65 research outputs found

    Three-dimensional foam flow resolved by fast X-ray tomographic microscopy

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    Thanks to ultra fast and high resolution X-ray tomography, we managed to capture the evolution of the local structure of the bubble network of a 3D foam flowing around a sphere. As for the 2D foam flow around a circular obstacle, we observed an axisymmetric velocity field with a recirculation zone, and indications of a negative wake downstream the obstacle. The bubble deformations, quantified by a shape tensor, are smaller than in 2D, due to a purely 3D feature: the azimuthal bubble shape variation. Moreover, we were able to detect plastic rearrangements, characterized by the neighbor-swapping of four bubbles. Their spatial structure suggest that rearrangements are triggered when films faces get smaller than a characteristic area.Comment: 5 pages, 5 figure

    Collapse of a hemicatenoid bounded by a solid wall:Instability and dynamics driven by surface Plateau border friction

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    The collapse of a catenoidal soap film when the rings supporting it are moved beyond a critical separation is a classic problem in interface motion in which there is a balance between surface tension and the inertia of the surrounding air, with film viscosity playing only a minor role. Recently [Goldstein, et al., Phys. Rev. E 104, 035105 (2021)], we introduced a variant of this problem in which the catenoid is bisected by a glass plate located in a plane of symmetry perpendicular to the rings, producing two identical hemicatenoids, each with a surface Plateau border (SPB) on the glass plate. Beyond the critical ring separation, the hemicatenoids collapse in a manner qualitatively similar to the bulk problem, but their motion is governed by the frictional forces arising from viscous dissipation in the SPBs. Here we present numerical studies of a model that includes classical friction laws for SPB motion on wet surfaces and show consistency with our experimental measurements of the temporal evolution of this process. This study can help explain the fragmentation of bubbles inside very confined geometries such as porous materials or microfluidic devices.Comment: 9 pages, 9 figures, supplementary videos available at website of RE

    Stress-Induced Dinoflagellate Bioluminescence at the Single Cell Level.

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    One of the characteristic features of many marine dinoflagellates is their bioluminescence, which lights up nighttime breaking waves or seawater sliced by a ship's prow. While the internal biochemistry of light production by these microorganisms is well established, the manner by which fluid shear or mechanical forces trigger bioluminescence is still poorly understood. We report controlled measurements of the relation between mechanical stress and light production at the single cell level, using high-speed imaging of micropipette-held cells of the marine dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula subjected to localized fluid flows or direct indentation. We find a viscoelastic response in which light intensity depends on both the amplitude and rate of deformation, consistent with the action of stretch-activated ion channels. A phenomenological model captures the experimental observations.Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Schlumberger Chair Fund French government funding (ANR


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    Pre-print of final version.International audienceThere exist several simple representations of uncertainty that are easier to handle than more general ones. Among them are random sets, possibility distributions, probability intervals, and more recently Ferson's p-boxes and Neumaier's clouds. Both for theoretical and practical considerations, it is very useful to know whether one representation is equivalent to or can be approximated by other ones. In this paper, we define a generalized form of usual p-boxes. These generalized p-boxes have interesting connections with other previously known representations. In particular, we show that they are equivalent to pairs of possibility distributions, and that they are special kinds of random sets. They are also the missing link between p-boxes and clouds, which are the topic of the second part of this study

    Flow of foam through a convergent channel

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    International audienceWe study experimentally the flow of a foam confined as a bubble monolayer between two plates through a convergent channel. We quantify the velocity, the distribution and orientation of plastic events, and the elastic stress, using image analysis. We use two different soap solutions: a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution, with a negligible wall friction between the bubbles and the confining plates, and a mixture containing a fatty acid, giving a large wall friction. We show that for SDS solutions, the velocity profile obeys a self-similar form which results from the superposition of plastic events, and the elastic deformation is uniform. For the other solution, the velocity field differs and the elastic deformation increases towards the exit of the channel. We discuss and quantify the role of wall friction on the velocity profile, the elastic deformation, and the rate of plastic events

    Models, measurement and inference in epithelial tissue dynamics

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    The majority of solid tumours arise in epithelia and therefore much research effort has gone into investigating the growth, renewal and regulation of these tissues. Here we review different mathematical and computational approaches that have been used to model epithelia. We compare different models and describe future challenges that need to be overcome in order to fully exploit new data which present, for the first time, the real possibility for detailed model validation and comparison

    Seascape Genetics of a Globally Distributed, Highly Mobile Marine Mammal: The Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Genus Delphinus)

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    Identifying which factors shape the distribution of intraspecific genetic diversity is central in evolutionary and conservation biology. In the marine realm, the absence of obvious barriers to dispersal can make this task more difficult. Nevertheless, recent studies have provided valuable insights into which factors may be shaping genetic structure in the world's oceans. These studies were, however, generally conducted on marine organisms with larval dispersal. Here, using a seascape genetics approach, we show that marine productivity and sea surface temperature are correlated with genetic structure in a highly mobile, widely distributed marine mammal species, the short-beaked common dolphin. Isolation by distance also appears to influence population divergence over larger geographical scales (i.e. across different ocean basins). We suggest that the relationship between environmental variables and population structure may be caused by prey behaviour, which is believed to determine common dolphins' movement patterns and preferred associations with certain oceanographic conditions. Our study highlights the role of oceanography in shaping genetic structure of a highly mobile and widely distributed top marine predator. Thus, seascape genetic studies can potentially track the biological effects of ongoing climate-change at oceanographic interfaces and also inform marine reserve design in relation to the distribution and genetic connectivity of charismatic and ecologically important megafauna
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