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    The Role of Project Coordinators in European Commission Framework Programme Projects

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    This report presents key findings of the Innovation Radar Project Coordinators Survey in Framework Programme Research and Innovation projects, a purposeful sample of European Framework Programme (FP) Project Coordinators (PC). The objective is to identify the practices and activities of PCs leading EU FP projects and to understand their impact on innovation outcomes. The survey findings confirm the lynchpin role of PCs in the European FP R&I projects. Their role clearly extends significantly beyond that identified in the Horizon 2020 User Guide which sees the PC as “the main contact point between the consortium and the Commission for a particular grant”. The PC is far more than simply “the proposal initiator in the submission phase” but taking account of their prime role in project conceptualisation and consortia formation, the PC is in effect the principal translator of the EC funded research programme and responsible for how the majority of the European research budget is invested. Identifying the PC as a scientific entrepreneur significantly changes how the PC role is viewed. From an EC perspective, recognising the PC as a scientific entrepreneur means their engagement with the PC during the project should be less about monitoring and oversight during project implementation, and more about providing the entrepreneur with support.JRC.B.6-Digital Econom

    JRC MARS Bulletin global outlook 2019: Crop monitoring European neighbourhood: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt: June 2019

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    The cereal campaign in North Africa was characterised by negative rainfall supply and distribution in the west, ranging to positive conditions in the east. Morocco was clearly impacted by drought conditions in the regions of Tensif, Centre and Oriental. Some regions in western Algeria were also impacted, but the unfavourable conditions were more than compensated by good conditions in eastern Algeria. Finally, crops in Tunisia, Libya and Egypt had a good to very good season.JRC.D.5-Food Securit

    A gradient elastic homogenisation model for brick masonry

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    The elastic macro-mechanical properties of masonry are investigated herein by taking into account the presence of a weakly non-local heterogeneity, within a simple gradient elasticity model. Masonry has a heterogeneous structure composed of masonry units bound by mortar. The homogenisation of masonry walls is a challenging task but also a very appealing method for modelling heterogeneity effects exhibited by masonry elements. In particular, it allows the use of smeared mechanical properties, thus avoiding the need of knowing the exact unit-to-unit and joint-to-joint geometry. Current codes provide very simplified empirical expressions to estimate an isotropic elastic modulus of masonry on the basis of its strength properties. The respective equations which do not take into account the anisotropy of masonry, present high scatter resulting in ambiguous safety. The homogenization argument employed in this work is based on a simple procedure utilising Aifantis gradient elasticity (GradEla) model. The GradEla model is a straight-forward extension of Hooke’s law by enhancing it with the addition of the Laplacian of the classical expression of the Hookean stress multiplied by an internal length accounting for the local heterogeneity. It has been successfully used to eliminate singularities from dislocation lines and crack tips, as well as in interpreting size effects. However its use in masonry structures has not yet been explored. A first step in this direction is attempted in this paper with emphasis on obtaining practical easy-to-use results rather than exhausting all other possibilities and complexities encountered in GradEla and its generalisation as well as in more involved homogenisation procedures. In our analysis uniform vertical, horizontal and shear loads are assumed to act on the boundaries of the representative volume/surface element. The components of masonry are assumed to follow a gradient elastic stress distribution resulting in a gradient elastic homogenised model (GREHM). GREHM comprises a set of closed-form concise equations which estimate the elastic moduli in the longitudinal and transverse directions, the shear modulus and the Poisson’s ratio. The aforementioned orthotropic material properties are verified using experimental results and also, compared to other homogenisation models. The validation shows that the proposed equations can effectively estimate with considerable precision the elastic properties of masonry walls. To illustrate the resulting estimation of the orthotropic elastic properties, normalised graphs are provided.JRC.E.4-Safety and Security of Building

    The way forward for assessing the human health safety of cosmetics in the EU - Workshop Proceedings

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    Although the need for non-animal alternatives has been well recognised for the human health hazard assessment of chemicals in general, it has become especially pressing for cosmetic ingredients due to the full implementation of testing and marketing bans on animal testing under the European Cosmetic Regulation. This means that for the safety assessment of cosmetics, the necessary safety data for both the ingredients and the finished product can be drawn from validated (or scientifically-valid), so-called “Replacement methods”. In view of the challenges for safety assessment without recourse to animal test data, the Methodology Working Group of the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety organised a workshop in February 2019 to discuss the key issues in regard to the use of animal-free alternative methods for the safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients. This perspective article summarises the outcomes of this workshop and reflects on the state-of-the-art and possible way forward for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for which no experimental animal data exist. The use and optimisation of “New Approach Methodologies” that could be useful tools in the context of the “Next Generation Risk Assessment and the strategic framework for safety assessment of cosmetics were discussed in depth.JRC.F.3-Chemicals Safety and Alternative Method

    Projecting input-output tables for model baselines

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    This technical report describes a multi-regional generalized RAS (MR-GRAS) procedure to update/project input-output tables or social accounting matrices. The method is able to incorporate a number of constraints on row and columns sums as well as specific flows between economic sectors and specific taxes in an input-output table. This feature is particularly useful to reconcile information coming from different data sets. In the application described in this report, the method is tailored towards constraints with regard to the energy system. Specifically, we specify constraints in the updating/projecting algorithm that are able to reproduce the economic values reflected in an energy balance from an energy system model. Here, we show that the method is able to generate input-output tables that are forward projected until 2050 and can be used as a baseline in a computable general equilibrium model like JRC-GEM-E3.JRC.C.6-Economics of Climate Change, Energy and Transpor

    Report on the biogeochemical model of the North-Western European Shelf

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    The report presents the background of the newly developed marine model covering the North and Celtic Sea. The 3d-model includes all relevant hydrodynamical drivers (tides, currents, water temperature and salinity) and a biogeochemical model of the lower trophic foodweb including essential dissolved nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, silicate, carbon and oxygen) and several phytoplankton groups. The moel results are mainly assessed for the indicators, used for the assessment of descriptor 5 ("eutrophication") within the EU Marine Strategy Framwork Directive (MSFD). The coupled model was used to simulate the present state (covering the period 2005 - 2012) and its results are compared and validated, using a variety of different datasets of observations.JRC.D.2-Water and Marine Resource

    Precision of test methods to assess the release of organic substances from construction products

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    The precision of the methods developed by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) to assess the release of dangerous organic substances from construction products was evaluated as part of the validation of the methods aiming to convert them in EU standards. This evaluation of precision was done by an interlaboratory comparison organised by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission, in support of the Regulation 305/2011/EU (Construction Products Regulation). The present study focused on organic substances since inorganic substances were studied in previous work. The objective of this work was to evaluate for organic substances the precision (repeatability and reproducibility) of the methods developed by CEN Technical Committee 351 on dynamic surface leaching and up-flow percolation procedures from construction products, analysis of leachates/eluates and content analysis. This was done by comparing the results obtained by different laboratories when they analysed samples obtained from the same materials using the CEN methods under validation. The materials and analytes were proposed by CEN Technical Committee 351 to cover a reasonable range of products and substances at measurable levels. Validation plans were drawn up by the JRC in agreement with CEN/TC351. The tested substances were biocides, phthalates, mineral oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); and the selected construction products were render, sealant, asphalt aggregate and recycled aggregate. The methods assessed were horizontal dynamic surface leaching test CEN/TS 16637-2; horizontal up-flow percolation test CEN/TS 16637-3; content of organic substances – methods for extraction and analysis CEN/TS 17331; and analysis of organic substances in eluates CEN/TS 17332. Specific methods were used for the determination of biocides (WI 351035) and PAHs (WI 351034). Raw materials were obtained from industrial providers and processed to obtain laboratory samples at the JRC premises in Geel, Belgium. This interlaboratory test was open to expert laboratories from all Member States. Despite all efforts to recruit a higher number of participants, eventually 12 laboratories registered to the study and reported results; between 5 and 7 laboratories analysed each of the product following the CEN methods mentioned above. Precision of the reported results was evaluated according to ISO 5725-2. The obtained values for repeatability and reproducibility are shown in the annexes of this JRC report, together with the content levels, for each construction product and analyte within this study. For the dynamic surface leaching test CEN/TS 16637-2, relative repeatability standard deviation (RSDr) was 6 % and relative reproducibility standard deviations (RSDR) was 54 % (median values). Because of limited stability of biocides in water, it is recommended to assess their release at leaching times shorter than 64 days and to store the leachates in dark glass bottles at 4ºC. For the up-flow percolation test CEN/TS 16637-3, RSDr of 20 % and RSDR of 70 % were obtained as median values. For the analysis of eluates, RSDr were 2-32 % and RSDR were 23-51 %. And for content analysis, the values for RSDr are 6-9 % and for RSDR 27-63%. Due to the limited number of participants, any conclusion or recommendation must be made with the utmost care. However, despite the limited number of participants which might affect the robustness of this study, the results obtained for organic substances are consistent with the ones obtained for inorganic substances. Therefore it seems reasonable to incorporate the RSD values for organic substances to the standard methods.JRC.F.6-Reference Material

    The Innovation Output Indicator 2019

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    This report presents the 2019 update of the Innovation Output Indicator (IOI), which is a composite indicator published every year by the European Commission since 2013 aiming to quantify the extent to which ideas for new products and services carry an economic added value and are capable of reaching the market. A novelty of this report is a special focus on radical innovator companies in Europe, referred to as "global innovation champions" (GICs). The dispersion of a relatively small number of exporter companies that introduced a “world-first” product innovation deserves particular attention. While small- or medium-sized radical innovator enterprises in Europe are embedded in global value chains, they often remain “hidden champions” for innovation policy makers and are typically the object of selected case studies in reason of limitations in the granularity of reliable data sources. The special focus of this report aims to quantify and characterize them for a relatively large number of countries. The report presents the latest figures for the underlying indicators and composite index for 40 countries – European Union Member States and selected EFTA, OECD and emerging economies. In this edition, 2 scores are computed for the European Union, one for a bloc of 28 countries alongside with estimates where the United Kingdom is excluded. The four components of the IOI provide a benchmark for countries and the European Union as an aggregate in terms of patent-based technological innovation, skilled labor force feeding into the economic structure of a country, competitiveness of knowledge-intensive goods and services, as well as employment in fast-growing enterprises in innovative sectors. The methodology is unchanged with respect to the refinements introduced in the 2017 editions. Composite results show that the EU (using both aggregates) is outperformed by the US. There is some evidence of convergence, the gap between the EU with respect to the US as well as Israel and Japan has somewhat declined since 2011. Nevertheless, additional efforts are needed for the EU to catch up with Israel and Japan. When comparing European countries, we notice that Ireland, Sweden, and the UK are among the leaders in terms of innovation output, whereas Lithuania, Croatia and Romania are at the end of the ranking. The analysis shows the importance of benchmarking a country’s performance not only according to its composite scores, but also according to the various components. Most notably, the multivariate analysis on the relationship between the component indicators indicates that the component measuring employment in fast-growing enterprises in innovative sectors (DYN) shows a weak, positive association with the rest of the components and, as a consequence, with the IOI aggregate index. This suggests that innovation performance of countries is constituted by at least two rather distinct dimensions. The first one is related to the performance of the technology- and knowledge-based economy (development of new technology, strength of sectors relying on highly-skilled workers, and exports in sectors close to the innovation frontier). The second one concerns entrepreneurship and business dynamism in innovative sectors. Strong performance in one of these two dimensions does not automatically imply strong performance in the other, suggesting that innovation policy should carefully monitor and foster the development of both in their own merits.JRC.I.1-Monitoring, Indicators & Impact Evaluatio

    How big is the bioeconomy?

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    The critical role of the Circular Bioeconomy in the sustainable transition has been widely recognised, to the point that a number of countries worldwide have elaborated their bioeconomy strategies and others are in the process of framing their own. The purpose of this report is to advance more objective and rigorous measurement and analysis of the bioeconomy according to the broad definition of the European Commission in 2018. Our focus is mainly on the economic indicators, aiming at the inclusion of bio-based services derived from the symmetric input-output tables from the system of national accounts available from Eurostat and additional expert information. As the main conclusion of the report, we propose a synthesis of input- and output-based approaches. This is motivated by the fact that determining the bio-based weights according to the input-output tables implicitly assumes that the bio-based share of outputs is the same as that of inputs. Clearly, this is not the case for the primary bio-based production sectors – agriculture, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture. Where the outputs are completely bio-based for these sectors, the inputs are far from being 100% bio-based. On the other hand, relying exclusively on the bio-based content of the output would ignore the use of bio-based inputs in the production process. To take into account the bio-based content in both inputs and outputs, we propose to consider weighted averages for the industries. Before applying the new methodology, adjustments are performed with regard to the value added of the bioeconomy by adding the net subsidies, the bio-based shares of the wholesale and retail trade industries, the water supply, sewerage and recycling, as well as the sports and recreation sectors. Applying the methodology with the adjustments proposed, our estimate for the EU-28 bioeconomy in 2015 reaches €1,460.6 billion value added, which is 11% of the GDP. The nova-JRC methodology, used in many bioeconomy publications, calculates €621 billion value added for the same year. This difference is mainly explained by the contribution of €872 billion by the tertiary bioeconomy sectors in the proposed methodology. This novel methodology addresses different challenges for measuring the size of the bioeconomy and eventually providing a basis for evaluating its contribution for a sustainable transition. The approach allows for yearly updates following the calendar of Eurostat I-O tables, probably with a 3 to 4 years delay. It relies on a thorough estimation of the bio-based shares of the inputs and outputs of the various sectors. The authors believe that these are fundamental elements to ensure that “The next era of industry will be one where the physical, digital and biological worlds are coming together” (European Commission 2020a). Taking account of the diversity of EU’s bioeconomies and sectors, this report broadens the ongoing discussion on how to measure and determine the contribution of the bioeconomy to a sustainable and circular economy.JRC.D.4-Economics of Agricultur

    Europe's Space capabilities for the benefit of the Arctic

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    In recent years, the Arctic region has acquired an increasing environmental, social, economic and strategic importance. The Arctic’s fragile environment is both a direct and key indicator of the climate change and requires specific mitigation and adaptation actions. The EU has a clear strategic interest in playing a key role and is actively responding to the impacts of climate change safeguarding the Arctic’s fragile ecosystem, ensuring a sustainable development, particularly in the European part of the Arctic. The European Commission’s Joint Research Centre has recently completed a study aimed at identifying the capabilities and relevant synergies across the four domains of the EU Space Programme: earth observation, satellite navigation, satellite communications, and space situational awareness (SSA). These synergies are expected to be key enablers of new services that will have a high societal impact in the region, which could be developed in a more cost-efficient and rapid manner. Similarly, synergies will also help exploit to its full extent operational services that are already deployed in the Arctic (e.g., the Copernicus emergency service or the Galileo Search and rescue service could greatly benefit from improved satellite communications connectivity in the region).JRC.E.2-Technology Innovation in Securit


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