1,484 research outputs found

    Oxidative stress and muscle homeostasis

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    Purpose of review The term oxidative stress is often used to indicate a condition in which the accumulation of reactive oxygen species is considered just damaging. We will discuss both the physiological and pathological role of oxidative stress on skeletal muscle homeostasis and function, and how oxidative stress can activates opposite signaling molecule to regulate gene and protein expression to guarantee muscle adaptation and to trigger a pathological condition. Recent findings Emerging evidences have assigned a critical role to oxidative stress in muscle homeostasis and in the physiopathology of skeletal muscle, suggesting that reactive oxygen species are not merely damaging agent inflicting random destruction to the cell structure and function, but useful signaling molecules to regulate growth, proliferation, differentiation, and adaptation, at least within physiological concentration. Summary The role of oxidative stress on muscle homeostasis is quite complex. It is clear that transiently increased levels of oxidative stress might reflect a potentially health promoting process, whereas an uncontrolled accumulation of oxidative stress might have pathological implication. Additional work is, therefore, necessary to understand and define precisely whether the manipulation of the redox balance represents a useful approach in the design of therapeutic strategies for muscle diseases.PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term oxidative stress is often used to indicate a condition in which the accumulation of reactive oxygen species is considered just damaging. We will discuss both the physiological and pathological role of oxidative stress on skeletal muscle homeostasis and function, and how oxidative stress can activates opposite signaling molecule to regulate gene and protein expression to guarantee muscle adaptation and to trigger a pathological condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging evidences have assigned a critical role to oxidative stress in muscle homeostasis and in the physiopathology of skeletal muscle, suggesting that reactive oxygen species are not merely damaging agent inflicting random destruction to the cell structure and function, but useful signaling molecules to regulate growth, proliferation, differentiation, and adaptation, at least within physiological concentration. SUMMARY: The role of oxidative stress on muscle homeostasis is quite complex. It is clear that transiently increased levels of oxidative stress might reflect a potentially health promoting process, whereas an uncontrolled accumulation of oxidative stress might have pathological implication. Additional work is, therefore, necessary to understand and define precisely whether the manipulation of the redox balance represents a useful approach in the design of therapeutic strategies for muscle diseases

    Multicolor Photometry of the Uranus Irregular Satellites Sycorax and Caliban

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    We report on accurate BVRI photometry for the two Uranus irregular satellites Sycorax and Caliban. We derive colours, showing that Sycorax is bluer than Caliban. Our data allows us to detect a significant variability in the Caliban's light-curve, which suggests an estimated period of about 3 hours. Despite it is the brighter of the two bodies, Sycorax does not display a strong statistically significant variability. However our data seem to suggest a period of about 4 hoursComment: 17 pages, 2 eps figures, in press in Astronomical Journa

    Exploratory Hydrothermal Synthesis and Crystal Growth of Refractory Rare-Earth Oxides with Tetravalent and Pentavalent Metal Oxide Building Blocks

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    The crystal growth of large, defect-free and optically transparent materials has been an active area of research for over two centuries. A multitude of crystal growth techniques have been employed during this time, each submitting advantages and disadvantages to the solid-state community. As the heart of solid state lasers, communication devices and semiconductors, synthetically grown crystals for optical and magnetic applications hold the key for future innovation and design. There are large classes of materials that display recumbent characteristics that inhibit their manipulation by most current solid state techniques on the market. These refractory oxides display extreme melting ranges (\u3e 2000 â°C), which inhibit solubility in the melt-based solid-state techniques typically engineered in crystal growth laboratories. Herein, this dissertation employs the high temperature and high pressure technique to drive the solubility of select refractory oxides into solution several hundred degrees prior to the melting point being attained. The investigation of pentavalent and tetravalent oxides (Nb2O5, Ta2O5, TiO2, GeO2, and SiO2) with rare-earth oxides (La - Lu, Sc) under hydrothermal conditions has led to the discovery of several new compounds previously unattainable by conventional solid-state growth techniques. These included, but are not limited to, RENbO4 (RE = La-Lu), La5Ti4O15(OH), Lu5Ti2O11(OH), and Ba2Lu2Si4O12F2 single crystals. The discovery of new classes of materials will lead to further investigation of optical properties. Furthermore, the ability to solubilize metal oxides, hundreds of degrees below their melting point, is leading to high-quality, defect-free, bulk single crystal growth of new and existing materials. As the solution chemistry of metal oxides continues to be investigated and explored under hydrothermal conditions, new optical and magnetic materials continue to emerge and display desirable traits in applied sciences

    Evidence for the formation of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko through gravitational collapse of a bound clump of pebbles

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    The processes that led to the formation of the planetary bodies in the Solar System are still not fully understood. Using the results obtained with the comprehensive suite of instruments on-board ESA’s Rosetta mission, we present evidence that comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko likely formed through the gentle gravitational collapse of a bound clump of mm-sized dust aggregates (“pebbles”), intermixed with microscopic ice particles. This formation scenario leads to a cometary make-up that is simultaneously compatible with the global porosity, homogeneity, tensile strength, thermal inertia, vertical temperature profiles, sizes and porosities of emitted dust, and the steep increase in water-vapour production rate with decreasing heliocentric distance, measured by the instruments on-board the Rosetta spacecraft and the Philae lander. Our findings suggest that the pebbles observed to be abundant in protoplanetary discs around young stars provide the building material for comets and other minor bodies

    The Dust Trail of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

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    We report the detection of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko's dust trail and nucleus in 24 micron Spitzer Space Telescope images taken February 2004. The dust trail is not found in optical Palomar images taken June 2003. Both the optical and infrared images show a distinct neck-line tail structure, offset from the projected orbit of the comet. We compare our observations to simulated images using a Monte Carlo approach and a dynamical model for comet dust. We estimate the trail to be at least one orbit old (6.6 years) and consist of particles of size >~100 micron. The neck-line is composed of similar sized particles, particles of size but younger in age. Together, our observations and simulations suggest grains 100 micron and larger in size dominate the total mass ejected from the comet. The radiometric effective radius of the nucleus is 1.87 +/- 0.08 km, derived from the Spitzer observation. The Rosetta spacecraft is expected to arrive at and orbit this comet in 2014. Assuming the trail is comprised solely of 1 mm radius grains, we compute a low probability (~10^-3) of a trail grain impacting with Rosetta during approach and orbit insertion.Comment: Accepted for publication in Icaru

    Daily variability of Ceres' Albedo detected by means of radial velocities changes of the reflected sunlight

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    Bright features have been recently discovered by Dawn on Ceres, which extend previous photometric and Space Telescope observations. These features should produce distortions of the line profiles of the reflected solar spectrum and therefore an apparent radial velocity variation modulated by the rotation of the dwarf planet. Here we report on two sequences of observations of Ceres performed in the nights of 31 July, 26-27 August 2015 by means of the high-precision HARPS spectrograph at the 3.6-m La Silla ESO telescope. The observations revealed a quite complex behaviour which likely combines a radial velocity modulation due to the rotation with an amplitude of approx +/- 6 m/s and an unexpected diurnal effect. The latter changes imply changes in the albedo of Occator's bright features due to the blaze produced by the exposure to solar radiation. The short-term variability of Ceres' albedo is on timescales ranging from hours to months and can both be confirmed and followed by means of dedicated radial velocity observations.Comment: 5 pag, 1fig, two tables, MNRAS Letters 201

    HDAC4 preserves skeletal muscle structure following long-term denervation by mediating distinct cellular responses

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    BACKGROUND: Denervation triggers numerous molecular responses in skeletal muscle, including the activation of catabolic pathways and oxidative stress, leading to progressive muscle atrophy. Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) mediates skeletal muscle response to denervation, suggesting the use of HDAC inhibitors as a therapeutic approach to neurogenic muscle atrophy. However, the effects of HDAC4 inhibition in skeletal muscle in response to long-term denervation have not been described yet. METHODS: To further study HDAC4 functions in response to denervation, we analyzed mutant mice in which HDAC4 is specifically deleted in skeletal muscle. RESULTS: After an initial phase of resistance to neurogenic muscle atrophy, skeletal muscle with a deletion of HDAC4 lost structural integrity after 4 weeks of denervation. Deletion of HDAC4 impaired the activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, delayed the autophagic response, and dampened the OS response in skeletal muscle. Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system or the autophagic response, if on the one hand, conferred resistance to neurogenic muscle atrophy; on the other hand, induced loss of muscle integrity and inflammation in mice lacking HDAC4 in skeletal muscle. Moreover, treatment with the antioxidant drug Trolox prevented loss of muscle integrity and inflammation in in mice lacking HDAC4 in skeletal muscle, despite the resistance to neurogenic muscle atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: These results reveal new functions of HDAC4 in mediating skeletal muscle response to denervation and lead us to propose the combined use of HDAC inhibitors and antioxidant drugs to treat neurogenic muscle atrophy

    THE RELIANCE INTEREST IN CONTRACT DAMAGES: I

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