25,202 research outputs found

    Helicobacter hepaticus Cholesterol-α-glucosyltransferase is Essential for Establishing Colonization in Male A/JCr Mice

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    Background Helicobacter pylori cholesterol-α-glucosyltransferase (cgt) is essential for survival of H. pylori in mice. Enterohepatic H. hepaticus, the cause of colonic and hepatocellular carcinoma in susceptible mouse strains, contains an ortholog of the H. pylori cgt. However, the role of cgt in the pathogenesis of H. hepaticus has not been investigated. Materials and Methods Two cgt-deficient isogenic mutants of wild-type H. hepaticus (WT) 3B1 were generated and used to inoculate male A/JCr mice. Cecal and hepatic colonization levels of the mutants and WT 3B1 as well as select inflammation-associated cytokines were measured by qPCR at 4 months postinoculation. Results Both mutants were undetectable in the cecum of any inoculated mice (10 per mutant) but were detected in two livers (one for each mutant); by contrast, 9 and 7 of 10 mice inoculated with WT 3B1 were qPCR positive in the ceca and livers, respectively. The mice inoculated with the mutants developed significantly less severe hepatic inflammation (p < .05) and also produced significantly lower hepatic mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines Ifn-γ (p < .01) and Tnf-α (p ≤ .02) as well as anti-inflammatory factors Il10 and Foxp3 compared with the WT 3B1-inoculated mice. Additionally, the WT 3B1-inoculated mice developed significantly higher Th1-associated IgG2a (p < .0001) and Th2-associated IgG1 responses (p < .0001) to H. hepaticus infection than mice dosed with isogenic cgt mutants. Conclusion Our data indicate that the cholesterol-α-glucosyltransferase is required for establishing colonization of the intestine and liver and therefore plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of H. hepaticus.National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant R010D011141)National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant 01CA026731)National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant R01AT004326)National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Grant P30-ES002109

    Heat shock factor 1 regulates lifespan as distinct from disease onset in prion disease

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    Prion diseases are fatal, transmissible, neurodegenerative diseases caused by the misfolding of the prion protein (PrP). At present, the molecular pathways underlying prion-mediated neurotoxicity are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the transcriptional regulator of the stress response, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), would play an important role in prion disease. Uninoculated HSF1 knockout (KO) mice used in our study do not show signs of neurodegeneration as assessed by survival, motor performance, or histopathology. When inoculated with Rocky Mountain Laboratory (RML) prions HSF1 KO mice had a dramatically shortened lifespan, succumbing to disease ≈20% faster than controls. Surprisingly, both the onset of home-cage behavioral symptoms and pathological alterations occurred at a similar time in HSF1 KO and control mice. The accumulation of proteinase K (PK)-resistant PrP also occurred with similar kinetics and prion infectivity accrued at an equal or slower rate. Thus, HSF1 provides an important protective function that is specifically manifest after the onset of behavioral symptoms of prion disease

    Mutations in the E2 glycoprotein and the 3\u27 untranslated region enhance chikungunya virus virulence in mice

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    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes debilitating musculoskeletal pain and inflammation and can persist for months to years after acute infection. Although studies of humans and experimentally infected animals suggest that CHIKV infection persists in musculoskeletal tissues, the mechanisms for this remain poorly understood. To evaluate this further, we isolated CHIKV from the serum of persistently infected Rag1 -/- mice at day 28. When inoculated into naive wild-type (WT) mice, this persistently circulating CHIKV strain displayed a capacity for earlier dissemination and greater pathogenicity than the parental virus. Sequence analysis revealed a nonsynonymous mutation in the E2 glycoprotein (E2 K200R) and a deletion within the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR). The introduction of these changes into the parental virus conferred enhanced virulence in mice, although primary tropism for musculoskeletal tissues was maintained. The E2 K200R mutation was largely responsible for enhanced viral dissemination and pathogenicity, although these effects were augmented by the 3'- UTR deletion. Finally, studies with Irf3/Irf7 -/- and Ifnar1 -/- mice suggest that the E2 K200R mutation enhances viral dissemination from the site of inoculation independently of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-, IRF7-, and IFNAR1-mediated responses. As our findings reveal viral determinants of CHIKV dissemination and pathogenicity, their further study should help to elucidate host-virus interactions that determine acute and chronic CHIKV infection

    Contributions of MyD88-dependent receptors and CD11c-positive cells to corneal epithelial barrier function against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

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    Previously we reported that corneal epithelial barrier function against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was MyD88-dependent. Here, we explored contributions of MyD88-dependent receptors using vital mouse eyes and confocal imaging. Uninjured IL-1R (-/-) or TLR4 (-/-) corneas, but not TLR2 (-/-), TLR5 (-/-), TLR7 (-/-), or TLR9 (-/-), were more susceptible to P. aeruginosa adhesion than wild-type (3.8-fold, 3.6-fold respectively). Bacteria adherent to the corneas of IL-1R (-/-) or TLR5 (-/-) mice penetrated beyond the epithelial surface only if the cornea was superficially-injured. Bone marrow chimeras showed that bone marrow-derived cells contributed to IL-1R-dependent barrier function. In vivo, but not ex vivo, stromal CD11c+ cells responded to bacterial challenge even when corneas were uninjured. These cells extended processes toward the epithelial surface, and co-localized with adherent bacteria in superficially-injured corneas. While CD11c+ cell depletion reduced IL-6, IL-1β, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL10 transcriptional responses to bacteria, and increased susceptibility to bacterial adhesion (&gt;3-fold), the epithelium remained resistant to bacterial penetration. IL-1R (-/-) corneas also showed down-regulation of IL-6 and CXCL1 genes with and without bacterial challenge. These data show complex roles for TLR4, TLR5, IL-1R and CD11c+ cells in constitutive epithelial barrier function against P. aeruginosa, with details dependent upon in vivo conditions

    Btp Proteins from Brucella abortus Modulate the Lung Innate Immune Response to Infection by the Respiratory Route

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    Although inhalation of infected aerosols is a frequent route for Brucella infection in humans, it rarely causes pulmonary clinical manifestations, suggesting a mild or nearly absent local inflammatory response. The goal of this study was to characterize the early innate immune response to intratracheal infection with Brucella abortus in mice and to evaluate whether it is modulated by this pathogen. After infection with 106 CFU of B. abortus, the pulmonary bacterial burden at 7 days post-infection (p.i.) was comparable to the initial inoculum, despite an initial transient decline. Brucella was detected in spleen and liver as early as 1 day p.i. IL-1β and MCP-1 increased at 3 days p.i., whereas IL-12, KC, TNF-α, and IFN-γ only increased at 7 days p.i. Histological examination did not reveal peribronchial or perivascular infiltrates in infected mice. Experiments were conducted to evaluate if the limited inflammatory lung response to B. abortusis caused by a bacterial mechanism of TLR signaling inhibition. Whereas inoculation of E. coli LPS to control mice [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)/LPS] caused lung inflammation, almost no histological changes were observed in mice preinfected intratracheally with B. abortus (WT/LPS). We speculated that the Brucella TIR-containing proteins (Btps) A and B, which impair TLR signaling in vitro, may be involved in this modulation. After LPS challenge, mice preinfected with the B. abortus btpAbtpB double mutant exhibited a stronger pulmonary polymorphonuclear infiltrate than WT/LPS mice, although milder than that of the PBS/LPS group. In addition, lungs from B. abortus btpAbtpB-infected mice presented a stronger inflammatory infiltrate than those infected with the WT strain, and at day 7 p.i., the pulmonary levels of KC, MCP-1, and IL-12 were higher in mice infected with the mutant. This study shows that B. abortus infection produces a mild proinflammatory response in murine lungs, partially due to immune modulation by its Btp proteins. This may facilitate its survival and dissemination to peripheral organs.Fil: Hielpos, María Soledad. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral Prof. Ricardo A. Margni. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral Prof. Ricardo A. Margni; ArgentinaFil: Ferrero, Mariana Cristina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral Prof. Ricardo A. Margni. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral Prof. Ricardo A. Margni; ArgentinaFil: Fernandez, Andrea Giselle. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral Prof. Ricardo A. Margni. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral Prof. Ricardo A. Margni; ArgentinaFil: Falivene, Juliana. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral Prof. Ricardo A. Margni. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral Prof. Ricardo A. Margni; ArgentinaFil: Vanzulli, Silvia. Academia Nacional de Medicina de Buenos Aires; ArgentinaFil: Comerci, Diego José. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - La Plata. Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas. Universidad Nacional de San Martín. Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas; ArgentinaFil: Baldi, Pablo Cesar. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral Prof. Ricardo A. Margni. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica. Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral Prof. Ricardo A. Margni; Argentin

    Consequences of the Lack of IL-10 in Different Endotoxin Effects and its Relationship With Glucocorticoids

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    Sepsis constitutes one of the major causes of death in ICUs. In sepsis induced by gram-negative, although lipopolysaccharide (LPS) initially induces an exacerbated secretion of proinflammatory cytokines leading to endotoxic shock and death resembling a septic shock, it is also capable of inducing refractoriness to subsequent challenge with LPS, a state known as endotoxin tolerance, which is considered the initial step of the immunosuppression found in septic patients. As we previously demonstrated the importance of glucocorticoids in endotoxin tolerance, the aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of Interleukin-10 (IL-10) both in the endotoxic shock and in the development of the tolerance and its relationship with glucocorticoids. Our results show that, upon LPS challenge, IL-10 knockout mice (KO) mice had an enhanced LPS sensitivity, along with elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines as tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-12 and interferon-γ, and enhanced tissue damage, despite the high levels of glucocorticoids. This effect may be because, in part, of the higher expression of tumor necrosis factor receptors in IL-10 KO mice. Further, the injection of dexamethasone did not protect IL-10 KO mice from a LPS lethal challenge. Although tolerance was achieved in the absence of IL-10, it was weaker and the elevated levels of glucocorticoids were not able to reverse the high sensitivity of IL-10 KO mice to LPS. Nevertheless, glucocorticoids would play a pivotal role in the establishment and maintenance of this partial tolerance in IL-10 KO mice. Finally, our results show that IL-10 and glucocorticoids could act in a bidirectional way influencing the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory periods.Fil: Córdoba Moreno, Marlina Olyissa. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Medicina Experimental. Academia Nacional de Medicina de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Todero, Maria Florencia. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Medicina Experimental. Academia Nacional de Medicina de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Fontanals, Adriana Mirta. Fundación Instituto Leloir; ArgentinaFil: Pineda, Gonzalo Ezequiel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Medicina Experimental. Academia Nacional de Medicina de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Montagna, Daniela Romina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Medicina Experimental. Academia Nacional de Medicina de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Yokobori, Noemí. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Medicina Experimental. Academia Nacional de Medicina de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Ramos, Maria Victoria. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Medicina Experimental. Academia Nacional de Medicina de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Barrientos, Gabriela Laura. Hospital Alemán. Laboratorio de Medicina Experimental; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Toblli, Jorge Eduardo. Hospital Alemán. Laboratorio de Medicina Experimental; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas; ArgentinaFil: Isturiz, Martín Amadeo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Medicina Experimental. Academia Nacional de Medicina de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Medicina Experimental; ArgentinaFil: Rearte, María Bárbara. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Medicina Experimental. Academia Nacional de Medicina de Buenos Aires. Instituto de Medicina Experimental; Argentin

    Cryptococcus neoformans chitin synthase 3 plays a critical role in dampening host inflammatory responses

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    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common disseminated fungal pathogen in AIDS patients, resulting in ∼200,000 deaths each year. There is a pressing need for new treatments for this infection, as current antifungal therapy is hampered by toxicity and/or the inability of the host’s immune system to aid in resolution of the disease. An ideal target for new therapies is the fungal cell wall. The cryptococcal cell wall is different from the cell walls of many other pathogenic fungi in that it contains chitosan. Strains that have decreased chitosan are less pathogenic and strains that are deficient in chitosan are avirulent and can induce protective responses. In this study, we investigated the host responses to a chs3Δ strain, a chitosan-deficient strain, and found that mice inoculated with the chs3Δ strain all died within 36 h and that death was associated with an aberrant hyperinflammatory immune response driven by neutrophils, indicating that chitosan is critical in modulating the immune response to Cryptococcus.Cryptococcus neoformans infections are significant causes of morbidity and mortality among AIDS patients and the third most common invasive fungal infection in organ transplant recipients. One of the main interfaces between the fungus and the host is the fungal cell wall. The cryptococcal cell wall is unusual among human-pathogenic fungi in that the chitin is predominantly deacetylated to chitosan. Chitosan-deficient strains of C. neoformans were found to be avirulent and rapidly cleared from the murine lung. Moreover, infection with a chitosan-deficient C. neoformans strain lacking three chitin deacetylases (cda1Δcda2Δcda3Δ) was found to confer protective immunity to a subsequent challenge with a virulent wild-type counterpart. In addition to the chitin deacetylases, it was previously shown that chitin synthase 3 (Chs3) is also essential for chitin deacetylase-mediated formation of chitosan. Mice inoculated with the chs3Δ strain at a dose previously shown to induce protection with the cda1Δcda2Δcda3Δ strain die within 36 h after installation of the organism. Mortality was not dependent on viable fungi, as mice inoculated with a heat-killed preparation of the chs3Δ strain died at the same rate as mice inoculated with a live chs3Δ strain, suggesting that the rapid onset of death was host mediated, likely caused by an overexuberant immune response. Histology, cytokine profiling, and flow cytometry indicate a massive neutrophil influx in the mice inoculated with the chs3Δ strain. Mice depleted of neutrophils survived chs3Δ inoculation, indicating that death was neutrophil mediated. Altogether, these studies lead us to conclude that Chs3, along with chitosan, plays critical roles in dampening cryptococcus-induced host inflammatory responses

    Identification and characterization of a novel non-structural protein of bluetongue virus

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    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of a major disease of livestock (bluetongue). For over two decades, it has been widely accepted that the 10 segments of the dsRNA genome of BTV encode for 7 structural and 3 non-structural proteins. The non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2, NS3/NS3a) play different key roles during the viral replication cycle. In this study we show that BTV expresses a fourth non-structural protein (that we designated NS4) encoded by an open reading frame in segment 9 overlapping the open reading frame encoding VP6. NS4 is 77–79 amino acid residues in length and highly conserved among several BTV serotypes/strains. NS4 was expressed early post-infection and localized in the nucleoli of BTV infected cells. By reverse genetics, we showed that NS4 is dispensable for BTV replication in vitro, both in mammalian and insect cells, and does not affect viral virulence in murine models of bluetongue infection. Interestingly, NS4 conferred a replication advantage to BTV-8, but not to BTV-1, in cells in an interferon (IFN)-induced antiviral state. However, the BTV-1 NS4 conferred a replication advantage both to a BTV-8 reassortant containing the entire segment 9 of BTV-1 and to a BTV-8 mutant with the NS4 identical to the homologous BTV-1 protein. Collectively, this study suggests that NS4 plays an important role in virus-host interaction and is one of the mechanisms played, at least by BTV-8, to counteract the antiviral response of the host. In addition, the distinct nucleolar localization of NS4, being expressed by a virus that replicates exclusively in the cytoplasm, offers new avenues to investigate the multiple roles played by the nucleolus in the biology of the cell
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