12,386 research outputs found

    Making meaning and meaning making: memory, postmemory and narrative in Holocaust literature

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    This paper explores links between narration and memory in Holocaust literature and examines ways in which individuals construct memory and postmemory. Based on the premise that ‘All authors mediate reality through their writing...’ and taking into consideration that what we remember and how we remember is likely to have a significant impact on the narratives that we construct, this article considers the reliability of memory. It argues that whilst there is, at times, a blurring of boundaries between fact and fiction in Holocaust literature, this has little or no impact on the validity and authenticity of the narratives. In an attempt to address these issues more fully, this paper explores the notions of making meaning and meaning making, whilst considering the effects of positionality, time and trauma on memory. Key texts referred to in this discussion include Night (1958) by Elie Wiesel, All Rivers Run to the Sea (1996) by Elie Wiesel, In My Brother’s Shadow (2005) by Uwe Timm and The Dark Room (2001) by Rachel Seiffert. These texts have been chosen in order to highlight the subjectivity of memory and postmemory and to demonstrate the role that narrative plays in their construction and representation

    Close-coupling calculations of rotational energy transfer in p-H2+HD

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    We report quantum-mechanical close-coupling calculations for rotational state resolved cross sections for p-H2+HD collisions. The low temperature limit of p-H2+HD is investigated, which is of significant astrophysical interest in regard to the cooling of primordial gas and the interstellar media. Sharp resonances have been reproduced in the cross sections of some transition states at very low kinetic energies, E< 0.00001 eV.Comment: 10 pages, 6 figure

    Hyperfine transitions of 13CN from pre-protostellar sources

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    Recent quantum mechanical calculations of rate coefficients for collisional transfer of population between the hyperfine states of 13CN enable their population densities to be determined. We have computed the relative populations of the hyperfine states of the N = 0, 1, 2 rotational states for kinetic temperatures 5 ≤\le T ≤\le 20 K and molecular hydrogen densities 1 ≤\le n(H2) ≤\le10 10 cm --3. Spontaneous and induced radiative transitions were taken into account. Our calculations show that, if the lines are optically thin, the populations of the hyperfine states, F, within a given rotational manifold are proportional to their statistical weights, (2F + 1) -- i.e. in local thermodynamic equilibrium -- over the entire range of densities. We have re-analysed IRAM 30 m telescope observations of 13CN hyperfine transitions (N = 1 →\rightarrow 0) in four starless cores. A comparison of these observations with our calculations confirms that the hyperfine states are statistically populated in these sources.Comment: MNRAS, Oxford University press, 2015, http://mnras.oxfordjournals.org/content/452/1/19.full?keytype=ref\&ijkey=CCx468pl8lXgoXx. \&lt;10.1093/mnras/stv1322\&gt

    Dynamic Euler Diagram Drawing

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    In this paper we describe a method to lay out a graph enhanced Euler diagram so that it looks similar to a previously drawn graph enhanced Euler diagram. This task is non-trivial when the underlying structures of the diagrams differ. In particular, if a structural change is made to an existing drawn diagram, our work enables the presentation of the new diagram with minor disruption to the user's mental map. As the new diagram can be generated from an abstract representation, its initial embedding may be very different from that of the original. We have developed comparison measures for Euler diagrams, integrated into a multicriteria optimizer, and applied a force model for associated graphs that attempts to move nodes towards their positions in the original layout. To further enhance the usability of the system, the transition between diagrams can be animated

    Governing urban wetlands for green growth in the Western Region Megapolis of Sri Lanka

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    The Western Region Megapolis (WRM) of Sri Lanka, the conurbation associated with Greater Colombo and covering the entire Western Province, is the thriving economic center of the country. According to the State of Sri Lankan Cities 2018 report (GoSL 2018), the city accounts for 40% of Sri Lanka’s gross domestic product (GDP), 30% of its population and is the nation’s administrative center. The WRM is also endowed with wetlands of international importance. This includes the Bellanwila-Attidiya marshes: a 370-ha freshwater marsh in southern Colombo rich in biodiversity (Box 1); the Colombo Flood Detention Area: a 400-ha network of marshes and canals that traverse the DISCUSSION BRIEF An aerial view of the city of Colombo in Sri Lanka with its network of wetlands supporting urban dwellers - A hub for green growth. Photo: Martin Seemungal city; and the Muthurajawela marsh: a 2,500-ha saltwater marsh in northern Colombo, which is the largest saline peat bog in Sri Lanka (IUCN and CEA 2006). The aim of this brief is to support the efforts of the Government of Sri Lanka to leverage the WRM wetlands to foster green growth. Green growth promotes economic development alongside environmental sustainability, and is gaining traction as a model to achieve sustainable urban development globally (Hammer et al. 2011). According to OECD (2013: 9), governments promote green growth “to create jobs and attract firms and investment, while improving local environmental quality and addressing global environmental challenges, particularly climate change.

    Coral Reefs, Fisheries, and Food Security: Integrated Approaches to Addressing Multiple Challenges in the Coral Triangle

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    The Coral Triangle is the most biologically and economically valuable marine ecosystem on the planet. Covering just three percent of the globe, the region represents more than half of the world's reefs and boasts 76 percent of its known coral species. Sustaining more than 130 million people who rely directly on the marine ecosystems for their livelihoods and food, the marine habitats of the Coral Triangle contribute billions of dollars each year toward the economies of the region.Although the environmental imperative for preserving this area of incredible value and biodiversity is obvious, the growing pressures and threats from widespread poverty, rapid development, and global demands continue to place enormous strain on the natural marine resources of the Coral Triangle

    Formation Pumping of Molecular Hydrogen in Dark Clouds

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    Many theoretical and laboratory studies predict H2 to be formed in highly excited ro-vibrational states. The consequent relaxation of excited levels via a cascade of infrared transitions might be observable in emission from suitable interstellar regions. In this work, we model H2 formation pumping in standard dense clouds, taking into account the H/H2 transition zone, through an accurate description of chemistry and radiative transfer. The model includes recent laboratory data on H2 formation, as well as the effects of the interstellar UV field, predicting the populations of gas-phase H2 molecules and their IR emission spectra. Calculations suggest that some vibrationally excited states of H2 might be detectable towards lines of sight where significant destruction of H2 occurs, such as X-ray sources, and provide a possible explanation as to why observational attempts resulted in no detections reported to date.Comment: 32 pages, 8 figures, 5 table

    SiO line emission from C-type shock waves : interstellar jets and outflows

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    We study the production of SiO in the gas phase of molecular outflows, through the sputtering of Si--bearing material in refractory grain cores, which are taken to be olivine; we calculate also the rotational line spectrum of the SiO. The sputtering is driven by neutral particle impact on charged grains, in steady--state C-type shock waves, at the speed of ambipolar diffusion. The emission of the SiO molecule is calculated by means of an LVG code. A grid of models has been generated. We compare our results with those of an earlier study (Schilke et al. 1997). Improvements in the treatment of the coupling between the charged grains and the neutral fluid lead to narrower shock waves and lower fractions of Si being released into the gas phase. More realistic assumptions concerning the initial fractional abundance of O2 lead to SiO formation being delayed, so that it occurs in the cool, dense postshock flow. Good agreement is obtained with recent observations of SiO line intensities in the L1157 and L1448 molecular outflows. The inferred temperature, opacity, and SiO column density in the emission region differ significantly from those estimated by means of LVG `slab' models. The fractional abundance of SiO is deduced. Observed line profiles are wider than predicted and imply multiple, unresolved shock regions within the beam.Comment: 1 tex doc, 19 figure

    Some Results for Drawing Area Proportional Venn3 With Convex Curves

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    Many data sets are visualized effectively with area proportional Venn diagrams, where the area of the regions is in proportion to a defined specification. In particular, Venn diagrams with three intersecting curves are considered useful for visualizing data in many applications, including bioscience, ecology and medicine. To ease the understanding of such diagrams, using restricted nice shapes for the curves is considered beneficial. Many research questions on the use of such diagrams are still open. For instance, a general solution to the question of when given area specifications can be represented by Venn3 using convex curves is still unknown. In this paper we study symmetric Venn3 drawn with convex curves and show that there is a symmetric area specification that cannot be represented with such a diagram. In addition, by using symmetric diagrams drawn with polygons, we show that, if area specifications are restricted so that the double intersection areas are no greater than the triple intersection area then the specification can be drawn with convex curves. We also propose a construction that allows the representation of some area specifications when the double intersection areas are greater than the triple intersection area. Finally, we present some open questions on the topic

    Drawing Area-Proportional Euler Diagrams Representing Up To Three Sets

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    Area-proportional Euler diagrams representing three sets are commonly used to visualize the results of medical experiments, business data, and information from other applications where statistical results are best shown using interlinking curves. Currently, there is no tool that will reliably visualize exact area-proportional diagrams for up to three sets. Limited success, in terms of diagram accuracy, has been achieved for a small number of cases, such as Venn-2 and Venn-3 where all intersections between the sets must be represented. Euler diagrams do not have to include all intersections and so permit the visualization of cases where some intersections have a zero value. This paper describes a general, implemented, method for visualizing all 40 Euler-3 diagrams in an area-proportional manner. We provide techniques for generating the curves with circles and convex polygons, analyze the drawability of data with these shapes, and give a mechanism for deciding whether such data can be drawn with circles. For the cases where non-convex curves are necessary, our method draws an appropriate diagram using non-convex polygons. Thus, we are now always able to automatically visualize data for up to three sets
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