679 research outputs found

    A Method to Obtain a Maxwell–Boltzmann Neutron Spectrum at kT = 30 keV for Nuclear Astrophysics Studies

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    AbstractA method to shape the neutron energy spectrum at low-energy accelerators is proposed by modification of the initial proton energy distribution. A first application to the superconductive RFQ of the SPES project at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro is investigated for the production of a Maxwell–Boltzmann neutron spectrum at kT = 30 keV via the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction. Concept, solutions and calculations for a setup consisting of a proton energy shaper and a lithium target are presented. It is found that a power dentisity of 3 kW cm−2 could be sustained by the lithium target and a forward-directed neutron flux higher than 1010 s−1 at the sample position could be obtained. In the framework of the SPES project the construction of a LEgnaro NeutrOn Source (LENOS) for Astrophysics and for validation of integral nuclear data is proposed, suited for activation studies on stable and unstable isotopes

    Isotopic Composition of Fragments in Nuclear Multifragmentation

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    The isotope yields of fragments, produced in the decay of the quasiprojectile in Au+Au peripheral collisions at 35 MeV/nucleon and those coming from the disassembly of the unique source formed in Xe+Cu central reactions at 30 MeV/nucleon, were measured. We show that the relative yields of neutron-rich isotopes increase with the excitation energy in multifragmentation reaction. In the framework of the statistical multifragmentation model which fairly well reproduces the experimental observables, this behaviour can be explained by increasing N/Z ratio of hot primary fragments, that corresponds to the statistical evolution of the decay mechanism with the excitation energy: from a compound-like decay to complete multifragmentation.Comment: 10 pages. 4 Postscript figures. Submitted to Physical Review C, Rapid Communicatio

    Eco-Driving Strategy Implementation for Ultra-Efficient Lightweight Electric Vehicles in Realistic Driving Scenarios

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    This paper aims to provide a quantitative assessment of the effect of driver action and road traffic conditions in the real implementation of eco-driving strategies. The study specifically refers to an ultra-efficient battery-powered electric vehicle designed for energy-efficiency competitions. The method is based on the definition of digital twins of vehicle and driving scenario. The models are used in a driving simulator to accurately evaluate the power demand. The vehicle digital twin is built in a co-simulation environment between VI-CarRealTime and Simulink. A digital twin of the Brooklands Circuit (UK) is created leveraging the software RoadRunner. After validation with actual telemetry acquisitions, the model is employed offline to find the optimal driving strategy, namely, the optimal input throttle profile, which minimizes the energy consumption over an entire lap. The obtained reference driving strategy is used during real-time driving sessions at the dynamic driving simulator installed at Politecnico di Milano (DriSMi) to include the effects of human driver and road traffic conditions. Results assess that, in a realistic driving scenario, the energy demand could increase more than 20% with respect to the theoretical value. Such a reduction in performance can be mitigated by adopting eco-driving assistance systems

    Micro-channel–based high specific power lithium target

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    A micro-channel–based heat sink has been produced and tested. The device has been developed to be used as a Lithium target for the LENOS (Legnaro Neutron Source) facility and for the production of radioisotope. Nevertheless, applications of such device can span on many areas: cooling of electronic devices, diode laser array, automotive applications etc. The target has been tested using a proton beam of 2.8MeV energy and delivering total power shots from 100W to 1500W with beam spots varying from 5mm2 to 19mm2. Since the target has been designed to be used with a thin deposit of lithium and since lithium is a low-melting-point material, we have measured that, for such application, a specific power of about 3kW/cm2 can be delivered to the target, keeping the maximum surface temperature not exceeding 150◦C

    Characterisation of plastic scintillators used as an active background shield for neutron detection

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    This work is part of a JRC Exploratory Research project to develop an active shield that is used to reduce the background due to cosmic radiation in a low-level nuclear waste detection system. The shield consists of an array of plastic scintillators surrounding the detection system. Commercially available plastic scintillation detectors with different thicknesses were characterized for their response to gamma rays, neutrons and muons. Response functions to gamma rays were determined by measurements with radionuclide sources in the energy range from 0.6 MeV to 6.0 MeV. Neutron response functions were measured at mono-energetic neutron beams produced at the Van de Graaff accelerator of the JRC Geel (B) and were derived from results of time-of-flight measurements at the Van de Graaff accelerator of the INFN Legnaro (I). From the response functions for gamma rays and neutrons, light output and resolution functions for protons and electrons were derived. Experimental response functions for muons were determined with the detectors positioned at different orientations. The muon peak is more pronounced in horizontally oriented detectors. Using a scintillator with a minimum thickness of 20 mm a signal caused by the detection of a muon can be separated from events due to natural gamma ray background. For detectors that are stacked, signals caused by the detection of muons can be identified based on a coincidence pattern. Hence, requirements on such a coincidence pattern together with requirements on the light production are effective as parameters for the veto system to be designed.JRC.D.4-Standards for Nuclear Safety, Security and Safeguard

    Calibration of the response function of CsI(Tl) scintillators to intermediate-energy heavy ions

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    Abstract The response function of 2-cm-thick CsI(Tl) scintillators with photodiode readouts were studied by directly exposing the detectors to beams of heavy ions (2≤Z≤36) with energy up to 25 MeV/u. The dependence of the light output on the energy (E) as well as on the atomic number and the mass of the ion is analyzed and discussed, and a parameterization of the light output as a function of Z and E is proposed

    Contemporary presence of dynamical and statistical production of intermediate mass fragments in midperipheral 58^{58}Ni+58^{58}Ni collisions at 30 MeV/nucleon

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    The 58Ni+58Ni^{58}Ni+^{58}Ni reaction at 30 MeV/nucleon has been experimentally investigated at the Superconducting Cyclotron of the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud. In midperipheral collisions the production of massive fragments (4≤\leZ≤\le12), consistent with the statistical fragmentation of the projectile-like residue and the dynamical formation of a neck, joining projectile-like and target-like residues, has been observed. The fragments coming from these different processes differ both in charge distribution and isotopic composition. In particular it is shown that these mechanisms leading to fragment production act contemporarily inside the same event.Comment: 9 pages, minor correction

    Size and asymmetry of the reaction entrance channel: influence on the probability of neck production

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    The results of experiments performed to investigate the Ni+Al, Ni+Ni, Ni+Ag reactions at 30 MeV/nucleon are presented. From the study of dissipative midperipheral collisions, it has been possible to detect events in which Intermediate Mass Fragments (IMF) production takes place. The decay of a quasi-projectile has been identified; its excitation energy leads to a multifragmentation totally described in terms of a statistical disassembly of a thermalized system (T≃\simeq4 MeV, E∗≃^*\simeq4 MeV/nucleon). Moreover, for the systems Ni+Ni, Ni+Ag, in the same nuclear reaction, a source with velocity intermediate between that of the quasi-projectile and that of the quasi-target, emitting IMF, is observed. The fragments produced by this source are more neutron rich than the average matter of the overall system, and have a charge distribution different, with respect to those statistically emitted from the quasi-projectile. The above features can be considered as a signature of the dynamical origin of the midvelocity emission. The results of this analysis show that IMF can be produced via different mechanisms simultaneously present within the same collision. Moreover, once fixed the characteristics of the quasi-projectile in the three considered reactions (in size, excitation energy and temperature), one observes that the probability of a partner IMF production via dynamical mechanism has a threshold (not present in the Ni+Al case) and increases with the size of the target nucleus.Comment: 16 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication on Nuclear Physics

    Isotopic composition of fragments in multifragmentation of very large nuclear systems: effects of the chemical equilibrium

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    Studies on the isospin of fragments resulting from the disassembly of highly excited large thermal-like nuclear emitting sources, formed in the ^{197}Au + ^{197}Au reaction at 35 MeV/nucleon beam energy, are presented. Two different decay systems (the quasiprojectile formed in midperipheral reactions and the unique source coming from the incomplete fusion of projectile and target in the most central collisions) were considered; these emitting sources have the same initial N/Z ratio and excitation energy (E^* ~= 5--6 MeV/nucleon), but different size. Their charge yields and isotopic content of the fragments show different distributions. It is observed that the neutron content of intermediate mass fragments increases with the size of the source. These evidences are consistent with chemical equilibrium reached in the systems. This fact is confirmed by the analysis with the statistical multifragmentation model.Comment: 9 pages, 4 ps figure

    A new study of 25^{25}Mg(α\alpha,n)28^{28}Si angular distributions at EαE_\alpha = 3 - 5 MeV

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    The observation of 26^{26}Al gives us the proof of active nucleosynthesis in the Milky Way. However the identification of the main producers of 26^{26}Al is still a matter of debate. Many sites have been proposed, but our poor knowledge of the nuclear processes involved introduces high uncertainties. In particular, the limited accuracy on the 25^{25}Mg(α\alpha,n)28^{28}Si reaction cross section has been identified as the main source of nuclear uncertainty in the production of 26^{26}Al in C/Ne explosive burning in massive stars, which has been suggested to be the main source of 26^{26}Al in the Galaxy. We studied this reaction through neutron spectroscopy at the CN Van de Graaff accelerator of the Legnaro National Laboratories. Thanks to this technique we are able to discriminate the (α\alpha,n) events from possible contamination arising from parasitic reactions. In particular, we measured the neutron angular distributions at 5 different beam energies (between 3 and 5 MeV) in the \ang{17.5}-\ang{106} laboratory system angular range. The presented results disagree with the assumptions introduced in the analysis of a previous experiment.Comment: 9 pages, 9 figures - accepted by EPJ
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