14,464 research outputs found

    Multifragmentation of charge asymmetric nuclear systems

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    The multifragmentation of excited spherical nuclear sources with various N/Z ratios and fixed mass number is studied within dynamical and statistical models. The dynamical model treats the multifragmentation process as a final stage of the growth of density fluctuations in unstable expanding nuclear matter. The statistical model makes a choice of the final multifragment configuration according to its statistical weight at a global thermal equilibrium. Similarities and differences in the predictions of the two models on the isotopic composition of the produced fragments are presented and the most sensitive observable characteristics are discussed.Comment: 15 pages, 8 figure

    Estimating Attendance From Cellular Network Data

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    We present a methodology to estimate the number of attendees to events happening in the city from cellular network data. In this work we used anonymized Call Detail Records (CDRs) comprising data on where and when users access the cellular network. Our approach is based on two key ideas: (1) we identify the network cells associated to the event location. (2) We verify the attendance of each user, as a measure of whether (s)he generates CDRs during the event, but not during other times. We evaluate our approach to estimate the number of attendees to a number of events ranging from football matches in stadiums to concerts and festivals in open squares. Comparing our results with the best groundtruth data available, our estimates provide a median error of less than 15% of the actual number of attendees

    Bifurcations in Boltzmann-Langevin One Body dynamics for fermionic systems

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    We investigate the occurrence of bifurcations in the dynamical trajectories depicting central nuclear collisions at Fermi energies. The quantitative description of the reaction dynamics is obtained within a new transport model, based on the solution of the Boltzmann-Langevin equation in three dimensions, with a broad applicability for dissipative fermionic dynamics. Dilute systems formed in central collisions are shown to fluctuate between two energetically favourable mechanisms: reverting to a compact shape or rather disintegrating into several fragments. The latter result can be connected to the recent observation of bimodal distributions for quantities characterising fragmentation processes and may suggest new investigations

    Inhomogeneity growth in two-component fermionic systems

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    The dynamics of fermionic many-body systems is investigated in the framework of Boltzmann-Langevin (BL) stochastic one-body approaches. Within the recently introduced BLOB model, we examine the interplay between mean-field effects and two-body correlations, of stochastic nature, for nuclear matter at moderate temperature and in several density conditions, corresponding to stable or mechanically unstable situations. Numerical results are compared to analytic expectations for the fluctuation amplitude of isoscalar and isovector densities, probing the link to the properties of the employed effective interaction, namely symmetry energy (for isovector modes) and incompressibility (for isoscalar modes). For unstable systems, clusterization is observed. The associated features are compared to analytical results for the typical length and time scales characterizing the growth of unstable modes in nuclear matter and for the isotopic variance of the emerging fragments. We show that the BLOB model is generally better suited than simplified approaches previously introduced to solve the BL equation, and it is therefore more advantageous in applications to open systems, like heavy ion collisions.Comment: 19 pages, 13 figure

    Frustrated fragmentation and re-aggregation in nuclei: a non-equilibrium description in spallation

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    Heavy nuclei bombarded with protons and deuterons in the 1 GeV range have a large probability of undergoing a process of evaporation and fission; less frequently, the prompt emission of few intermediate-mass fragments can also be observed. We employ a recently developed microscopic approach, based on the Boltzmann-Langevin transport equation, to investigate the role of mean-field dynamics and phase-space fluctuations in these reactions. We find that the formation of few IMF's can be confused with asymmetric fission when relying on yield observables, but it can not be assimilated to the statistical decay of a compound nucleus when analysing the dynamics and kinematic observables: it can be described as a fragmentation process initiated by phase-space fluctuations, and successively frustrated by the mean-field resilience. As an extreme situation, which corresponds to non-negligible probability, the number of fragments in the exit channel reduces to two, so that fission-like events are obtained by re-aggregation processes. This interpretation, inspired by nuclear-spallation experiments, can be generalised to heavy-ion collisions from Fermi to relativistic energies, for situations when the system is closely approaching the fragmentation threshold
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