39,193 research outputs found

    In Pursuit of Experience: The Authentic Documentation of Experience in Beat Generation Literature

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    Throughout their lives the authors of The Beat Generation sought an escape from the conformity of mid-century American life, in favour of fresh thrilling experiences to influence their writing. The writers of the Beat Generation developed writing methods that authentically document their real-life experiences. Therefore, this thesis examines the documentary nature of literature that came out of this Generation. The first section of the essay explores Beat literature as memoir; arguing that Kerouac's prose is based on his own first-hand experience recollected after the event. This section also argues that due to its fast pace and lack of revision, the Spontaneous Prose Method can be used by authors as a form suited to the authentic documentation of experience. The second chapter looks at the use of transcription methods to document a moment, or specific event, written during the experience. This chapter compares Gary Snyder's Riprap and Cold Mountain Poems, Ginsberg's 'Wichita Vortex Sutra', and Kerouac's Blues Poems as poetry that authentically portrays a moment of experience to the reader. The final chapter explores the more experimental methods of documentation, and whether any authenticity was lost to experimentation. The chapter also explores the Beat use of drugs on the content and form of the literature

    O papel parental da mulher reclusa com percursos relacionados com a droga

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    Dissertação de mestrado em Crime, Diferença e DesigualdadeSão poucos os estudos que retratam a mulher reclusa, com a condicionante da maternidade associada ao fenómeno da criminalidade feminina. Desta forma, o presente estudo tenta perceber a forma como estas mulheres estabeleceram ligação com a droga, durante o respetivo percurso de vida, a forma como a toxicodependência (seja por consumo ou tráfico) influenciou no seu papel enquanto mães, e as dificuldades que encontraram na sociedade devido à estigmatização que lhes é atribuída. Assim, este trabalho baseou-se em entrevistas semiestruturadas, a uma amostra de conveniência constituída por 13 reclusas, mães com percursos de vida ligados à droga, tanto de uma forma direta (consumo), como de uma forma indireta (tráfico). O envolvimento das mulheres no mundo do crime é definido por um conjunto complexo de fatores, desde as dificuldades financeiras, às relações conjugais, sentimentos negativos e experiências passadas, entre outros. A droga influencia as capacidades e competências ao nível do papel parental, contudo não parece ter comprometido a sua autoavaliação de adequação enquanto mães, de acordo com o seu entendimento do melhor interesse dos filhos. De uma perspetiva geral, não sentem que descriminação por parte da sociedade, considerando ter conseguido preservar a sua imagem pública.There are few studies that portray the reclusive woman, with the condition of motherhood associated with the phenomenon of female crime. In this way, the present study tries to understand how these women have established links with the drug during the course of their life, how drug addiction (whether by consumption or trafficking) influenced their role as mothers, and the difficulties they encountered in society because of the stigmatization attributed to them. Thus, this work was based on semi-structured interviews, a sample of convenience constituted by 13 inmates, mothers with life paths linked to the drug, both in a direct way (consumption) and in an indirect way (trafficking). The involvement of women in the world of crime is defined by a complex set of factors, from financial difficulties, marital relationships, negative feelings and past experiences, among others. The drug influences parental role skills and competencies, yet does not seem to compromise their self-assessment of adequacy as mothers, according to their understanding of the best interests of their children. From a general perspective, they do not feel that discrimination on the part of society, considering that they have managed to preserve their public image

    Mobile Arts for Peace: Small Grants Evaluation Report

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    The Mobile Arts for Peace (MAP) project is an international study that seeks to provide a comparative approach to peace-building utilising interdisciplinary arts-based practices, working with communities in Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal and Rwanda (see figure 1.1). This research was commissioned by the project lead organisation, the University of Lincoln, and has been delivered by the University of Northampton’s Institute for Social Innovation and Impact (see Appendix A for research biographies). This report focuses on the Small Grants awarded across the four countries, and acts as a follow-up to the Phase One Report that was produced in the winter of 2021. The delivery of the Small Grants projects has taken place over the last 12 months across the above four countries, and this report seeks to demonstrate, through a narrative case-study approach, how the Small Grants work delivered has promoted arts-based peacebuilding and supported community cohesion. The research reported in this document took place between February and October 2022 and focused on the below research aim and four key research questions. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of the MAP Small Grants projects and understand their impact in communities. Specifically: 1. What outputs were delivered through the Small Grants projects? 2. What outcomes for beneficiaries/stakeholders were delivered through the Small Grants projects? 3. What impacts delivered for communities and societies across the four countries were delivered through the Small Grants projects? The report is structured as follows: first, the methodological approach undertaken in the evaluation will be presented; second, the case-studies across the four countries will be presented and discussed, utilising data gathered by the in-country research teams and the arts-based outputs produced; third, the findings will be summarised, with specific recommendations also made for the implications related to the MAP Large Grant evaluation projects and the recently awarded MAP Medium Grant projects. References and Appendices can also be found at the end of the report

    Pathways to suicide among police in Rajasthan: perceptions and experiences of police personnel

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    Background: Evidence regarding the experience and perceptions of police personnel with suicide in South Asia is limited. This study explored the lived experiences and perceptions of suicide among police personnel in an Indian state. The focus was on explanations of and reasons for suicide. Methods: We conducted 20 qualitative interviews in 2021 with police of different ranks, guided by a topic guide. The reflexive thematic analysis approach was supported by the use of NVivo 12, a qualitative software package. Results: We explore three intersecting key themes around suicide in the police force, including: (1) the stressful police environment; (2) expectations of mental strength; and (3) police image and help-seeking. We discuss the tensions between these themes and how to address the challenges of supporting police personnel. Conclusions: To support and improve police personnel’s mental well-being training and support are needed but also broader changes at the organisational level. These need to take social and historical factors into account. An increased level of suicide and mental health literacy will not only benefit the police force but also the general public, and it would be very timely with recent changes in the Indian mental health and suicide policy context

    Consent and the Construction of the Volunteer: Institutional Settings of Experimental Research on Human Beings in Britain during the Cold War

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    This study challenges the primacy of consent in the history of human experimentation and argues that privileging the cultural frameworks adds nuance to our understanding of the construction of the volunteer in the period 1945 to 1970. Historians and bio-ethicists have argued that medical ethics codes have marked out the parameters of using people as subjects in medical scientific research and that the consent of the subjects was fundamental to their status as volunteers. However, the temporality of the creation of medical ethics codes means that they need to be understood within their historical context. That medical ethics codes arose from a specific historical context rather than a concerted and conscious determination to safeguard the well-being of subjects needs to be acknowledged. The British context of human experimentation is under-researched and there has been even less focus on the cultural frameworks within which experiments took place. This study demonstrates, through a close analysis of the Medical Research Council's Common Cold Research Unit (CCRU) and the government's military research facility, the Chemical Defence Experimental Establishment, Porton Down (Porton), that the `volunteer' in human experiments was a subjective entity whose identity was specific to the institution which recruited and made use of the subject. By examining representations of volunteers in the British press, the rhetoric of the government's collectivist agenda becomes evident and this fed into the institutional construction of the volunteer at the CCRU. In contrast, discussions between Porton scientists, staff members, and government officials demonstrate that the use of military personnel in secret chemical warfare experiments was far more complex. Conflicting interests of the military, the government and the scientific imperative affected how the military volunteer was perceived

    The place where curses are manufactured : four poets of the Vietnam War

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    The Vietnam War was unique among American wars. To pinpoint its uniqueness, it was necessary to look for a non-American voice that would enable me to articulate its distinctiveness and explore the American character as observed by an Asian. Takeshi Kaiko proved to be most helpful. From his novel, Into a Black Sun, I was able to establish a working pair of 'bookends' from which to approach the poetry of Walter McDonald, Bruce Weigl, Basil T. Paquet and Steve Mason. Chapter One is devoted to those seemingly mismatched 'bookends,' Walt Whitman and General William C. Westmoreland, and their respective anthropocentric and technocentric visions of progress and the peculiarly American concept of the "open road" as they manifest themselves in Vietnam. In Chapter, Two, I analyze the war poems of Walter McDonald. As a pilot, writing primarily about flying, his poetry manifests General Westmoreland's technocentric vision of the 'road' as determined by and manifest through technology. Chapter Three focuses on the poems of Bruce Weigl. The poems analyzed portray the literal and metaphorical descent from the technocentric, 'numbed' distance of aerial warfare to the world of ground warfare, and the initiation of a 'fucking new guy,' who discovers the contours of the self's interior through a set of experiences that lead from from aerial insertion into the jungle to the degradation of burning human feces. Chapter Four, devoted to the thirteen poems of Basil T. Paquet, focuses on the continuation of the descent begun in Chapter Two. In his capacity as a medic, Paquet's entire body of poems details his quotidian tasks which entail tending the maimed, the mortally wounded and the dead. The final chapter deals with Steve Mason's JohnnY's Song, and his depiction of the plight of Vietnam veterans back in "The World" who are still trapped inside the interior landscape of their individual "ghettoes" of the soul created by their war-time experiences

    Universal Challenges of Policing Rooted in Colonialism in the United States and Nigeria

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    Growing awareness regarding police brutality has generated a massive shift in public views on police institutions and the need for reform. The universal challenges of police authority, abuse, and impunity plague policing institutions across the globe. The roots of many of these contemporary challenges can be traced to European colonization. This paper explores policing structures, abuse, and impunity in the United States and Nigeria
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