826,301 research outputs found

    Interventions for enhancing adherence with physiotherapy: a systematic review

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    Poor adherence to treatment is commonplace and may adversely affect outcomes, efficiency and healthcare cost. The aim of this systematic review was to identify strategies to improve adherence with musculoskeletal outpatient treatment. Five suitable studies were identified which provided moderate evidence that a motivational cognitive-behavioural programme can improve attendance at exercise-based clinic sessions. There was conflicting evidence that adherence interventions increase short-term adherence with exercise. There was strong evidence that adherence strategies are not effective at improving long-term adherence with home exercise. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of non-adherence, the strategies to improve adherence with physiotherapy treatment are likely to be broad in spectrum. Combined interventions may be effective at promoting adherence with clinic appointments and exercise, though further research would be required to confirm this. Further research to increase basic understanding of the factors which act as a barrier to adherence could facilitate development of strategies to overcome non-adherence

    Level of adherence to prescribed exercise in spondyloarthritis and factors affecting this adherence: a systematic review

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    Adherence is a primary determinant of the effectiveness of any intervention. Exercise is considered essential in the management of spondyloarthritis (SpA); however, the overall adherence to exercise programmes and factors affecting adherence are unknown. The aim of this systematic review was to examine measures of, and factors influencing adherence to, prescribed exercise programmes in people with SpA. A search was performed in August 2018 using five data bases; the Cochrane library, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web of Science Collections. Inclusion criteria were: studies with adults (>‚ÄČ18 years) with SpA, with a prescribed exercise intervention or educational programme with the aim of increasing exercise participation. Article quality was independently assessed by two assessors. Extracted descriptive data included: populations, interventions, measures of adherence and factors affecting adherence. Percentage adherence rates to prescribed exercises were calculated if not reported. Nine studies were included with a total of 658 participants, 95% of participants had a diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis. Interventions and measurement of adherence varied, making comparisons difficult. Rates of adherence ranged from 51.4 to 95%. Single studies identified; adherence improved following educational programmes, and higher disease severity and longer diagnostic delays were associated with higher adherence. Conflicting evidence was found as to whether supervision of exercise improved adherence. Three consecutive studies demonstrated adherence reduced over time. Adherence to prescribed exercise in SpA was poorly reported and predominately for people with AS. The levels of adherence and factors affecting prescribed exercise in SpA remain unclear. Future research should measure adherence across a longer time period and investigate possible factors which may influence adherence

    The predictors to medication adherence among adults with diabetes in the United Arab Emirates.

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    BackgroundDiabetes is a chronic medical condition and adherence to medication in adults with diabetes is important. Identifying predictors to medication adherence in adults with diabetes would help identify vulnerable patients who are likely to benefit by improving their adherence levels.MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional study at the Dubai Police Health Centre between February 2015 and November 2015. Questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic, clinical and disease related variables and the primary measure of outcome was adherence levels as measured by the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8¬©). Multivariate logistic regression was carried out to identify predictors to adherence.ResultsFour hundred and forty six patients were interviewed. Mean age 61¬†year +/- 11. 48.4¬†% were male. The mean time since diagnosis of diabetes was 3.2¬†years (Range 1-15 years). Two hundred and eighty eight (64.6¬†%) patients were considered non-adherent (MMAS-8¬© adherence score‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ6) while 118 (26.5¬†%) had moderate adherence (MMAS-8¬© adherence score 6‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ<8) and 40 (9.0¬†%) high adherence (MMAS-8¬© adherence scores <8) to their medication respectively. The strongest predictor for adherence as predicted by the multi-logistic regression model was the patient's level of education. A technical diploma certificate as compared to a primary school level of education was the strongest predictor of adherence (OR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ66.1 CI: 6.93 to 630.43); p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.001). The patient's age was also a predictor of adherence with older patients reporting higher levels of adherence (OR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.113 (CI: 1.045 to 1.185; p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.001 for every year increase in age). The duration of diabetes was also a predictor of adherence (OR‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ1.830 (CI: 1.270 to 2.636; p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.001 for every year increase in the duration of diabetes). Other predictors to medication adherence include Insulin use, ethnicity and certain cultural behaviours.ConclusionA number of important predictors to medication adherence in diabetics were identified in this study. Such predictors could help develop policies for improving adherence in diabetics

    A Case-Control Study of Factors Associated with Non-Adherent to Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV Infected People in Pwani Region, Eastern Tanzania

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    Non-adherence is one of the major causes of treatment failure which leads to increased morbidity and mortality caused by opportunistic infections. Optimal anti-retroviral therapy (ART) adherence is essential for maximal suppression of viral replication and long term survival of patients. In order to develop effective public health interventions in the context of scaling ART services to peripheral areas, it is important to evaluate factors associated with non-adherence among HIV-infected individuals in Pwani Region. The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to non-adherence to ART among HIV infected people in Pwani Region eastern of Tanzania. A case-control study was carried out at Tumbi Hospital and Chalinze Health Centre in Pwani Region in eastern Tanzania. A structured questionnaire was used to assess non-adherence and adherence to doses instruction and time schedule. Patients with less than 95% adherence were defined as cases while those with more than 95% adherence became controls. A structured questionnaire containing factors known to be associated with non-adherence to ART in similar settings was administered. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with non-adherence. A total of 79 cases and 237 controls matched by age and sex were studied. A high proportion of cases and controls (77.2% and 84.8%) had good knowledge of ART benefits, adherence and eligibility. Majority of cases (73.3%) and controls (69.2%) used public transport to access ART services. More than half of cases (53.2%) missed clinic appointments due to lack of bus fare or other reasons and was associated with ART non adherence (mOR 4.2, 95%CI, 2.2-8.1 and 2.1,95%CI 1.2-4.2). Disclosure to confidants only and failure to disclose HIV-test positive status were associated with non adherence (mOR 3.3, 95%CI 1.3-8.5 and 2.3, 95%CI 1.2-7.1). Alcohol use was associated with non adherence to ART (mOR 1.9, 95%CI 1.4-3.7). Patients who were not satisfied with providers were more likely to be non adherence to ART (mOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.2-3.8). In conclusion, these findings show that adherence is a process which is depended on local specific adherence factors. Adherence improvement strategies need to consider site specific adherence determinants, patient experiences and concern

    Investigating the Temporal Relationships between Symptoms and Nebuliser Adherence in People with Cystic Fibrosis: A Series of N-of-1 Observations

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    Treatment adherence in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) is poor. One of the reasons identified for lack of adherence to nebulised treatments is that patients may not experience any immediate relief in their symptoms or notice changes as a result of taking their treatment, thus many report that they do not perceive there to be consequences of non adherence. The aim of the study was to investigate the temporal relationships between symptoms and adherence to nebulised treatments in adults with CF using an N-of-1 observational design. Six participants were recruited for a six-week period during which time they completed a daily online respiratory symptom questionnaire. Adherence to treatment was measured throughout the duration of the study using an eTrack¬ģ nebuliser that logged date and time of treatments taken. Data generated from each participant was analysed separately. There were significant relationships between pain and adherence for three participants, tiredness and adherence for one participant and cough and adherence for one participant. For all of these findings, the symptom and adherence were experienced on the same day. Extending the monitoring period beyond six weeks may provide increased insight into the complex relationship between symptoms and adherence in CF

    Evaluation of medication adherence methods in the treatment of malaria in Rwandan infants

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    Objectives: To compare three methods for evaluating treatment adherence in a 7-day controlled treatment period for malaria in children in Rwanda. Methods: Fifty-six children (< 5 years) with malaria were recruited at the University Hospital of Butare, Rwanda. Patients were treated with quinine sulfate, taste-masked, pellets during seven days: three days in hospital (in-patient) followed by a four-day out-patient period. Three methods to evaluate medication adherence among patients were compared: manual pill count of returned tablets, patient self-report and electronic pill-box monitoring. These pill-boxes were equipped with a microchip registering date and time of every opening. Medication adherence was defined as the proportion of prescribed doses taken. The inter-dose intervals were analysed as well. Results: Medication adherence data were available for 54 of the 56 patients. Manual pill count and patient self-report yielded a medication adherence of 100% for the in-and out-patient treatment periods. Based on electronic pill-box monitoring, medication adherence during the seven-day treatment period was 90.5 +/- 8.3%. Based on electronic pillbox monitoring inpatient medication adherence (99.3 +/- 2.7%) was markedly higher (p < 0.03) than out-patient adherence (82.7 +/- 14.7%), showing a clear difference between health workers' and consumers' medication adherence. Conclusion: Health workers' medication adherence was good. However, a significant lower medication adherence was observed for consumers' adherence in the outpatient setting. This was only detected by electronic pill-box monitoring. Therefore, this latter method is more accurate than the two other methods used in this study

    Estimating HIV Medication Adherence and Persistence: Two Instruments for Clinical and Research Use

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    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) requires lifelong daily oral therapy. While patient characteristics associated with suboptimal ART adherence and persistence have been described in cohorts of HIV-infected persons, these factors are poor predictors of individual medication taking behaviors. We aimed to create and test instruments for the estimation of future ART adherence and persistence for clinical and research applications. Following formative work, a battery of 148 items broadly related to HIV infection and treatment was developed and administered to 181 HIV-infected patients. ART adherence and persistence were assessed using electronic monitoring for 3 months. Perceived confidence in medication taking and self-reported barriers to adherence were strongest in predicting non-adherence over time. Barriers to adherence (e.g., affordability, scheduling) were the strongest predictors of non-adherence, as well as 3- and 7-day non-persistence. A ten-item battery for prediction of these outcomes (www.med.unc.edu/ncaidstraining/adherence/for-providers) and a 30-item battery reflective of underlying psychological constructs can help identify and study individuals at risk for suboptimal ART adherence and persistence

    What people think about medicines : the relationship between medication beliefs and adherence to antidepressant therapy : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Psychology at Massey University

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    Major depressive disorder is a common mental disorder seen in primary care and treatment with antidepressant medication has been shown to be an effective treatment. Non-adherence to treatment regimens is considered by many to be the most serious challenge facing medical practice today. Research on medication adherence has more recently shifted its focus to the cognitive factors (i.e., patient beliefs) that determine adherence. Prior research has shown that pre-treatment perception of benefits and barriers to medication predict initial medication adherence. To contribute to this emerging literature, the present study assessed 85 depressed primary care patients about their beliefs in the necessity for and concerns about antidepressant therapy, and reported adherence using validated questionnaires (BMQ, Home, Weinman, & Hankins, 1999; MARS. Home & Weinman, 2002). The results of the present study showed no relationship between patient beliefs about the necessity of antidepressant therapy for their health and reported adherence. As predicted, participants holding stronger concerns about the potential adverse effects of the medication and stronger necessity beliefs, compared to concerns beliefs, reported increased rates of adherence. Depression severity was found to be associated with reported adherence, but was independent of the relationship between medication concerns and adherence. The present study replicated previous research and added further support for the theoretical basis of medication adherence by showing that there are similar theoretically based, determinants of adherence among patients with chronic physical health issues and those with mental health issues

    Determinants of medication adherence to antihypertensive medications among a Chinese population using Morisky medication adherence scale

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    &lt;b&gt;Background and objectives&lt;/b&gt; Poor adherence to medications is one of the major public health challenges. Only one-third of the population reported successful control of blood pressure, mostly caused by poor drug adherence. However, there are relatively few reports studying the adherence levels and their associated factors among Chinese patients. This study aimed to study the adherence profiles and the factors associated with antihypertensive drug adherence among Chinese patients.&lt;p&gt;&lt;/p&gt; &lt;b&gt;Methods&lt;/b&gt; A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient clinic located in the New Territories Region of Hong Kong. Adult patients who were currently taking at least one antihypertensive drug were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire, consisting of basic socio-demographic profile, self-perceived health status, and self-reported medication adherence. The outcome measure was the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Good adherence was defined as MMAS scores greater than 6 points (out of a total score of 8 points).&lt;p&gt;&lt;/p&gt; &lt;b&gt;Results&lt;/b&gt; From 1114 patients, 725 (65.1%) had good adherence to antihypertensive agents. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Younger age, shorter duration of antihypertensive agents used, job status being employed, and poor or very poor self-perceived health status were negatively associated with drug adherence.&lt;p&gt;&lt;/p&gt; &lt;b&gt;Conclusion&lt;/b&gt; This study reported a high proportion of poor medication adherence among hypertensive subjects. Patients with factors associated with poor adherence should be more closely monitored to optimize their drug taking behavior
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