3,935 research outputs found

    Novel enzyme-fermentation process for bioconversion of restaurant food waste into isomaltooligosaccharide-and L-lactic acid-enriched animal feed

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    IntroductionConsidering the valuable organic fraction contained, restaurant food waste (RFW) has attracted more attention as an alternative substrate for animal feed production. In this work, a new enzyme-fermentation process (EFP) for diverting RFW into synbiotic animal feed was developed, and its economic and environmental benefits were evaluated.MethodsThe process initiated with enzymatic hydrolysis of RFWs, intending to convert starch into isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs) via simultaneous saccharification and transglycosylation (SST). Subsequently, the hydrolysate underwent fermentation with engineered Pichia pastoris GSL to form L-lactic acid (L-LA) from the free glucose and to biologically enhance the nutritional value.Results and discussionThe results indicated that employing the EFP yielded the highest IMOs levels, ranging from 17.10โ€“38.00 g/L. Simultaneously, the process achieved the maximum L-LA concentration (20.75โ€“27.16 g/L), with a conversion efficiency of 0.64โ€“0.78 g/g. Additionally, 5.0โ€“8.5 g/L of yeast biomass was generated. Economic estimates elucidated that the cost of RFW-derived animal feed through EFP was about $0.16/kg, signifying a substantial cost reduction (โ‰ฅ 70%) compared to traditional feeds. Achieving complete conversion of RFW into animal feed while eliminating residual waste highlights the significant environmental benefits and the compatibility of the present technology with the zero-waste concept

    Impact of precursor-derived peracetic acid on post-weaning diarrhea , intestinal microbiota and predicted microbial functional genes in weaned pigs

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    Post-weaning diarrhea affects piglets in the nursery phase of production, leading to a substantial impact both at the farm and financial levels. The multifactorial etiology of this disease includes housing conditions, pig genetics, microbial composition, and metagenomic assets. Among the common therapeutic approaches, the widely used zinc oxide underwent a European Union ban in 2022 due to its negative environmental impact and correlation to increased antimicrobial resistance. During this study, we have tested two levels of inclusion of the potential antimicrobial alternative peracetic acid, delivered in water via the hydrolysis of the precursors sodium percarbonate and tetraacetylethylenediamine, in comparison to zinc oxide and an untreated control during a 2-week animal study. We assessed the microbial composition and predicted the metagenome, together with performance and physiological parameters, in order to describe the microbial functional role in etiopathology. Both zinc oxide and peracetic acid resulted in amelioration of the diarrheal status by the end of the trial period, with noticeable zinc oxide effects visible from the first week. This was accompanied by improved performance when compared to the first-week figures and a decreased stomach pH in both peracetic acid levels. A significant reduction in both stomach and caecal Proteobacteria was recorded in the zinc oxide group, and a significant reduction of Campylobacter in the stomach was reported for both zinc oxide and one of the peracetic acid concentrations. Among other functional differences, we found that the predicted ortholog for the zonula occludens toxin, a virulence factor present in pathogens like Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni, was less abundant in the stomach of treated pigs compared to the control group. In water, peracetic acid delivered via precursor hydrolysis has the potential to be a valid intervention, an alternative to antimicrobial, to assist the weaning of piglets. Our findings support the view that post-weaning diarrhea is a complex multifactorial disease with an important metagenomic component characterized by the differential abundance of specific predicted orthologs and microbial genera in the stomach and caecum of pigs

    Pioneering gut health improvements in piglets with phytogenic feed additives

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    This research investigates the effects of phytogenic feed additives (PFAs) on the growth performance, gut microbial community, and microbial metabolic functions in weaned piglets via a combined 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomics approach. A controlled trial was conducted using 200 pigs to highlight the significant influence of PFAs on gut microbiota dynamics. Notably, the treatment group revealed an increased gut microbiota diversity, as measured with the Shannon and Simpson indices. The increase in diversity is accompanied by an increase in beneficial bacterial taxa, such as Roseburia, Faecalibacterium, and Prevotella, and a decline in potential pathogens like Clostridium sensu stricto 1 and Campylobacter. Shotgun sequencing at the species level confirmed these findings. This modification in microbial profile was coupled with an altered profile of microbial metabolic pathways, suggesting a reconfiguration of microbial function under PFA influence. Significant shifts in overall microbial community structure by week 8 demonstrate PFA treatmentโ€™s temporal impact. Histomorphological examination unveiled improved gut structure in PFA-treated piglets. The results of this study indicate that the use of PFAs as dietary supplements can be an effective strategy, augmenting gut microbiota diversity, reshaping microbial function, enhancing gut structure, and optimising intestinal health of weaned piglets providing valuable implications for swine production. Key points โ€ข PFAs significantly diversify the gut microbiota in weaned piglets, aiding balance. โ€ข Changes in gut structure due to PFAs indicate improved resistance to weaning stress. โ€ข PFAs show potential to ease weaning stress, offering a substitute for antibiotics in piglet diets

    Impact of precursor-derived peracetic acid on post-weaning diarrhea , intestinal microbiota and predicted microbial functional genes in weaned pigs

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    Post-weaning diarrhea affects piglets in the nursery phase of production, leading to a substantial impact both at the farm and financial levels. The multifactorial etiology of this disease includes housing conditions, pig genetics, microbial composition, and metagenomic assets. Among the common therapeutic approaches, the widely used zinc oxide underwent a European Union ban in 2022 due to its negative environmental impact and correlation to increased antimicrobial resistance. During this study, we have tested two levels of inclusion of the potential antimicrobial alternative peracetic acid, delivered in water via the hydrolysis of the precursors sodium percarbonate and tetraacetylethylenediamine, in comparison to zinc oxide and an untreated control during a 2-week animal study. We assessed the microbial composition and predicted the metagenome, together with performance and physiological parameters, in order to describe the microbial functional role in etiopathology. Both zinc oxide and peracetic acid resulted in amelioration of the diarrheal status by the end of the trial period, with noticeable zinc oxide effects visible from the first week. This was accompanied by improved performance when compared to the first-week figures and a decreased stomach pH in both peracetic acid levels. A significant reduction in both stomach and caecal Proteobacteria was recorded in the zinc oxide group, and a significant reduction of Campylobacter in the stomach was reported for both zinc oxide and one of the peracetic acid concentrations. Among other functional differences, we found that the predicted ortholog for the zonula occludens toxin, a virulence factor present in pathogens like Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni, was less abundant in the stomach of treated pigs compared to the control group. In water, peracetic acid delivered via precursor hydrolysis has the potential to be a valid intervention, an alternative to antimicrobial, to assist the weaning of piglets. Our findings support the view that post-weaning diarrhea is a complex multifactorial disease with an important metagenomic component characterized by the differential abundance of specific predicted orthologs and microbial genera in the stomach and caecum of pigs

    Clostridium butyricum alleviates LPS-induced acute immune stress in goats by regulating bacterial communities and blood metabolites

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    The mitigation and prevention of acute immune stress are essential for livestock production. Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum) has shown positive effects in stabilizing intestinal microbiota disorders, improving immune function and inhibiting disease development, but its effects on ruminants are unclear. Therefore, the current trial hypothesized that C. butyricum could improve goatsโ€™ immune function and antioxidant capacity by regulating bacterial communities and blood metabolism and effectively alleviating the acute immune stress induced by Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Sixteen healthy goats were fed C. butyricum for 70 days, and the goats were challenged with LPS on day 71. Blood and feces were collected at 0ย h and 6ย h after the challenge to evaluate the effects of C. butyricum on their intestinal microbiota, immune function, antioxidant function, and plasma metabolites. The results showed that C. butyricum had no significant effect on plasma biochemical parameters at the beginning of the LPS challenge. However, supplementation with C. butyricum increased plasma levels of IgA, IgG, T-SOD, and T-AOC (P < 0.05), but TNF-ฮฑ, IL-6, and MDA were decreased (P < 0.05). In contrast, IL-10 showed an increasing trend (P < 0.10). Rectal microbiota analysis showed that C. butyricum significantly increased the relative abundance of Epsilonbacteraeota at the phylum level of goats; at the genus level, the relative abundances of Campylobacter and Anaerorhabdus]_furcosa_group were also significantly increased (P < 0.05). Christensenellaceae_R-7_group as the dominant microbiota also showed a significant increase in their abundance values, while Clostridium and Lachnospiraceae_UCG-001 were significantly lower (P < 0.05). When the LPS challenge continued up to 6ย h, dietary supplementation with C. butyricum still resulted in significantly higher plasma concentrations of IgA, IL-10, and T-SOD in goats than in the control group, reducing TNF-ฮฑ levels (P < 0.05). In addition, plasma levels of T-CHOL and LDL were significantly reduced, and the expression of d-proline was significantly upregulated according to metabolomic analysis (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with C. butyricum helped optimize the expression of bacterial communities and plasma metabolites to enhance the ability of goats to alleviate acute immune stress

    Association of gut microbiota and SCFAs with finishing weight of Diannan small ear pigs

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    Finishing weight is a key economic trait in the domestic pig industry. Evidence has linked the gut microbiota and SCFAs to health and production performance in pigs. Nevertheless, for Diannan small ear (DSE) pigs, a specific pig breed in China, the potential effect of gut microbiota and SCFAs on their finishing weight remains unclear. Herein, based on the data of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene and metagenomic sequencing analysis, we found that 13 OTUs could be potential biomarkers and 19 microbial species were associated with finishing weight. Among these, carbohydrate-decomposing bacteria of the families Streptococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae, and Prevotellaceae were positively related to finishing weight, whereas the microbial taxa associated with intestinal inflammation and damage exhibited opposite effects. In addition, interactions of these microbial species were found to be linked with finishing weight for the first time. Gut microbial functional annotation analysis indicated that CAZymes, such as glucosidase and glucanase could significantly affect finishing weight, given their roles in increasing nutrient absorption efficiency. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Orthologies (KOs) and KEGG pathways analysis indicated that glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, phosphotransferase system (PTS), secondary bile acid biosynthesis, ABC transporters, sulfur metabolism, and one carbon pool by folate could act as key factors in regulating finishing weight. Additionally, SCFA levels, especially acetate and butyrate, had pivotal impacts on finishing weight. Finishing weight-associated species Prevotella sp. RS2, Ruminococcus sp. AF31-14BH and Lactobacillus pontis showed positive associations with butyrate concentration, and Paraprevotella xylaniphila and Bacteroides sp. OF04-15BH were positively related to acetate level. Taken together, our study provides essential knowledge for manipulating gut microbiomes to improve finishing weight. The underlying mechanisms of how gut microbiome and SCFAs modulate pigsโ€™ finishing weight required further elucidation

    Optimizing Rejected Oranges into Multipurpose Products in Seribu Jandi Village

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    One of the programs in the 8th Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is "Supporting inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment, and decent work for all", with the target of achieving higher levels of economic productivity through certification, technological quality improvement, and innovation. Seribu Jandi Village, located in Simalungun Regency, is a center for orange producers. However, some of the oranges produced are categorized as rejected oranges. The main problems faced by orange farming communities in this village are the high volume of rejected oranges and their lack of understanding of processing rejected oranges. As a result, the rejected oranges are only thrown away which pollute the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to take corrective actions by processing rejected oranges into multipurpose products, such as biocatalysts, biodisinfectants, and floor cleaning fluids. Biocatalysts can be used to optimize the absorption of soil elements by orange plants, which certainly will maximize the use of fertilizers. Biodisinfectants are more recommended to be used than chemical disinfectants because chemical disinfectants have side effects that can cause irritation to human skin. Cleaning liquid can be used instead of chemical cleaning fluid, which also has an impact on the environment. In relation to this problem, it is necessary to carry out a series of activities that will greatly help the orange farming community in Seribu Jandi Village. The activities to be carried out are conducting training and counseling on the utilization of rejected oranges into multipurpose products

    Evaluaciรณn de microorganismos efectivos naturales como promotores de crecimiento en la ganancia de peso en pollos broiler.

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    Microorganisms have been used as growth promoters to apply an alternative that can replace antibiotics. The objective of the current project was to evaluate Natural Effective Microorganisms (NEM) as growth promoters, for which 100 one-day-old broiler chickens were used, randomly distributed in two groups. The research lasted 40 days, and the treatments were distributed as follows: control group (CG) balanced + water and treatment group (TG) balanced + 0.5 ml NEM/l of water. The parameters weight, weight gain, mortality, length and width of intestinal villi, depth of intestinal crypts, and benefit-cost were evaluated. The inclusion of NEM in the diet of the broilers presented in the TG an increase in the obtained values on the length of the villi and the depth of the intestinal crypts, which, according to the statistical "T-student" test, valued 0.05, indicating no significant difference between both study groups. Finally, in the benefits-cost variable, the difference favored the CG, with a gain of 0.03 cents concerning the TG. This indicates that applying NEM would favor the absorption of nutrients and protection against pathogens since it increases the length and depth of the intestinal crypts, protecting against pathogens.Los microorganismos han sido actualmente utilizados como promotores de crecimiento con el fin de aplicar una alternativa que pueda reemplazar el uso de los antibiรณticos. El objetivo del presente proyecto fue evaluar los Microorganismos Efectivos Naturales (MEN) como promotores de crecimiento, para lo cual se utilizaron 100 pollos broiler de un dรญa, distribuidos en dos grupos aleatoriamente. La investigaciรณn tuvo una duraciรณn de 40 dรญas donde los tratamientos se distribuyeron de la siguiente manera: grupo de control (GC) balanceado + agua y grupo de tratamiento (GT) balanceado + 0,5 ml MEN/l de agua. Se evaluaron los parรกmetros peso, ganancia de peso, mortalidad, longitud y ancho de las vellosidades intestinales, profundidad de las criptas intestinales y beneficio-costo. La inclusiรณn de los MEN en la dieta de los pollos presentรณ en el GT un incremento en los valores obtenidos sobre el largo de las vellosidades y la profundidad de las criptas intestinales, los cuales, segรบn la prueba estadรญstica t-student fueron valores 0.05 indicando que no existiรณ diferencia significativa entre ambos grupos de estudio, finalmente, en la variable beneficio-costo, la diferencia estuvo a favor del GC teniendo una ganancia de 0.03 centavos con respecto al GT. Esto indica que la aplicaciรณn de MEN favorecerรญa la absorciรณn de nutrientes y la protecciรณn ante agentes patรณgenos, dado que incrementa el largo de las vellosidades y profundidad de las criptas intestinales, lo cual proporcionarรญa protecciรณn hacia los agentes patรณgenos, en fin, es posible aplicar los MEN como promotores de crecimiento en pollos broiler

    ์ด์œ ์ž๋ˆ, ์œก์„ฑ๋น„์œก๋ˆ, ํฌ์œ ๋ˆ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ ๋‚ด ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ๊ณผ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E ์ฒจ๊ฐ€๊ฐ€ ๋ฏธ์น˜๋Š” ์˜ํ–ฅ

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    ํ•™์œ„๋…ผ๋ฌธ(๋ฐ•์‚ฌ) -- ์„œ์šธ๋Œ€ํ•™๊ต๋Œ€ํ•™์› : ๋†์—…์ƒ๋ช…๊ณผํ•™๋Œ€ํ•™ ๋†์ƒ๋ช…๊ณตํ•™๋ถ€, 2023. 2. ๊น€์œ ์šฉ.Experiment I. Effects of ฮฒ-glucan with Vitamin E Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Blood Profiles, Immune Response, Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Score, and Nutrient Digestibility in Weaning Pigs This study was conducted to evaluate effects of ฮฒ-glucan with vitamin E supplementation on the growth performance, blood profiles, immune response, fecal microbiota, fecal score, and nutrient digestibility in weaning pigs. A total of 200 weaning pigs with an average body weight (BW) of 7.64ยฑ0.741 kg were allotted to five treatment groups and were divided based on sex and initial BW in four replicates with ten pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. The experimental diets included a cornโ€’soybean meal-based basal diet with or without 0.1% or 0.2% ฮฒ-glucan and 0.02% vitamin E. The pigs were fed the diets for 6 weeks. A total of 15 barrows were used to evaluate the nutrient digestibility by the total collection method. The BW and feed intake were measured at the end of each phase. Blood samples were collected at the end of each phase, and fecal samples were collected at the end of the experiment. The addition of ฮฒ-glucan with vitamin E to weaning pig feed increased BW, average daily gain, and average daily feed intake. A significant decrease in yeast & mold and Proteobacteria and a tendency for Lactobacillus to increase compared to the control was shown when 0.1% ฮฒ-glucan with 0.02% vitamin E were added. The fecal score in weaning pigs was lower in the treatments supplemented with 0.1% or 0.2% ฮฒ-glucan and 0.02% vitamin E compared to the control. In addition, vitamin E was better supplied to weaning pigs by increasing the concentration of ฮฑ-tocopherol in the blood of weaning pigs when 0.02% vitamin E was supplemented. However, there was no significant difference not only in the immune response but also in the nutrient digestibility. Consequently, 0.1% ฮฒ-glucan with 0.02% vitamin E in a weaning pigs diet were beneficial to the growth performance of weaning pigs by improving intestinal microbiota and reducing the incidence of diarrhea. Experiment II. Effects of ฮฒ-glucan with Vitamin E Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Blood profiles, Immune Response, Pork Quality, Pork Flavor, and Economic Benefit in Growing and Finishing Pigs This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ฮฒ-glucan with vitamin E supplementation on the growth performance, blood profiles, immune response, pork quality, pork flavor, and economic benefit in growing and finishing pigs. A total of 140 growing pigs ([Yorkshire x Landrace]) x Duroc) were assigned to five treatments considering sex and initial body weight (BW) in 4 replications with 7 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. The experimental diets included a corn-soybean meal based basal diet with or without 0.05% or 0.1% ฮฒ-glucan and 0.02% vitamin E. The pigs were fed the diets for 12 weeks (phase โ…  : 0-3, phase โ…ก : 3-6, phase โ… โ… โ…  : 6-9, phase โ… V : 9-12). The BW and feed intake were measured at the end of each phase. Blood samples was collected at the end of each phase. Four pigs from each treatment were selected and slaughtered for meat quality. Economic benefit was calculated considering the total feed intake and feed price. Pork flavor was analyzed through inosine monophosphate analysis. The average daily gain and feed efficiency were improved compared to the control when ฮฒ-glucan or vitamin E was added. Supplementing 0.05% ฮฒ-glucan significantly increased lymphocyte concentration compared to the addition of 0.1% ฮฒ-glucan and the content of vitamin E in the blood increased when 0.02% vitamin E was added. The HBE treatment with 0.1% ฮฒ-glucan and 0.02% vitamin E showed the most economic effect because it had the shortest days to market weight and the lowest total feed cost. The addition of ฮฒ-glucan or vitamin E had a positive role in improving the flavor of pork when considering that the content of inosine monophosphate was increased. However, carcass traits and meat quality were not affected by ฮฒ-glucan or vitamin E. Consequently, the addition of 0.1% ฮฒ-glucan and 0.02% vitamin E in growing and finishing pigs diet showed great growth performance and economic effects by supplying vitamin E efficiently and by improving the health condition of pigs due to ฮฒ-glucan. Experiment III. Effects of ฮฒ-glucan with Vitamin E Supplementation on the Physiological Response, Litter Performance, Blood Profiles, Immune Response, and Milk Composition of Lactating Sows This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ฮฒ-glucan with vitamin E supplementation on the physiological response, litter performance, blood profiles, immune response, and milk composition of lactating sows. A total of 50 multiparous F1 sows (Yorkshire ร— Landrace) with an average body weight (BW) of 233.6 ยฑ 4.30 kg and an average parity of 4.00 ยฑ 0.307 and their litters were used in this experiment. All sows were allotted to one of five treatments, taking into consideration BW, backfat thickness, and parity in a completely randomized design with 10 replicates. The experimental diets included a cornโ€“soybean meal-based basal diet with or without 0.1% or 0.2% ฮฒ-glucan and 110 IU vitamin E/kg diet. All treatments added with ฮฒ-glucan or vitamin were statistically higher in the average daily feed intake (ADFI) of lactating sows compared to those of the control (Diet, p<0.01). Additionally, the ADFI of lactating sows was significantly higher in the groups supplemented with 0.1% ฮฒ-glucan compared to 0.2% ฮฒ-glucan (BG, p<0.01). There was an increasing trend in piglet weight at weaning (BG, p=0.07), litter weight at the 21st day of lactation (BG, p=0.07) and litter weight gain (BG, p=0.08) in groups supplemented with 0.1% ฮฒ-glucan. The addition of 110 IU vitamin E/kg diet increased vitamin E concentration significantly in lactating sows (VE, p<0.01) and exhibited a trend for higher concentrations of vitamin E (VE, p=0.09) in piglets. Adding 0.1% ฮฒ-glucan compared to 0.2% ฮฒ-glucan showed a lower trend in TNF-ฮฑ concentration in lactating sows (BG, p=0.06) and in piglets (BG, p=0.09) on the 21st day of lactation. There were no significant differences in the milk composition of sows. Consequently, adding 0.1% ฮฒ-glucan and 110 IU vitamin E/kg to a lactating sows diet was beneficial to the growth performance of piglets by leading to an increase in the feed intake of sows and efficiently supplying vitamin E to both the sows and piglets.์‹คํ—˜ 1. ์ด์œ ์ž๋ˆ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ ๋‚ด ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ๊ณผ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E์˜ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€๊ฐ€ ์ด์œ ์ž๋ˆ์˜ ์„ฑ์žฅ์„ฑ์ , ํ˜ˆ์•ก์„ฑ์ƒ, ๋ฉด์—ญ์„ฑ์ƒ, ๋ถ„๋‚ด ๋ฏธ์ƒ๋ฌผ, ์„ค์‚ฌ์ง€์ˆ˜ ๋ฐ ์˜์–‘์†Œ ์†Œํ™”์œจ์— ๋ฏธ์น˜๋Š” ์˜ํ–ฅ ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋Š” ์ด์œ ์ž๋ˆ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ ๋‚ด ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ๊ณผ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E์˜ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€๊ฐ€ ์ด์œ ์ž๋ˆ์˜ ์„ฑ์žฅ์„ฑ์ , ํ˜ˆ์•ก์„ฑ์ƒ, ๋ฉด์—ญ์„ฑ์ƒ, ๋ถ„๋‚ด ๋ฏธ์ƒ๋ฌผ, ์„ค์‚ฌ์ง€์ˆ˜ ๋ฐ ์˜์–‘์†Œ ์†Œํ™”์œจ์— ๋ฏธ์น˜๋Š” ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ๊ทœ๋ช…ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ์ˆ˜ํ–‰๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๋ณธ ์‹คํ—˜์€ ์‚ผ์›๊ต์žก์ข… ([Yorkshire ร— Landrace] ร— Duroc) ์ด์œ ์ž๋ˆ 200๋‘๋ฅผ ๊ณต์‹œํ•˜์—ฌ 5์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ, 4๋ฐ˜๋ณต, ๋ฐ˜๋ณต ๋‹น 10๋‘๋กœ ์ฒด์ค‘๊ณผ ์„ฑ๋ณ„์„ ๊ณ ๋ คํ•˜์—ฌ ๋‚œ๊ดด๋ฒ• (Randomized Complete Block Design; RCBD)์œผ๋กœ ๋ฐฐ์น˜ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์‹คํ—˜์€ ์ด 6์ฃผ ๋™์•ˆ (์ž๋ˆ ์ „๊ธฐ 3์ฃผ์™€ ์ž๋ˆ ํ›„๊ธฐ 3์ฃผ) ์ˆ˜ํ–‰ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ๋Š” ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ๊ณผ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E์˜ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€์ˆ˜์ค€์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ ์ž๋ˆ์ „๊ธฐ์™€ ํ›„๊ธฐ ๋™์ผํ•˜๊ฒŒ 1) CON : ์˜ฅ์ˆ˜์ˆ˜-๋Œ€๋‘๋ฐ• ์œ„์ฃผ์˜ ๊ธฐ์ดˆ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ, 2) LB : ๊ธฐ์ดˆ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ + ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.1%, 3) LBE : ๊ธฐ์ดˆ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ + ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.1% + ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E 0.02%, 4) HB : ๊ธฐ์ดˆ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ + ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.2%, 5) HBE : ๊ธฐ์ดˆ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ + ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.2% + ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E 0.02%๋กœ ๋‚˜๋‰˜์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์„ฑ์žฅ์„ฑ์ ์˜ ๊ฒฝ์šฐ, ์ด์œ ์ž๋ˆ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ ๋‚ด ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ๊ณผ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E๋ฅผ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•˜์˜€์„ ๋•Œ ์ด์œ ์ž๋ˆ์˜ ์ฒด์ค‘, ์ผ๋‹น์ฆ์ฒด๋Ÿ‰, ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ์„ญ์ทจ๋Ÿ‰์ด ์ฆ๊ฐ€ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๋ถ„๋ณ€ ๋‚ด ๋ฏธ์ƒ๋ฌผ์˜ ๊ฒฝ์šฐ, ๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฌ ๋Œ€๋น„ 0.1% ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ๊ณผ 0.02% ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E๋ฅผ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•œ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ์—์„œ ํšจ๋ชจ&๊ณฐํŒก์ด์™€ Proteobacteria์˜ ์œ ์˜์ ์ธ ๊ฐ์†Œ์™€ Lactobacillus๊ฐ€ ์ฆ๊ฐ€ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒฝํ–ฅ์„ ๋ณด์˜€๋‹ค. ์„ค์‚ฌ์ง€์ˆ˜์˜ ๊ฒฝ์šฐ, 0.1% ๋ฐ 0.2% ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ๊ณผ 0.02% ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E๋ฅผ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•œ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ๊ฐ€ ๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฌ ๋Œ€๋น„ 3์ฃผ์ฐจ ๋ฐ 6์ฃผ์ฐจ์˜ ์„ค์‚ฌ์ง€์ˆ˜๊ฐ€ ์œ ์˜์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋” ๋‚ฎ์•˜๋‹ค. ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E 0.02% ์ฒจ๊ฐ€๋Š” ์ด์œ ์ž๋ˆ์˜ ํ˜ˆ์•ก ๋‚ด ฮฑ-tocopherol์˜ ๋†๋„๋ฅผ ์ฆ๊ฐ€์‹œํ‚ด์œผ๋กœ์จ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E๊ฐ€ ์ด์œ ์ž๋ˆ ์ฒด๋‚ด์— ๋” ์ž˜ ๊ณต๊ธ‰๋˜๊ฒŒ ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ, ํ˜ˆ์•ก ๋‚ด ์…€๋ ˆ๋Š„, TNF-ฮฑ, IL-6, ๋ฆผํ”„๊ตฌ ๋†๋„ ๋ฐ ์ด์œ ์ž๋ˆ์˜ ์˜์–‘์†Œ ์†Œํ™”์œจ์—์„œ๋Š” ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ ๊ฐ„ ์œ ์˜์ ์ธ ์ฐจ์ด๊ฐ€ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚˜์ง€ ์•Š์•˜๋‹ค. ๊ฒฐ๋ก ์ ์œผ๋กœ, ์ด์œ ์ž๋ˆ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ ๋‚ด ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.1%์™€ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E 0.02%๋ฅผ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•˜์˜€์„ ๋•Œ ์žฅ๋‚ด ๋ฏธ์ƒ๋ฌผ ์„ฑ์ƒ์„ ๊ฐœ์„ ํ•˜์—ฌ ์„ค์‚ฌ ๋ฐœ์ƒ์ด ๊ฐ์†Œํ•จ์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ ์ด์œ ์ž๋ˆ์˜ ์„ฑ์žฅ์„ฑ์ ์— ๊ธ์ •์ ์ธ ํšจ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ๋ฏธ์น˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ๋œ๋‹ค. ์‹คํ—˜ 2. ์œก์„ฑ๋น„์œก๋ˆ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ ๋‚ด ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ๊ณผ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E์˜ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€๊ฐ€ ์œก์„ฑ๋น„์œก๋ˆ์˜ ์„ฑ์žฅ์„ฑ์ , ํ˜ˆ์•ก์„ฑ์ƒ, ๋ฉด์—ญ์„ฑ์ƒ, ๋ˆ์œกํ’ˆ์งˆ, ๋ˆ์œกํ’๋ฏธ ๋ฐ ๊ฒฝ์ œ์„ฑ ๋ถ„์„์— ๋ฏธ์น˜๋Š” ์˜ํ–ฅ ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋Š” ์œก์„ฑ๋น„์œก๋ˆ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ ๋‚ด ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ๊ณผ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E์˜ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€๊ฐ€ ์œก์„ฑ๋น„์œก๋ˆ์˜ ์„ฑ์žฅ์„ฑ์ , ํ˜ˆ์•ก์„ฑ์ƒ, ๋ฉด์—ญ์„ฑ์ƒ, ๋ˆ์œกํ’ˆ์งˆ, ๋ˆ์œกํ’๋ฏธ ๋ฐ ๊ฒฝ์ œ์„ฑ ๋ถ„์„์— ๋ฏธ์น˜๋Š” ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ๊ทœ๋ช…ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ์ˆ˜ํ–‰๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๋ณธ ์‹คํ—˜์€ ์‚ผ์›๊ต์žก์ข… [(Yorkshire ร— Landrace) ร— Duroc] ์œก์„ฑ๋ˆ 140๋‘๋ฅผ ๊ณต์‹œํ•˜์—ฌ 5์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ, 4๋ฐ˜๋ณต, ๋ฐ˜๋ณต ๋‹น 7๋‘๋กœ ์„ฑ๋ณ„๊ณผ ์ฒด์ค‘์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ ๋‚œ๊ดด๋ฒ• (Randomized Complete Block Design; RCBD)์œผ๋กœ ๋ฐฐ์น˜ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์œก์„ฑ์ „๊ธฐ (3์ฃผ), ์œก์„ฑํ›„๊ธฐ (3์ฃผ), ๋น„์œก์ „๊ธฐ (3์ฃผ), ๋น„์œกํ›„๊ธฐ (3์ฃผ)๋กœ ๋‚˜๋ˆ„์–ด ์ด 12์ฃผ ๋™์•ˆ ์‚ฌ์–‘์‹คํ—˜์„ ์ˆ˜ํ–‰ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์œก์„ฑ ์ „๊ธฐ/ํ›„๊ธฐ ๋ฐ ๋น„์œก ์ „๊ธฐ/ํ›„๊ธฐ ์‹คํ—˜์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ ๋ฐ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ๋Š” ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ๊ณผ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E์˜ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ 1) CON : ์˜ฅ์ˆ˜์ˆ˜-๋Œ€๋‘๋ฐ• ์œ„์ฃผ์˜ ๊ธฐ์ดˆ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ, 2) LB : ๊ธฐ์ดˆ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ + ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.05%, 3) LBE : ๊ธฐ์ดˆ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ + ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.05% + ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E 0.02%, 4) HB : ๊ธฐ์ดˆ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ + ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.1%, 5) HBE : ๊ธฐ์ดˆ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ + ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.1% + ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E 0.02%๋กœ ๋‚˜๋‰˜์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์‹คํ—˜ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ, ์ผ๋‹น์ฆ์ฒด๋Ÿ‰ ๋ฐ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒํšจ์œจ์€ ๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฌ ๋Œ€๋น„ ์œก์„ฑ๋น„์œก๋ˆ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ ๋‚ด ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ ๋˜๋Š” ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E๋ฅผ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•˜์˜€์„ ๋•Œ ํ–ฅ์ƒ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.05% ์ฒจ๊ฐ€๋Š” ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.1% ๋„ฃ์—ˆ์„ ๋•Œ์™€ ๋น„๊ตํ•˜์—ฌ ์œ ์˜์ ์œผ๋กœ lymphocyte์˜ ๋†๋„๋ฅผ ์ฆ๊ฐ€์‹œ์ผฐ๊ณ  ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E 0.02% ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•˜์˜€์„ ๋•Œ ํ˜ˆ์ค‘ ๋‚ด ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E์˜ ํ•จ๋Ÿ‰์ด ์ฆ๊ฐ€ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๊ฒฝ์ œ์„ฑ ๋ถ„์„์˜ ๊ฒฝ์šฐ, ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.1%์™€ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E 0.02%๋ฅผ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•œ HBE ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ๊ฐ€ ์ˆ˜์น˜์ƒ์œผ๋กœ ์ถœํ•˜๋„๋‹ฌ ์ผ๋ น์ด ๊ฐ€์žฅ ์งง๊ณ  ์ด ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ๋น„๊ฐ€ ๊ฐ€์žฅ ๋‚ฎ์•˜๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์— ๊ฐ€์žฅ ๊ฒฝ์ œ์ ์ธ ํšจ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ๋ณด์˜€๋‹ค. ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ ๋ฐ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E์˜ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€๊ฐ€ IMP์˜ ํ•จ๋Ÿ‰์„ ์ฆ๊ฐ€์‹œํ‚จ ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ๋ณผ ๋•Œ ๋ˆ์œก์˜ ํ’๋ฏธ๋ฅผ ํ–ฅ์ƒ์‹œํ‚จ ๊ฒƒ์— ๊ธ์ •์ ์ธ ์—ญํ• ์„ ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ, ๋„์ฒดํŠน์„ฑ ๋ฐ ์œก์งˆ์˜ ํ’ˆ์งˆ์—์„œ๋Š” ์œ ์˜์ ์ธ ์ฐจ์ด๊ฐ€ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚˜์ง€ ์•Š์•˜๋‹ค. ๊ฒฐ๋ก ์ ์œผ๋กœ, ์œก์„ฑ๋น„์œก๋ˆ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ ๋‚ด ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.1%์™€ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E 0.02%๋ฅผ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•˜์˜€์„ ๋•Œ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E๊ฐ€ ์œก์„ฑ๋น„์œก๋ˆ์—๊ฒŒ ์ถ”๊ฐ€์ ์œผ๋กœ ์ž˜ ์ „๋‹ฌ๋˜์—ˆ๊ณ  ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ์œผ๋กœ ์ธํ•ด ์œก์„ฑ๋น„์œก๋ˆ์˜ ๊ฑด๊ฐ•์ƒํƒœ๊ฐ€ ์ข‹์•„์ ธ ์„ฑ์žฅ์„ฑ์ ์— ๊ธ์ •์ ์ธ ํšจ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ๋ฏธ์น˜๊ณ  ๊ฒฝ์ œ์ ์ธ ํšจ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ๋ณด์ธ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋ผ๊ณ  ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ๋œ๋‹ค. ์‹คํ—˜ 3. ํฌ์œ ๋ชจ๋ˆ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ ๋‚ด ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ๊ณผ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E์˜ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€๊ฐ€ ํฌ์œ ๋ชจ๋ˆ์˜ ์ƒ๋ฆฌ์  ๋ฐ˜์‘, ํฌ์œ ์ž๋ˆ ์„ฑ์žฅ์„ฑ์ , ํ˜ˆ์•ก์„ฑ์ƒ, ๋ฉด์—ญ์„ฑ์ƒ ๋ฐ ๋ˆ์œ ์„ฑ๋ถ„์— ๋ฏธ์น˜๋Š” ์˜ํ–ฅ ๋ณธ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋Š” ํฌ์œ ๋ชจ๋ˆ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ ๋‚ด ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ๊ณผ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E์˜ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€๊ฐ€ ํฌ์œ ๋ชจ๋ˆ์˜ ์ƒ๋ฆฌ์  ๋ฐ˜์‘, ํฌ์œ ์ž๋ˆ ์„ฑ์žฅ์„ฑ์ , ํ˜ˆ์•ก์„ฑ์ƒ, ๋ฉด์—ญ์„ฑ์ƒ ๋ฐ ๋ˆ์œ  ์„ฑ๋ถ„์— ๋ฏธ์น˜๋Š” ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ๊ทœ๋ช…ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ์ˆ˜ํ–‰๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๋ณธ ์‹คํ—˜์€ 2์› ๊ต์žก์ข… (Yorkshire ร— Landrace) F1 ๋ชจ๋ˆ(ํ‰๊ท  ์ฒด์ค‘ 233.6 ยฑ 4.3kg) 50๋‘๋ฅผ ๊ณต์‹œํ•˜์—ฌ, 5์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ, 10๋ฐ˜๋ณต, ๋ฐ˜๋ณต ๋‹น 1๋‘์”ฉ์„ ์™„์ „์ž„์˜ ๋ฐฐ์น˜๋ฒ• (CRD: completely randomized design)์œผ๋กœ ๋ฐฐ์น˜ํ•˜์—ฌ ์‹ค์‹œํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ๋Š” ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ๊ณผ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E์˜ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€์ˆ˜์ค€์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ 1) CON : ์˜ฅ์ˆ˜์ˆ˜-๋Œ€๋‘๋ฐ• ์œ„์ฃผ์˜ ๊ธฐ์ดˆ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ, 2) LB : ๊ธฐ์ดˆ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ + ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.1%, 3) LBE : ๊ธฐ์ดˆ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ + ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.1% + ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E 110 IU/kg, 4) HB : ๊ธฐ์ดˆ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ + ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.2%, 5) HBE : ๊ธฐ์ดˆ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ + ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.2% + ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E 110 IU/kg๋กœ ๋‚˜๋‰˜์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์‹คํ—˜ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ, ๋ถ„๋งŒ 24์‹œ๊ฐ„ ์ด๋‚ด, ํฌ์œ  21์ผ์ฐจ ํฌ์œ ๋ชจ๋ˆ์˜ ์ฒด์ค‘ ๋ฐ ๋“ฑ์ง€๋ฐฉ ๋‘๊ป˜์—์„œ๋Š” ํ†ต๊ณ„์ ์ธ ์œ ์˜์  ์ฐจ์ด๊ฐ€ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚˜์ง€ ์•Š์•˜๋‹ค (p>0.05). ๋˜ํ•œ, ํฌ์œ ๋ชจ๋ˆ์˜ ์žฌ๊ท€๋ฐœ์ •์ผ์—์„œ๋„ ํ†ต๊ณ„์ ์ธ ์œ ์˜์ฐจ๊ฐ€ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚˜์ง€ ์•Š์•˜๋‹ค (p>0.05). ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ, ํฌ์œ ๋ชจ๋ˆ์˜ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ์„ญ์ทจ๋Ÿ‰์—์„œ๋Š” ๋Œ€์กฐ๊ตฌ ๋Œ€๋น„ ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ์ด ์ฒจ๊ฐ€๋œ ๋ชจ๋“  ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ์—์„œ ์œ ์˜์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋†’์•˜์œผ๋ฉฐ (Diet, p<0.01) ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.1% ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•œ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ๊ฐ€ ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.2% ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•œ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ๋ณด๋‹ค ์œ ์˜์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋” ๋†’์•˜๋‹ค (BG, p<0.01). ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.1% ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•œ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ๊ฐ€ ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.2% ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•œ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ๋ณด๋‹ค ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ์— ์˜ํ•œ ํฌ์œ  21์ผ๋ น ๋ณต๋‹น ์ž๋ˆ์ฒด์ค‘ (BG, p=0.07), ๋ณต๋‹น ์ž๋ˆ ์ผ๋‹น์ฆ์ฒด๋Ÿ‰ (BG, p=0.08) ๋ฐ ์ž๋ˆ ์ด์œ ์ฒด์ค‘ (BG, P=0.07)์—์„œ ๋” ๋†’์€ ๊ฒฝํ–ฅ์ด ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚ฌ๋‹ค. ๋˜ํ•œ, ํฌ์œ  21์ผ๋ น์— ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E 110 IU/kg ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•œ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ๊ฐ€ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E๋ฅผ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š์€ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ์— ๋น„ํ•ด ํฌ์œ ๋ชจ๋ˆ์˜ ํ˜ˆ์•ก ๋‚ด ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E ๋†๋„ (VE, p<0.01)๊ฐ€ ์œ ์˜์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋” ๋†’๊ฒŒ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚ฌ์œผ๋ฉฐ ํฌ์œ ์ž๋ˆ์˜ ํ˜ˆ์•ก ๋‚ด ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E ๋†๋„ (VE, p=0.09)์—์„œ๋„ ๋” ๋†’์€ ๊ฒฝํ–ฅ์ด ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚ฌ๋‹ค. ๋˜ํ•œ, ํฌ์œ  21์ผ๋ น์—๋Š” ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.1% ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•œ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ๊ฐ€ ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.2% ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•œ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ์— ๋น„ํ•ด ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ์— ์˜ํ•œ ํฌ์œ ๋ชจ๋ˆ์˜ ํ˜ˆ์•ก ๋‚ด TNF-ฮฑ ๋†๋„ (BG, p=0.06)์™€ ํฌ์œ  ์ž๋ˆ์˜ ํ˜ˆ์•ก ๋‚ด TNF-ฮฑ ๋†๋„ (BG, p=0.09)์—์„œ ๋” ๋‚ฎ์€ ๊ฒฝํ–ฅ์ด ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚ฌ๋‹ค. ๊ฒฐ๋ก ์ ์œผ๋กœ, ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.1% ์ฒจ๊ฐ€๋Š” ํฌ์œ ๋ชจ๋ˆ์˜ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ์„ญ์ทจ๋Ÿ‰์„ ์ฆ๊ฐ€์‹œ์ผœ ๋ˆ์œ  ์ƒ์‚ฐ๋Ÿ‰์ด ์ฆ๊ฐ€ํ•จ์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ ํฌ์œ ์ž๋ˆ์—๊ฒŒ ์ถฉ๋ถ„ํ•œ ์˜์–‘์†Œ๋ฅผ ์ „๋‹ฌํ•จ์œผ๋กœ์จ ํฌ์œ ์ž๋ˆ์˜ ์„ฑ์žฅ์„ฑ์ ์„ ํ–ฅ์ƒ์‹œ์ผฐ๋‹ค. ๋˜ํ•œ, ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.1% ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•œ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ๋Š” 0.2% ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ ์ฒ˜๋ฆฌ๊ตฌ์— ๋น„ํ•ด TNF-ฮฑ ๋†๋„๊ฐ€ ๋” ๋‚ฎ๊ฒŒ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚ฌ๋‹ค. ์ด๋Š” ํฌ์œ ๋ชจ๋ˆ๊ณผ ํฌ์œ ์ž๋ˆ์— ์žˆ์–ด ์—ผ์ฆ๋ฐ˜์‘์ด ์ค„์–ด๋“ค์–ด ๊ฑด๊ฐ•์ƒํƒœ๊ฐ€ ์ข‹์•„์ง„ ๊ฒƒ์„ ์˜๋ฏธํ•˜๋ฏ€๋กœ ํฌ์œ ์ž๋ˆ ์„ฑ์žฅ์„ฑ์ ์ด ํ–ฅ์ƒ๋œ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋กœ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚œ ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ๋œ๋‹ค. ๊ฒŒ๋‹ค๊ฐ€, ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E 110 IU/kg ์ฒจ๊ฐ€๋Š” ํฌ์œ ๋ชจ๋ˆ ๋ฐ ํฌ์œ ์ž๋ˆ์˜ ํ˜ˆ์•ก ๋‚ด ฮฑ-tocopherol์˜ ๋†๋„๋ฅผ ์ฆ๊ฐ€์‹œํ‚ด์œผ๋กœ์จ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E๊ฐ€ ํฌ์œ ๋ชจ๋ˆ ๋ฐ ํฌ์œ  ์ค‘์ธ ์ž๋ˆ๋“ค์—๊ฒŒ ์ถ”๊ฐ€์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋” ์ž˜ ๊ณต๊ธ‰๋˜์—ˆ์Œ์„ ์˜๋ฏธํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.2%๋ณด๋‹ค 0.1%๋ฅผ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•˜์˜€์„ ๋•Œ ๋ชจ๋ˆ์˜ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ์„ญ์ทจ๋Ÿ‰์ด ์ฆ๊ฐ€ํ•จ์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ ํฌ์œ ์ž๋ˆ์˜ ์„ฑ์žฅ์„ฑ์ ์—๋„ ๋” ๊ธ์ •์ ์ธ ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ๋ฏธ์น˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚ฌ๋‹ค. ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ๋ณธ ์‹คํ—˜ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ, ํฌ์œ ๋ชจ๋ˆ์˜ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ์— ๋ฒ ํƒ€๊ธ€๋ฃจ์นธ 0.1%์™€ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E 110 IU/kg๋ฅผ ์ฒจ๊ฐ€ํ•˜๋ฉด ํฌ์œ ๋ชจ๋ˆ์˜ ์‚ฌ๋ฃŒ์„ญ์ทจ๋Ÿ‰ ์ฆ๊ฐ€์™€ ํฌ์œ ๋ชจ๋ˆ ๋ฐ ํฌ์œ ์ž๋ˆ์—๊ฒŒ ๋น„ํƒ€๋ฏผ E์˜ ํšจ์œจ์ ์ธ ๊ณต๊ธ‰์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ ํฌ์œ ์ž๋ˆ์˜ ์„ฑ์žฅ์„ฑ์ ์— ์œ ์ตํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚ฌ๋‹ค.Overall Summary 1 Contents 5 List of Tables 7 List of Figures 9 List of Abbreviation 10 Chapter I. General Introduction 11 Chapter II. Review of Literature 13 1. Feed additives 13 1.1 Introduction 13 1.2 Alternative feed additives for antibiotics in swine diets 13 2. ฮฒ-glucan 18 2.1 General characteristics of ฮฒ-glucan 18 2.2 History of ฮฒ-glucan 19 2.3 Sources, structures, and functionalities of ฮฒ-glucan 20 2.4 ฮฒ-glucan as an immune modulator 22 2.5 ฮฒ-glucan to improve growth performance 23 3. Vitamin E 25 3.1 Forms and structures of vitamin E 25 3.2 Vitamin E as an antioxidant 25 3.3 Vitamin E as an immune modulator 28 4. Literature Cited 29 Chapter III. Effects of ฮฒ-glucan with Vitamin E Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Blood Profiles, Immune Response, Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Score, and Nutrient Digestibility in Weaning Pigs 39 Abstract 39 Introduction 41 Materials and Methods 43 Results and Discussion 48 Conclusion 55 References 56 Chapter IV. Effects of ฮฒ-glucan with Vitamin E Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Blood profiles, Immune Response, Pork Quality, Pork Flavor, and Economic Benefit in Growing and Finishing Pigs 71 Abstract 71 Introduction 73 Materials and Methods 75 Results and Discussion 80 Conclusion 90 References 91 Chapter V. Effects of ฮฒ-glucan with Vitamin E Supplementation on the Physiological response, Litter Performance, Blood Profiles, Immune Response, and Milk Composition of Lactating Sows 106 Abstract 106 Introduction 108 Materials and Methods 110 Results and Discussion 114 Conclusion 123 References 124 Overall Conclusion 137 Summary in Korean 139 Acknowledgements 145๋ฐ•

    Aktivitas Antibakteri Metabolit Rhizopus sp. Asal Usar Daun Jati terhadap Salmonella typhi

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    Kapang Rhizopus sp. berperan sebagai inokulum utama dalam fermentasi tempe. Inokulum dalam fermentasi tempe juga dapat diperoleh secara alami dari usar daun jati. Rhizopus sp. yang tumbuh pada kedelai akan menghasilkan metabolit yang telah dikaji sebagai antidiare yang disebabkan bakteri Salmonella typhi sebagai penyebab demam tifoid yang masih menjadi penyakit endemis di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari aktivitas antibakteri metabolit Rhizopus sp. asal usar daun jati terhadap S. typhi. Metabolit Rhizopus sp. diproduksi pada media Sabouraud Dextrose Broth (SDB) selama 5 hari. Uji antibakteri metabolit mengunakan metode difusi kertas. Isolasi dari usar daun jati memperoleh satu isolat kapang yang teridentifikasi Rhizopus sp. Hasil uji menunjukkan bahwa crude metabolit Rhizopus sp. mempunyai aktivitas antibakteri kategori sedang terhadap S. typhi
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