Kent Academic Repository

    Incremental Code Clone Detection and Elimination for Erlang Programs

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    A well-known bad code smell in refactoring and software maintenance is the existence of code clones, which are code fragments that are identical or similar to one another. This paper describes an approach to incrementally detecting 'similar' code based on the notion of least-general common abstraction, or anti-unification, as well as a framework for user-controlled incremental elimination of code clones within the context of Erlang programs. The clone detection algorithm proposed in this paper achieves 100 precision, high recall rate, and is user-customisable regarding the granularity of the clone classes reported. By detecting and eliminating clones in an incremental way, we make it possible for the tool to be used in an interactive way even with large codebases. Both the clone detection and elimination functionalities are integrated with Wrangler, a tool for interactive refactoring of Erlang programs. We evaluate the approach with various case studies

    Doing audio-visual montage to explore time and space: The everyday rhythms of Billingsgate Fish Market

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    This article documents, shows and analyses the everyday rhythms of Billingsgate, London’s wholesale fish market. It takes the form of a short film based an audio-visual montage of time-lapse photography and sound recordings, and a textual account of the dimensions of market life revealed by this montage. Inspired by Henri Lefebvre’s Rhythmanalysis, and the embodied experience of moving through and sensing the market, the film renders the elusive quality of the market and the work that takes place within it to make it happen. The composite of audio-visual recordings immerses viewers in the space and atmosphere of the market and allows us to perceive and analyse rhythms, patterns, flows, interactions, temporalities and interconnections of market work, themes that this article discusses. The film is thereby both a means of showing market life and an analytic tool for making sense of it. This article critically considers the documentation, evocation and analysis of time and space in this way

    Software Architectures and Open Source Software – Where can Research Leverage the Most?

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    Software architectures have been playing a central role in software engineering research for some years now. They are considered of pivotal importance in the success of complex software systems development. However, with the emergence of Open Source Software (OSS) development, a new opportunity for studying architectural issues arises. In this paper, we introduce accepted notions of software architectures (Section 2), discuss some of the known issues in OSS (Section 3), resulting in a set of aspects we consider to be relevant for future research (Section 4)

    ‘All human life is there’: the John Hilton Bureau of the News of the World and access to free legal advice, c.1938-1973

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    This article considers the role of the John Hilton Bureau newspaper advice service, which ran under the auspices of the News of the World between 1942 and the late 1960s. The Bureau merits attention from historians on account of the light it can shed on how ordinary Britons accessed the law and legal advice before and after the Legal Aid and Advice Act 1949. It also provides insight into how relationships between the state and individual differed between a highly-regulated wartime state and the supposedly affluent, consumerist welfare state that followed it. The article also argues that the John Hilton Bureau evolved from a service defined by the reputation of the eponymous Hilton, a Cambridge professor and radio personality, to one that saw itself as a crusading organisation standing up for the ‘little man’ against a bureaucratic welfare state and unscrupulous traders. The Bureau is finally a reminder that the post-war welfare state was not simply divided between the public and voluntary sectors, but also included an array of private sector interests. The Bureau’s position outside of the public and voluntary sectors enabled it to be a critical and challenging voice, untainted by a sense of charity, but its location within a profit-making organisation also made it vulnerable in the longer term

    Nabokov and Benjamin: A Late Modernist Response to History

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    This article reads together the work of Vladimir Nabokov and Walter Benjamin, tracing their shared cultural affiliations and elucidating their common approach to representing historical and biographical time in the 1930s and 40s

    Estimating GFR and the Effects of AKI on Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

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    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common health problem with a high prevalence in the elderly and is associated with high mortality rates and co-morbidity. CKD guidelines recommend that diagnosis and staging of CKD be based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Estimating GFR requires estimating equations using the variables gender, race and age and body surface area based on serum creatinine levels. The commonly recommended and used equations are the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations but these have not yet been validated in elderly people, who are at significant risk of developing CKD. The numbers of patients with progressive CKD is reportedly low with only a small proportion of patients reaching end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study set out to find out why there is such a disproportion in the high prevalence of CKD and the low incidence of ESRD patients. Many patients die before they reach ESRD but prevalence studies have shown that mortality rates alone do not account for these numbers. I hypothesised that the methods used to estimate GFR underestimate renal function in elderly people causing an overestimate in CKD prevalence. This study firstly set out to assess the accuracy of the MDRD and CKD-EPI equations in an elderly Caucasian population against measured GFR across a wide range of renal function. The study demonstrated both equations perform fairly accurately in the elderly population with a tendency to slightly over-estimate GFR. This study has validated the use of these estimating equations in an elderly Caucasian population disproving my first hypothesis. If the CKD prevalence data is a fair estimate and only a small proportion progress then the answer may lie in how CKD progresses. There are several known factors that influence CKD progression including GFR and albuminuria category, cause of renal disease and hypertension. Some of these risk factors are modifiable and need to be identified and managed in order to impact on long term outcomes including death, cardiovascular events and disease progression. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is also rising in incidence and is complicated by high mortality rates, increased risk of cardiovascular events and more recently CKD progression. Little is known about the impact of more minor episodes occurring in the community on renal outcome. The second part of this study examined the relationship of multiple episodes of community AKI with CKD progression in a population of patients with CKD stage 3-5 referred to renal services. In this observational study, patterns of CKD progression were assessed and multiple AKI events were recorded. This study demonstrated a clear relation between multiple AKI events and CKD progression however only low eGFR at referral, diabetes and albuminuria were independent risk factors associated with disease progression. During the study it emerged that there were two patterns of CKD progression. In comparison to the more commonly assumed linear decline, the more common pattern was a stepwise progressive pattern characterised by accelerated rates of decline followed by a period of stability. Multiple AKI events were significantly more common in the stepwise progressive group suggesting AKI may have an important role as a promoter of CKD progression. This study suggests that community AKI is a modifiable risk factor that needs identifying at early stages in order to minimise risk of poor outcomes including CKD progression

    Comparison of pharmacist and public views and experiences of community pharmacy medicines-related services in England

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    Background: Services provided by community pharmacists designed to support people using medicines are increasing. In England, two national services exist: Medicine Use Reviews (MUR) and New Medicines Service (NMS). Very few studies have been conducted seeking views of the public, rather than service users, on willingness to use these services or expectations of these services, or determined whether views align with pharmacist perceptions. Objective: To compare the perceptions of pharmacists and the general public on medicines-related services, particularly MUR and NMS services. Methods: Two parallel surveys were conducted in one area of England: one involved the general public and was administered using a street survey, and the other was a postal survey of community pharmacists. Similar questionnaires were used, seeking views of services, awareness, reasons for using services, and perceived benefits. Results: Response rates were 47.2% (1,000/2,012 approached) for the public and 40.8% (341/836) for pharmacists. Few people had experienced a discussion in a private consultation room or were aware of the two formal services, although their willingness to use them was high. Pharmacists estimated time spent on service provision as 10 minutes for MUR and 12 minutes for NMS, which aligned with acceptability to both pharmacists and the public. Pharmacists underestimated the willingness of the public to wait for an informal discussion or to make appointments for formal services. Both pharmacists and the public had high expectations that services would be beneficial in terms of increasing knowledge and understanding, but public expectations and experiences of services helping to sort out problems fell well below pharmacists’ perceptions. People who had experienced a pharmacy service had different perceptions of pharmacists. Conclusion: Views differed regarding why people use services and key aspects of service delivery. For services to improve, the pharmacy profession needs a better awareness of what the public, especially those with potential to benefit from services, view as acceptable and desirable

    Specialist Communication Skills for Social Workers

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    This book gives students a solid understanding of the key issues involved in effective communication within social work settings. Now going into its second edition, it combines practical examples with a clear theoretical approach and demonstrates the subtleties of communication with specific and diverse service users and carers

    Hakim Revisited: Preference, Choice and the Postfeminist Gender Regime

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    Abstract We revisit Hakim’s influential preference theory to demonstrate how it is both reflective of postfeminism and generative of its values and practices. We differentiate between two interpretations of postfeminism – first a surface level “successful but obsolete” version articulated by Hakim and a second, multi-layered account of postfeminism as a discursive formation connected to a set of discourses around gender, feminism and femininity. Drawing on this latter version we make visible the embeddedness of postfeminism in preference theory highlighting its connection to the creation of a new postfeminist subjectivity based on an agentic and ‘choosing’ femininity. We show how a consideration of preference theory in terms of the emergence and constitution of “the female chooser”, opens up aspects of Hakim’s thesis which to date have been overlooked. In addition, our postfeminist reading of preference theory draws out aspects of Hakim’s account which she herself understated. Specifically, within a contemporary context where equivalent priority is afforded to wage-work and care work, it is Hakim’s ‘adaptive’ woman who exemplifies the new postfeminist subject required to perform well simultaneously in both the work and domestic domains

    Multicentre individual randomised controlled trial of screening and brief alcohol intervention to prevent risky drinking in young people aged 14–15 in a high school setting (SIPS JR-HIGH): study protocol

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    Introduction: Drinking has adverse impacts on health, well-being, education and social outcomes for adolescents. Adolescents in England are among the heaviest drinkers in Europe. Recently, the proportion of adolescents who drink alcohol has fallen, although consumption among those who do drink has actually increased. This trial seeks to investigate how effective and efficient an alcohol brief intervention is with 11–15?years olds to encourage lower alcohol consumption. Methods and analysis: This is an individually randomised two-armed trial incorporating a control arm of usual school-based practice and a leaflet on a healthy lifestyle (excl. alcohol), and an intervention arm that combines usual practice with a 30?min brief intervention delivered by school learning mentors and a leaflet on alcohol. At least 30 schools will be recruited from four regions in England (North East, North West, London, Kent and Medway) to follow-up 235 per arm. The primary outcome is total alcohol consumed in the last 28?days, using the 28?day Timeline Follow Back questionnaire measured at the 12-month follow-up. The analysis of the intervention will consider effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. A qualitative study will explore, via 1:1 in-depth interviews with (n=80) parents, young people and school staff, intervention experience, intervention fidelity and acceptability issues, using thematic narrative synthesis to report qualitative data. Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval was granted by Teesside University. Dissemination plans include academic publications, conference presentations, disseminating to local and national education departments and the wider public health community, including via Fuse, and engaging with school staff and young people to comment on whether and how the project can be improved
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