coli (24%), 108 Enterobacter spp. (11%), 50 Citrobacter spp. (5%), and a single Salmonella spp. isolate (0.1%). Of 561 K. pneumoniae isolates, 35 were found to be resistant to colistin (6.2%). PFGE analysis revealed a clonal outbreak involving 15 K. pneumoniae isolates belonging to sequence type ST11, recovered in a single hospital in the Picardie region in northern France. Those clonally related isolates showed variable levels of resistance to colistin, ranging from 4 to 64 mg/L. They harboured the blaOXA-48 carbapenemase gene and the blaCTX-M-15 extended- spectrum beta-lactamase gene. Among the 91 Enterobacter cloacae isolates, seven were resistant to colistin and produced different types of carbapenemases. Surprisingly, none of the E. coli and Citrobacter spp. isolates showed resistance to colistin. This national survey including carbapenemase-producing isolates recovered in 2014 reported a high rate of colistin resistance in K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae (6.2% and 7.7%, respectively) in France

    Beyond the Margins: Human Rights Violations Against Undocumented Persons, Homosexuals, And Women in Inter-American Narrative

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    Este estudio se basa en gran parte en el artículo 7 de la “Declaración Universal de los Derechos Humanos”, que dice: “Todos son iguales ante la ley y tienen, sin distinción, derecho a igual protección de la ley.” Latinoamérica es vista como ejemplo donde injusticias y atrocidades han estado siempre a la orden del día: violentos procesos de conquista y colonización, las varias dictaduras militares, el narcotráfico, los secuestros, el aumento de la delincuencia y la inseguridad, etc. Tales violaciones han generado frecuentes olas de emigración (a menudo irregulares) hacia Estados Unidos, donde intentan encontrar protección y libertades, pero con frecuencia tampoco las encuentran, produciéndose así un círculo vicioso en la literatura interamericana de autores hispano- estadounidenses. El enfoque consistirá en examinar tres grupos distintos: los inmigrantes, los homosexuales y las mujeres

    Critique textuelle et critique littéraire en 2 Samuel 6,2: une généalogie des témoins textuels

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    2 Sam 6:2 raises both textual and literary questions. On the textual level, no witness provides the original reading, since all the readings are the result of a literary development. However, the LXX of 2 sam 6:2 is later than the MT since it depends partially upon it. The reading of 4Qsama does not depend upon the MT of 2 Sam 6:2. Instead, it may have originated from the MT of 1 Chr 13:6 with which it shares literary concerns. Moreover, the presence of the name Baal in a verse concerning the ark of God may explain textual changes not only in the MT but also in the LXX
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