2,891 research outputs found

    Excitation function of elliptic flow in Au+Au collisions and the nuclear matter equation of state

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    We present measurements of the excitation function of elliptic flow at midrapidity in Au+Au collisions at beam energies from 0.09 to 1.49 GeV per nucleon. For the integral flow, we discuss the interplay between collective expansion and spectator shadowing for three centrality classes. A complete excitation function of transverse momentum dependence of elliptic flow is presented for the first time in this energy range, revealing a rapid change with incident energy below 0.4 AGeV, followed by an almost perfect scaling at the higher energies. The equation of state of compressed nuclear matter is addressed through comparisons to microscopic transport model calculations.Comment: 10 pages, 4 eps figures, submitted for publication. Data files will be available at http://www.gsi.de/~fopiwww/pub

    Rapidity distribution as a probe for elliptical flow at intermediate energies

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    Interplay between the spectator and participant matter in heavy-ion collisions is investigated within isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model in term of rapidity distribution of light charged particles. The effect of different types and size rapidity distributions is studied in elliptical flow. The elliptical flow patterns show important role of the nearby spectator matter on the participant zone. This role is further explained on the basis of passing time of the spectator and expansion time of the participant zone. The transition from the in-plane to out-of-plane is observed only when the mid-rapidity region is included in the rapidity bin, otherwise no transition occurs. The transition energy is found to be highly sensitive towards the size of the rapidity bin, while weakly on the type of the rapidity distribution. The theoretical results are also compared with the experimental findings and are found in good agreement.Comment: 8 figure

    Isospin dependence of relative yields of K+K^+ and K0K^0 mesons at 1.528 AGeV

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    Results on K+K^+ and K0K^0 meson production in 4496^{96}_{44}Ru + 4496^{96}_{44}Ru and 4096^{96}_{40}Zr + 4096^{96}_{40}Zr collisions at a beam kinetic energy of 1.528AA GeV, measured with the FOPI detector at GSI-Darmstadt, are investigated as a possible probe of isospin effects in high density nuclear matter. The measured double ratio (K+/K0K^+/K^0)Ru_{Ru}/(K+/K0K^+/K^0)Zr_{Zr} is compared to the predictions of a thermal model and a Relativistic Mean Field transport model using two different collision scenarios and under different assumptions on the stiffness of the symmetry energy. We find a good agreement with the thermal model prediction and the assumption of a soft symmetry energy for infinite nuclear matter while more realistic transport simulations of the collisions show a similar agreement with the data but also exhibit a reduced sensitivity to the symmetry term.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures. accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.

    Modern compact star observations and the quark matter equation of state

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    We present a hybrid equation of state (EoS) for dense matter that satisfies phenomenological constraints from modern compact star (CS) observations which indicate high maximum masses (M = 2 M_sun) and large radii (R> 12 km). The corresponding isospin symmetric EoS is consistent with flow data analyses of heavy-ion collisions and a deconfinement transition at approx. 0.55 fm^{-3}. The quark matter phase is described by a 3-flavor Nambu--Jona-Lasinio model that accounts for scalar diquark condensation and vector meson interactions while the nuclear matter phase is obtained within the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) approach using the Bonn-A potential. We demonstrate that both pure neutron stars and neutron stars with quark matter cores (QCSs) are consistent with modern CS observations. Hybrid star configurations with a CFL quark core are unstable.Comment: 16 pages, 4 figures; published version, important note added in proo

    Two-proton small-angle correlations in central heavy-ion collisions: a beam-energy and system-size dependent study

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    Small-angle correlations of pairs of protons emitted in central collisions of Ca + Ca, Ru + Ru and Au + Au at beam energies from 400 to 1500 MeV per nucleon are investigated with the FOPI detector system at SIS/GSI Darmstadt. Dependences on system size and beam energy are presented which extend the experimental data basis of pp correlations in the SIS energy range substantially. The size of the proton-emitting source is estimated by comparing the experimental data with the output of a final-state interaction model which utilizes either static Gaussian sources or the one-body phase-space distribution of protons provided by the BUU transport approach. The trends in the experimental data, i.e. system-size and beam energy dependences, are well reproduced by this hybrid model. However, the pp correlation function is found rather insensitive to the stiffness of the equation of state entering the transport model calculations.Comment: 9 pages, 8 figures, accepted at Eur. Phys. Journ.

    Direct comparison of phase-space distributions of K- and K+ mesons in heavy-ion collisions at SIS energies - evidence for in-medium modifications of kaons ?

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    The ratio of K- to K+ meson yields has been measured in the systems RuRu at 1.69 A GeV, Ru+Zr at 1.69 A GeV, and Ni+Ni at 1.93 A GeV incident beam kinetic energy. The yield ratio is observed to vary across the measured phase space. Relativistic transport-model calculations indicate that the data are best understood if in-medium modifications of the kaons are taken into account.Comment: 14 pages including 3 figure

    Charged pion production in 4496^{96}_{44}Ru+4496^{96}_{44}Ru collisions at 400A and 1528A MeV

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    We present transverse momentum and rapidity spectra of charged pions in central Ru + Ru collisions at 400AA and 1528AA MeV. The data exhibit enhanced production at low transverse momenta compared to the expectations from the thermal model that includes the decay of Δ(1232)\Delta(1232)-resonances and thermal pions. Modification of the Δ\Delta-spectral function and the Coulomb interaction are necessary to describe the detailed shape of the transverse momentum spectra. Within the framework of the thermal model, the freeze-out radii of pions are similar at both beam energies. The IQMD model reproduces the shapes of the transverse momentum and rapidity spectra of pions, but the predicted absolute yields are larger than in the measurements, especially at lower beam energy.Comment: 12 pages, 11 figure

    First analysis of anisotropic flow with Lee--Yang zeroes

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    We report on the first analysis of directed and elliptic flow with the new method of Lee--Yang zeroes. Experimental data are presented for Ru+Ru reactions at 1.69 AGeV measured with the FOPI detector at SIS/GSI. The results obtained with several methods, based on the event-plane reconstruction, on Lee--Yang zeroes, and on multi-particle cumulants (up to 5th order) applied for the first time at SIS energies, are compared. They show conclusive evidence that azimuthal correlations between nucleons and composite particles at this energy are largely dominated by anisotropic flow.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, submitted to Phys. Rev. C Rapid Co

    Centrality dependence of subthreshold ¤Ľ\phi meson production in Ni+Ni collisions at 1.9A GeV

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    We analysed the ¤Ľ\phi meson production in central Ni+Ni collisions at the beam kinetic energy of 1.93A GeV with the FOPI spectrometer and found the production probability per event of [8.6┬á┬▒┬á1.6┬á(stat)┬▒1.5┬á(syst)]├Ś10Ôłĺ4[8.6 ~\pm~ 1.6 ~(\text{stat}) \pm 1.5 ~(\text{syst})] \times 10^{-4}. This new data point allows for the first time to inspect the centrality dependence of the subthreshold ¤Ľ\phi meson production in heavy-ion collisions. The rise of ¤Ľ\phi meson multiplicity per event with mean number of participants can be parameterized by the power function with exponent ╬▒=1.8┬▒0.6\alpha = 1.8 \pm 0.6. The ratio of ¤Ľ\phi to KÔłĺ\text{K}^- production yields seems not to depend within the experimental uncertainties on the collision centrality, and the average of measured values was found to be 0.36┬▒0.050.36 \pm 0.05.Comment: 9 pages, 5 figure

    Sideward flow of K+ mesons in Ru+Ru and Ni+Ni reactions near threshold

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    Experimental data on K+ meson and proton sideward flow measured with the FOPI detector at SIS/GSI in the reactions Ru+Ru at 1.69 AGeV and Ni+Ni at 1.93 AGeV are presented. The K+ sideward flow is found to be anti-correlated (correlated) with the one of protons at low (high) transverse momenta. When compared to the predictions of a transport model, the data favour the existence of an in-medium repulsive K+ nucleon potential.Comment: 16 pages Revtex, 3 ps-figures, submitted to Phys. Lett.
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