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    Assessment of the Knowledge, Perception and Practice of Voluntary Blood Donation among Physicians in a Tertiary Health Facility, Uyo, South-South Nigeria.

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    Background: Provision of safe, affordable and adequate supply of blood and blood products is a daunting public health issue in developing countries. In Nigeria, there is an inadmissibly high dependence on family surrogate and remunerated blood donors which carries an attendant increased risk of transfusion transmissible infections. Physicians represent a potential, stable and sustainable safe donor pool. Assessment of the blood donation practices of these health professionals is essential in engendering effective strategy for sustaining adequate and safe blood supply in the hospitals. This study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of voluntary blood donation among physicians, to identify, recruit and retain potential voluntary blood donors among them and to determine the associations between blood donation and gender, marital status, duration of practice and professional cadre of the physicians. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo. Pre-tested questionnaire were administered to 110 physicians in the tertiary hospital. Results: Majority of the respondents (95.1%) had a good knowledge of the risk of transmission of infections by blood transfusion. The risk of transmission of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis was affirmed by 99.8%, 95.6%, 80.1% and 48.2% respectively. Forty-five(40.9%) physicians had donated blood in the past, with 32 (71.1%) donating less than once a year, 10(22.2%) between 1-3 times a year and 3(6.7%) more than thrice a year. Most (56.9%) donated voluntarily, 34.3% donated for friends and relatives, 5.7% donated in order to know their HIV, HBV and HCV status and 3.1% for financial gratification. There was significant association between blood donation practice and gender but not with marital status, duration of practice and professional cadre of the physicians as P values were 0.002, 0.767, 0.135 and 0.625 respectively. Conclusion: Physicians in the study expressed good knowledge of voluntary blood donation and had a positive attitude towards donation but there were inconsistencies in their practice of blood donation. Thus, regular and rigorous motivational and educational campaign should be intensified among physicians to improve their overall blood donation practice.  &nbsp

    Achieving Universal Health Coverage for Oral Health in Nigeria: Prospects, Barriers and Strategies

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    The United Nations instituted the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to solve health problems by integrating the social determinants of health in the  management of diseases. However, oral health is not one of the issues addressed by the Sustainable Development Goals despite the facts that orodental  diseases are on the rise in Nigeria and the diseases are related to neglected lifestyles and socio-economic health determinant factors. The objective of  the paper is to provide evidence based facts for the expansion of the scope of dental services in the National Health Insurance Scheme. The barriers to  and the strategies to achieving Universal Oral Health Coverage in Nigeria are also discussed

    Natural compounds from endophytes with anti-plasmodial potential: a meta-analysis

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    Malaria is still the world-leading cause of death despite the massive arsenal of available drugs. Endophytes, well-established as sources of bioactive molecules have also demonstrated their ability to produce new anti-plasmodial compounds. This review aimed at highlighting the great potential of endophyte as a source of drugs and drugs tools against Plasmodium falciparum.Material and method :All paper working on endophyte for their antiplasmodial effect were considered. But, those failing to describe the plant collection, isolation, extract preparation, compounds isolation, clear antiplasmodial testing protocols were not included in this review. Besides, it will put side by side in vitro anti-plasmodial effect and the in-silico drug-like properties, pharmacokinetic and toxicity predictions.Results :From the above analysis, the compounds from bacterial endophytes were less analyzed in comparison to that from fungi. 117 compounds were reported in the literature. 39, 53, and 54 were the most efficient with IC50 of 0.079 μM, 0.146 μM, and 0.43 μM respectively. They effect were better than that of artemisinin (Compounds 118; IC50=0.8 μM). Regarding the predicted pharmacokinetic and toxicology, compounds 39 is as druggable as Artemisin.Conclusion:The review set endophytes are a non-negligible source of novel drug and drugs tools against Plasmodium falciparum

    Biochemical responses of selected trees to air pollution in Akure and Oluwa forest reserves in Ondo State

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    Etude du broutage et du filtrage de la microflore algale par Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier, 1829) et biocontrôle de la qualité de l’eau du lac de barrage hydroagricole de Samendeni au Burkina Faso

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    Dans les écosystèmes aquatiques, la prédation des microalgues contribue à contrôler leur prolifération, susceptible de dégrader la qualité de l’eau. Cette  étude détermine le rôle de Heterotis niloticus dans le biocontrôle de la qualité de l’eau. Les microalgues ont été collectées de novembre 2020 à janvier  2021 dans le lac de barrage de Samendeni au Burkina Faso. La longueur standard (Ls) de 100 individus de Heterotis niloticus a été mesurée et les bols  alimentaires de 35 d’entre eux ont été échantillonnés. Dans le plan d’eau, 14 genres de phytoplanctons et 24 genres de périphytons ont été identifiés,  avec des concentrations respectives de 616,67 à 38233,33 cellules/ml et 0,19 à 38,48 cellules/cm2 . L’analyse des bols alimentaires a permis d’identifier 25  genres de microalgues avec des concentrations de 24350,65 à 1485389,61 cellules/ml. Parmi ces microalgues, 20 genres ont été recensés dans le plan  d’eau. Elles constituent selon l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé, des bioagresseurs de la qualité de l’eau. La comparaison des biomasses algales  consommées par les individus des classes 260≤Ls1≤575 mm et 575≤Ls2≤950 mm, n’a pas montré de différence significative (p=0,12). Heterotis niloticus a  un large spectre d’action sur les microalgues et contribue à contrôler leur prolifération dans les retenues d’eau à multiples usages.    English title: Study of the grazing and filtering of the algal microflora by Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier, 1829) and biocontrol of the water quality of the  hydro-agricultural dam lake of Samendeni in Burkina Faso In aquatic ecosystems, predation of microalgae helps to control their proliferation that could jeopardize the water quality. This study aimed at  determining the role of Heterotis niloticus in the biocontrol of water quality. The microalgae were collected from November 2020 to January 2021 in the  Samendeni dam lake. The standard length (Ls) of 100 individuals of H. niloticus was measured and the food bowl of 35 of them were sampled. In the  water body, 14 genera of phytoplankton and 24 genera of periphyton were identified, with respective concentrations of 616.67 to 38,233.33 cells/ml and  0.19 to 38.48 cells/cm2 . The food bowl of Heterotis niloticus made it possible to identify 25 genera of microalgae with concentrations between 24,350.65  and 1,485,389.61 cells/ml. Among these microalgae, 20 genera have been identified in the watershed. These microalgae are, according to the World  Health Organization, bioaggressors of water quality. The comparison of the diet according to the classes 260≤Ls1≤575 mm and 575≤Ls2≤950 mm,  showed that there is no significant difference (p-value=0.12) between algal biomasses consumed by the individuals. Heterotis niloticus has a broad  spectrum of action on microalgae and therefore can contribute to limit their proliferation in multipurpose water reservoirs

    The presence of adhesion factors NOX, α-enolase, TrmFO, P27, and VpmaX in Mycoplasma bovis wild isolates in Japan

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    Background: Mycoplasma bovis causes various diseases such as bronchopneumonia, otitis media, arthritis, and mastitis in cattle. Mycoplasma bovis is  often isolated from the deep pharynges of healthy cattle and is generally considered not to cause clinical symptoms while in the upper respiratory tract.  In mycoplasma infections, adhesion to the host cells is a crucial step. In recent years, five new adhesins, NOX, α-enolase, TrmFO, P27, and VpmaX, have  been reported in M. bovis strains from pneumonia cases. However, the presence of these adhesins in wild isolates has not been established. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the presence of these adhesin genes in wild isolates isolated from cattle nasal cavities and lesion sites (pneumonia,  otitis media, arthritis, and mastitis) in various regions in Japan and clarify the relationship between adhesion and the symptoms caused by M. bovis  infection. Methods: A total of 141 M. bovis wild isolates isolated from nasal cavities (healthy or sick cattle), lungs with pneumonia, ears with otitis media, joint fluids  of arthritic animals, and milk of mastitic animals. Mycoplasma bovis type strain PG45 was also used. Specific polymerase chain reaction reactions  were performed to detect nox, α-enolase, trmFO, P27, and vpmaX, which are adhesins of M. bovis. Results: This study reports 139 M. bovis wild isolates were positive for nox, α-enolase, trmFO, P27, and vpmaX, while two isolates each lacked α-enolase or  P27 genes. Mycoplasma bovis PG45 also had all five adherens genes. Conclusion: Almost all M. bovis wild isolates possessed all nox, α-enolase,  trmFO, P27, and vpmaX genes regardless of the lesion site or region of origin. This means no relationship was found between the presence of the five  adhesins and lesion sites in M. bovis and M. bovis isolated from the nasal cavities of asymptomatic cattle have the same numbers and types of adhesins as  isolates from symptomatic lesion sites (pneumonia, otitis media, arthritis, and mastitis). This suggests that not only M. bovis isolates from pulmonary  lesions, but also M. bovis existing in the nasal cavity has the potential to causes symptoms in the host

    Enquête ethnobotanique sur la diversité paysanne et l’utilisation du faux sésame (Ceratotheca sesamoides Endl.) au Burkina Faso

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    Le but de cette étude est de promouvoir le faux sésame qui est en voie d’extinction. A cet effet, des enquêtes ethnobotaniques sur le faux sésame ont été  réalisées en novembre 2019 au Burkina Faso. L’objectif de l’étude était de connaitre les variétés paysannes de faux sésame et leurs usages, ainsi que  leur mode de gestion au Burkina Faso. Ainsi, 240 exploitants agricoles ont été interviewés dans deux zones agro-climatiques à savoir la zone soudano-  sahélienne et la zone soudanienne du Burkina Faso. Les questions portaient sur les noms vernaculaires, la gestion paysanne, le mode d'obtention et de  conservation des semences et des feuilles, l'importance socio-économique et culturelle de la plante. Les résultats de l’étude ont montré qu’il existe 15  noms vernaculaires. La dénomination de l’espèce est liée soit à la couleur de la tige, soit à la couleur des feuilles, soit à la présence du mucilage. Les  feuilles conservées de l’espèce constituent une source de revenus pour les paysans. Les feuilles sont utilisées dans les mets locaux, dans les astuces  médicales traditionnelles et dans les rituels. En somme, l’étude a montré que le faux sésame est bénéfique pour les populations locales tant au plan  économique, nutritif, médicinal qu’au plan artisanal.   English title: Ethnobotanical survey on farmer diversity and use of false sesame (<i>Ceratotheca sesamoides</i> Endl.) in Burkina Faso This study aimed to promote the endangered false sesame. To this end, ethnobotanical surveys on false sesame were conducted in November 2019 in  Burkina Faso. The objective of the study was to know the farmers' varieties of false sesame and their uses, as well as their management mode in Burkina  Faso. To this end, 240 farmers were interviewed in two agro-climatic zones, namely the Sudano-Sahelian zone and the Sudanian zone of Burkina Faso.  Questions were asked about vernacular names, farmer management, the method of obtaining and conserving seeds and leaves, and the socio-economic  and cultural importance of the plant. The results of the study showed that there are 15 vernacular names. The name of the species is related either to the  color of the stem, the color of the leaves, or the presence of mucilage. The preserved leaves of the species are a source of income for the farmers. The  leaves are used in local dishes, in traditional medicinal tricks, and rituals. In sum, the study showed that false sesame is beneficial to the local population  in terms of economy, nutrition, and medicine as well as in terms craftsmanship.   &nbsp

    Modélisation de la distribution de Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. ex Poir. pour sa conservation au Niger

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    Les variabilités climatiques pourraient compromettre les services écosystémiques fournis par les espèces ligneuses alimentaires en milieu naturel. Cette  étude conduite dans la région de Zinder visait à modéliser la distribution actuelle de B. senegalensis dans les écosystèmes du Niger par l'approche du  Maximum d’Entropie. Au total, 669 points d’occurrence distants d’au moins 1 km ont été combinés aux variables bioclimatiques de WorldClim 2.1 et de  l’altitude d’une part et celles d’AfriClim 3.0 d’autre part après des analyses de corrélations de Spearman et de détermination du Facteur d’Inflation de la  Variance réalisés avec le logiciel R. Ces prédicteurs rendent compte de la disponibilité en eau et du gradient d’aridité. WorldClim 2.1 projette la variation  annuelle de température (Bio_7), la saisonnalité de la température (Bio_4) et l’élévation (elev) comme principales variables prédictives et AfriClim 3.0  suggère l’indice d’aridité du trimestre le plus humide (mimq), la saisonnalité de la température (Bio 4) et la durée de la plus longue saison sèche (llds). Les  modèles prédisent les plus fortes probabilités de distribution de l’espèce essentiellement dans des zones qu’elle occupe actuellement. B. senegalensis  peut être une espèce candidate pour reboiser les écosystèmes dégradés dans les zones prédites favorables à sa distribution spatiale.    English title: Modeling the distribution of Boscia senegalensis (Pers.) Lam. ex Poir. for its conservation in Niger Climate variability could compromise the ecosystem services provided by woody food species in the wild. This study conducted in the Zinder region  aimed to model the current distribution of B. senegalensis in Niger ecosystems using the Maximum Entropy Approach. A total of 669 points of occurrence  at least 1 km apart were combined with bioclimatic variables from WorldClim 2.1 and altitude on the one hand and AfriClim 3.0 on the other hand after Spearman correlation and Variance Inflation Factor analyses performed with R software. These predictors account for water availability and  the aridity gradient. WorldClim 2.1 projects annual temperature variation (Bio_7), temperature seasonality (Bio_4) and elevation (elev) as the main  predictors and AfriClim 3.0 suggests the wettest quarter aridity index (mimq), temperature seasonality (Bio 4) and the duration of the longest dry season  (llds). The models predict the highest probability of distribution of the species primarily in areas it currently occupies. B. senegalensis may be a candidate  species to reforest degraded ecosystems in predicted areas favorable to its spatial distribution.  &nbsp

    The effectiveness of exchange rate regimes in controlling inflation: an econometric study using dynamic threshold panel models (Arabic)

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    This paper aims primarily at the economic measurement of the effect of exchange rate regimes on domestic inflation, in addition to other explanatory variables such as money supply and the inflation lags, imported inflation, wherein this latter is supposed to have a nonlinear effect that varies according to the trade openness, the growth rate of the gross domestic product, and the oil price. We selected for the analysis the period from 1999 to 2019; By applying the Dynamic Panel Threshold models to a sample of 19 countries in the Middle East and North African region in addition to Turkey, Pakistan and Azerbaijan. The obtained results revealed that the exchange rate regimes have an important role in determining the levels of inflation, and the nature of relationship in the study sample doesn’t differ from what is in the developing countries, but it differs from the emerging and developed countries according to previous studies, where the fixed regimes achieved the best performance in term of inflation, followed by the intermediate and then the floating. Moreover, the imported inflation has a positive effect on the domestic, the trade openness and GDP incite the increase of this effect, the oil price is also important in noting the non-linearity of this relationship

    Application of survival model to analyse default rates of personal bank loans: The case of a bank in Ghana

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    The high levels of non-performing loans in Ghana over the past few years reduced the profitability of the banking industry which have caused bank failures that have adversely affected economic development. The study identifies the predictors for the risk of default of personal bank loans using data from a rural bank in Ghana. A sample of 196 personal loan borrowers was examined. The number of dependants, educational level, type of employer, gender, age, and marital status were noted. The Cox Proportional Hazard model was fitted using the sample data. Educational level, gender, age, and marital status were found to be non-significant predictors of default. However, the number of dependents and employer type were significant predictors of hazard. It was observed that hazard increased by 21.025% for an additional dependant a borrower takes on. The risk of default is 84.118% higher for a borrower whose employer is not government as compared to a government employee

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