8,433 research outputs found

    Silac mouse for quantitative proteomics uncovers kindlin-3 as an essential factor for red blood cell function

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    Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) has become a versatile tool for quantitative, mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. Here, we completely label mice with a diet containing either the natural or the 13C6-substituted version of lysine. Mice were labeled over four generations with the heavy diet, and development, growth, and behavior were not affected. MS analysis of incorporation levels allowed for the determination of incorporation rates of proteins from blood cells and organs. The F2 generation was completely labeled in all organs tested. SILAC analysis from various organs lacking expression of β1 integrin, β-Parvin, or the integrin tail-binding protein Kindlin-3 confirmed their absence and disclosed a structural defect of the red blood cell membrane skeleton in Kindlin-3-deficient erythrocytes. The SILAC-mouse approach is a versatile tool by which to quantitatively compare proteomes from knockout mice and thereby determine protein functions under complex in vivo conditions

    SILAC-based proteomic quantification of chemoattractant-induced cytoskeleton dynamics on a second to minute timescale

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    Cytoskeletal dynamics during cell behaviours ranging from endocytosis and exocytosis to cell division and movement is controlled by a complex network of signalling pathways, the full details of which are as yet unresolved. Here we show that SILAC-based proteomic methods can be used to characterize the rapid chemoattractant-induced dynamic changes in the actin–myosin cytoskeleton and regulatory elements on a proteome-wide scale with a second to minute timescale resolution. This approach provides novel insights in the ensemble kinetics of key cytoskeletal constituents and association of known and novel identified binding proteins. We validate the proteomic data by detailed microscopy-based analysis of in vivo translocation dynamics for key signalling factors. This rapid large-scale proteomic approach may be applied to other situations where highly dynamic changes in complex cellular compartments are expected to play a key role

    A proteomic approach to identify endosomal cargoes controlling cancer invasiveness

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    We have previously shown that Rab17 - a small GTPase associated with epithelial polarity - is specifically suppressed by ERK2 signalling to promote an invasive phenotype. However, the mechanisms through which Rab17 loss permits invasiveness, and the endosomal cargoes that are responsible for mediating this are not known. Using quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we have found that knockdown of Rab17 leads to highly selective reduction in the cellular levels of a v-SNARE (Vamp8). Moreover, proteomics and immunofluorescence indicate that Vamp-8 is associated with Rab17 at late endosomes. Reduced levels of Vamp8 promote transition between ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and a more invasive phenotype. We developed an unbiased proteomic approach to elucidate the complement of receptors that redistributes between endosomes and the plasma membrane, and have pin-pointed neuropilin-2 (NRP2) as a key pro-invasive cargo of Rab17/Vamp8-regulated trafficking. Indeed, reduced Rab17 or Vamp8 levels lead to increased mobilisation of NRP2-containing late endosomes and upregulated cell surface expression of NRP2. Finally, we show that NRP2 is required for the basement membrane disruption which accompanies transition between DCIS and a more invasive phenotype

    Iron overload down-regulates the expression of the HIV-1 Rev cofactor eIF5A in infected T lymphocytes

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    Background Changes in iron metabolism frequently accompany HIV-1 infection. However, while many clinical and in vitro studies report iron overload exacerbates the development of infection, many others have found no correlation. Therefore, the multi-faceted role of iron in HIV-1 infection remains enigmatic. Methods RT-qPCR targeting the LTR region, gag, Tat and Rev were performed to measure the levels of viral RNAs in response to iron overload. Spike-in SILAC proteomics comparing i) iron-treated, ii) HIV-1-infected and iii) HIV-1-infected/iron treated T lymphocytes was performed to define modifications in the host cell proteome. Data from quantitative proteomics were integrated with the HIV-1 Human Interaction Database for assessing any viral cofactors modulated by iron overload in infected T lymphocytes. Results Here, we demonstrate that the iron overload down-regulates HIV-1 gene expression by decreasing the levels of viral RNAs. In addition, we found that iron overload modulates the expression of many viral cofactors. Among them, the downregulation of the REV cofactor eIF5A may correlate with the iron-induced inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression. Therefore, we demonstrated that eiF5A downregulation by shRNA resulted in a significant decrease of Nef levels, thus hampering HIV-1 replication. Conclusions Our study indicates that HIV-1 cofactors influenced by iron metabolism represent potential targets for antiretroviral therapy and suggests eIF5A as a selective target for drug development

    Stable isotopic labeling in proteomics

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    Labeling of proteins and peptides with stable heavy isotopes (deuterium, carbon-13, nitrogen-15, and oxygen-18) is widely used in quantitative proteomics. These are either incorporated metabolically in cells and small organisms, or postmetabolically in proteins and peptides by chemical or enzymatic reactions. Only upon measurement with mass spectrometers holding sufficient resolution, light, and heavy labeled peptide ions or reporter peptide fragment ions segregate and their intensity values are subsequently used for quantification. Targeted use of these labels or mass tags further leads to specific monitoring of diverse aspects of dynamic proteomes. In this review article, commonly used isotope labeling strategies are described, both for quantitative differential protein profiling and for targeted analysis of protein modifications

    Broad activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system by Parkin is critical for mitophagy

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    Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase implicated in Parkinson's disease, promotes degradation of dysfunctional mitochondria by autophagy. Using proteomic and cellular approaches, we show that upon translocation to mitochondria, Parkin activates the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) for widespread degradation of outer membrane proteins. This is evidenced by an increase in K48-linked polyubiquitin on mitochondria, recruitment of the 26S proteasome and rapid degradation of multiple outer membrane proteins. The degradation of proteins by the UPS occurs independently of the autophagy pathway, and inhibition of the 26S proteasome completely abrogates Parkin-mediated mitophagy in HeLa, SH-SY5Y and mouse cells. Although the mitofusins Mfn1 and Mfn2 are rapid degradation targets of Parkin, we find that degradation of additional targets is essential for mitophagy. These results indicate that remodeling of the mitochondrial outer membrane proteome is important for mitophagy, and reveal a causal link between the UPS and autophagy, the major pathways for degradation of intracellular substrates

    Global proteomics analysis of the response to starvation in <i>C. elegans</i>

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    Periodic starvation of animals induces large shifts in metabolism but may also influence many other cellular systems and can lead to adaption to prolonged starvation conditions. To date, there is limited understanding of how starvation affects gene expression, particularly at the protein level. Here, we have used mass-spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics to identify global changes in the Caenorhabditis elegans proteome due to acute starvation of young adult animals. Measuring changes in the abundance of over 5,000 proteins, we show that acute starvation rapidly alters the levels of hundreds of proteins, many involved in central metabolic pathways, highlighting key regulatory responses. Surprisingly, we also detect changes in the abundance of chromatin-associated proteins, including specific linker histones, histone variants, and histone posttranslational modifications associated with the epigenetic control of gene expression. To maximize community access to these data, they are presented in an online searchable database, the Encyclopedia of Proteome Dynamics (http://www.peptracker.com/epd/)
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