70,504 research outputs found

    The 'Diverse, Dynamic New World of Global Tobacco Control'?:An Analysis of Participation in the Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

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    INTRODUCTION: The increasingly inequitable impacts of tobacco use highlight the importance of ensuring developing countries’ ongoing participation in global tobacco control. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has been widely regarded as reflecting the high engagement and effective influence of developing countries. METHODS: We examined participation in FCTC governance based on records from the first four meetings of the Conference of the Parties (COP), comparing representation and delegate diversity across income levels and WHO regions. RESULTS: While attendance at the COP sessions is high, there are substantial disparities in the relative representation of different income levels and regions, with lower middle and low income countries contributing only 18% and 10% of total meeting delegates, respectively. In regional terms, Europe provided the single largest share of delegates at all except the Durban (2008) meeting. Thirty-nine percent of low income countries and 27% of those from Africa were only ever represented by a single person delegation compared with 10% for high income countries and 11% for Europe. Rotation of the COP meeting location outside of Europe is associated with better representation of other regions and a stronger presence of delegates from national ministries of health and focal points for tobacco control. CONCLUSIONS: Developing countries face particular barriers to participating in the COP process, and their engagement in global tobacco control is likely to diminish in the absence of specific measures to support their effective participation

    Risk associated with asymptomatic parasitaemia occurring post-antimalarial treatment

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    OBJECTIVE: Parasites may recur asymptomatically after initial clearance by antimalarial treatment. Current guidelines recommend treatment only when patients develop symptoms or at the end of follow-up. We wanted to assess prospectively the probability of becoming symptomatic and the risks of this practice. METHODS: We analysed data collected in 13 trials of uncomplicated paediatric malaria conducted in eight sub-Saharan African countries. These studies followed all cases of post-treatment asymptomatic parasitaemia until they developed symptoms or to the end of the 28-day follow-up period, at which time parasite genotypes were compared to pre-treatment isolates to distinguish between recrudescences and new infections. RESULTS: There were 425 asymptomatic recurrences after 2576 treatments with either chloroquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine or amodiaquine, of which 225 occurred by day 14 and 200 between day 15 and day 28. By day 28, 42% developed fever (median time to fever = 5 days) and 30% remained parasitaemic but afebrile, while 23% cleared their parasites (outcome unknown in 4%). Young age, parasitaemia >/=500 parasites/microl; onset of parasitaemia after day 14, and treatment with amodiaquine were the main variables associated with higher risk of developing fever. CONCLUSION: In areas of moderate to intense transmission, asymptomatic recurrences of malaria after treatment carry a substantial risk of becoming ill within a few days and should be treated as discovered. Young children are at higher risk. The higher risk carried by cases occurring in the second half of follow-up may be explained by falling residual drug levels

    Efficacy of chloroquine, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and amodiaquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Kajo Keji county, Sudan.

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    To provide advice on the rational use of antimalarial drugs, Médecins Sans Frontières conducted a randomized, an open label efficacy study in Kajo Keji, an area of high transmission of malaria in southern Sudan. The efficacy of chloroquine (CQ), sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ) were measured in a 28-day in vivo study, with results corrected by PCR genotyping. Of 2010 children screened, 115 children aged 6-59 months with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria were randomized into each group to receive a supervised course of treatment. Of these, 114, 103 and 111 were analysed in the CQ, SP and AQ groups, respectively. The overall parasitological failure rates at day 28 were 93.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) 87.3-97.3] for CQ, 69.9% (95% CI 60.0-78.3) for SP, and 25.2% (95% CI 17.7-34.5) for AQ. These results provide important missing data on antimalarial drug efficacy in southern Sudan. They indicate that none of the drugs could be used in monotherapy and suggest that even in combination with artemisinin, cure rates might not be efficacious enough. We recommend a combination of artemether and lumefantrine as first-line treatment for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria cases in Kajo Keji county

    Integrating tuberculosis and HIV services in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

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    OBJECTIVES: Given the imperative to scale up integrated tuberculosis (TB) and HIV services in settings where both are of major public health importance, we aimed to synthesise knowledge concerning implementation of TB/HIV service integration. METHODS: Systematic review of studies describing a strategy to facilitate TB and HIV service integration, searching 15 bibliographic databases including Medline, Embase and the Cochrane library; and relevant conference abstracts. RESULTS: Sixty-three of 1936 peer-reviewed articles and 70 of 170 abstracts met our inclusion criteria. We identified five models: entry via TB service, with referral for HIV testing and care; entry via TB service, on-site HIV testing, and referral for HIV care; entry via HIV service with referral for TB screening and treatment; entry via HIV service, on-site TB screening, and referral for TB diagnosis and treatment; and TB and HIV services provided at a single facility. Referral-based models are most easily implemented, but referral failure is a key risk. Closer integration requires more staff training and additional infrastructure (e.g. private space for HIV counselling; integrated records). Infection control is a major concern. More integrated models hold potential efficiencies from both provider and user perspective. Most papers report 'outcomes' (e.g. proportion of TB patients tested for HIV); few report downstream 'impacts' such as outcomes of TB treatment or antiretroviral therapy. Very few studies address the perspectives of service users or staff, or costs or cost-effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: While scaling up integrated services, robust comparisons of the impacts of different models are needed using standardised outcome measures

    Antiretroviral treatment uptake and attrition among HIV-positive patients with tuberculosis in Kibera, Kenya

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    Using data of human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with tuberculosis from three primary care clinics in Kibera slums, Nairobi, Kenya, we report on the proportion that started antiretroviral treatment (ART) and attrition (deaths, lost to follow-up and stopped treatment) before and while on ART. Of 427 ART eligible patients, enrolled between January 2004 and December 2008, 70% started ART, 19% were lost to attrition and 11% had not initiated ART. Of those who started ART, 14% were lost to attrition, making a cumulative pre-ART and ART attrition of 33%. ART uptake among patients with TB was relatively good, but programme attrition was high and needs urgent addressing

    The effects of subcurative praziquantel treatment on life-history traits and trade-offs in drug-resistant Schistosoma mansoni

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    Natural selection acts on all organisms, including parasites, to maximize reproductive fitness. Drug resistance traits are often associated with life-history costs in the absence of treatment. Schistosomiasis control programmes rely on mass drug administration to reduce human morbidity and mortality. Although hotspots of reduced drug efficacy have been reported, resistance is not widespread. Using Bayesian state-space models (SSMs) fitted to data from an in vivo laboratory system, we tested the hypothesis that the spread of resistant Schistosoma mansoni may be limited by life-history costs not present in susceptible counterparts. S. mansoni parasites from a praziquantel-susceptible (S), a praziquantel-resistant (R) or a mixed line of originally resistant and susceptible parasites (RS) were exposed to a range of praziquantel doses. Parasite numbers at each life stage were quantified in their molluscan intermediate and murine definitive hosts across four generations, and SSMs were used to estimate key life-history parameters for each experimental group over time. Model outputs illustrated that parasite adult survival and fecundity in the murine host decreased across all lines, including R, with increasing drug pressure. Trade-offs between adult survival and fecundity were observed in all untreated lines, and these remained strong in S with praziquantel pressure. In contrast, trade-offs between adult survival and fecundity were lost under praziquantel pressure in R. As expected, parasite life-history traits within the molluscan host were complex, but trade-offs were demonstrated between parasite establishment and cercarial output. The observed trade-offs between generations within hosts, which were modified by praziquantel treatment in the R line, could limit the spread of R parasites under praziquantel pressure. Whilst such complex life-history costs may be difficult to detect using standard empirical methods, we demonstrate that SSMs provide robust estimates of life-history parameters, aiding our understanding of costs and trade-offs of resistant parasites within this system and beyond

    Low castes have poor access to visceral leishmaniasis treatment in Bihar, India

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    Objectives  Bihar, the poorest state in India, concentrates most of the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases in the country. A large proportion of the poor rural communities where VL is endemic are marginalized by their socio-economic status, intrinsically related to the caste system. In this study, we evaluated whether people from low socio-economic strata had difficulties accessing VL treatment in Bihar. As a secondary outcome, we evaluated whether people delaying their VL treatment had poorer clinical indicators at admission. Methods  Data on 2187 patients with VL treated by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in Vaishali district from July 2007 to December 2008 were analysed. Patients who reported having onset of symptoms ≥8 weeks before admission were defined as 'late presenters'. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether low castes had higher risk to be 'late presenters' compared to the rest of castes and whether 'late presenters' had poorer indicators at admission (i.e. haemoglobin level, spleen size). Results  After adjusting for age, gender and distance to VL treatment facility, Mushars (the lowest caste in Bihar) had twice the odds to be 'late presenters' compared to the rest of castes (OR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.24-2.38). Subjects that had VL symptoms for ≥8 weeks had a larger spleen and lower haemoglobin level than those that were treated earlier. Conclusion  Low castes have poor access to VL treatment in Bihar, and late presenters have poorer clinical indicators at admission. These findings have implications at individual and community levels and should stimulate targeted VL control programmes to ensure that marginalized communities in Bihar are properly treated

    Preventing Stock-outs of Antimalarial\ud Drugs in sub-Saharan Africa:Novartis’s SMS for Life

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    Malaria is curable. Although highly effective antimalarial drugs are available (up to 96% effective in the case of artemisinin-lumefantrine fixed-dose combinations), widespread stock-outs lead to deaths on a daily basis. Of the close to 2000 people who die from malaria each day, most are children under five years of age in sub- Saharan Africa (1). Having adequate supplies of drugs when and where they are needed is essential. This remains a major challenge, particularly in remote rural communities in low-resource countries where widespread antimalarial stock-outs frequently prevent patients from receiving treatment

    The Africa Malaria Report 2006

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    The Kampala Declaration and Agenda for Global Action

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