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    The Link between BPR, Evolutionary Delivery and Evolutionary Development

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    In this paper we intend to show how the challenges of managing a Business Process Reengineering (BPR) project are consistent with the ones of a Systems Development project. As traditional management techniques were no longer appropriate in the changing business environment, companies employed BPR to achieve elevated business performance. Similarly, as traditional systems development approaches delivered disappointing results, system developers experimented with other models, including Evolutionary Delivery and Evolutionary Development, in order to enable successful technology exploitation by businesses. Both these business and systems initiatives embrace elements of cultural change, management flexibility, empowerment, organisational readiness, and technology introduction in a changing environment. We will present the similarities of the two initiatives and show how progress in one initiative could contribute in the progress of the other

    Demand for Long-term Care: Projections of Long-term Care Finance for Elderly People.

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    How best to finance long-term care has become in recent years a highly topical issue. A range of factors have encouraged debate. These include the projected continued growth in the numbers of very elderly people, uncertainty about future levels of family care, and more generally uncertainty about future levels of need for long-term services. To inform debate it would be most valuable to have reliable projections of two key variables. The first is the likely level of demand for long-term care services under different scenarios about changes in life and health expectancy and in socio-economic variables. The second is the costs associated with meeting the expected demand for care and the distribution of these costs under different policies and funding mechanisms. Projections have been made for this country by at least three agencies. The Institute of Actuaries (Nuttall et al., 1994) has made projections of the likely numbers of disabled people and of the costs of caring for them on varying assumptions. London Economics and the Institute for Public Policy Research (Richards et al., 1996) have made projections of future patterns of demand and supply of long-term care and associated costs. The Department of Health has also made broad projections of expenditure on long-term care on a range of assumptions (House of Commons Health Committee, 1996). The Department of Health agreed a new study of long-term care demand and finance as part of the PSSRU's long-run programme of research at the London School of Economics. This report describes the model developed by the PSSRU, discusses some of the key issues that were addressed in producing the model, and outlines some illustrative projections made using the model

    Perfectionism and coping with daily failures: Positive reframing helps achieve satisfaction at the end of the day

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    Differentiating perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns, the present study examined how perfectionism predicts what coping strategies people use when dealing with failures, and how perfectionism and coping influence people’s satisfaction. A sample of 149 students completed daily reports for 3 to 14 days reporting the most bothersome failure they experienced during the day, what strategies they used to cope with the failure, and how satisfied they felt at the end of the day. Multilevel regression analyses showed that perfectionistic concerns predicted more frequent use of self-blame, less frequent use of active coping and acceptance, and higher satisfaction at the end of the day whereas perfectionistic strivings predicted less frequent use of self-blame and higher satisfaction. Whereas positive reframing, acceptance, and humor predicted higher satisfaction for all students, further analyses showed that positive reframing coping was particularly helpful for students high in perfectionistic concern. The findings suggest that accommodative coping strategies are generally helpful in dealing with personal failures, with positive reframing being a coping strategy that works particularly well for people high in perfectionistic concerns (who are prone to dissatisfaction) to achieve higher satisfaction at the end of the day

    Development of the positive-negative asymmetry effect: In-group exclusion norm as a mediator of children’s evaluations on negative attributes.

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    Two studies were conducted that go beyond previous research by examining when and why children might show intergroup bias in the attribution of positive, but not negative traits (PNAE: the positive-negative asymmetry effect, Mummendey & Otten, 1998). In Study 1 (n = 107) children completed a ‘mixed’ trait attribution task in a dichotomous group context. As predicted there was a developmental trend between 7 and 12 years of age in the PNAE. The seven year olds were the only age group not to show the effect. Study 1 also found a quadratic developmental trend in children’s national intergroup bias. Study 2 (n = 62) replicated the developmental path of the PNAE found in Study 1 using a wider age range of 6 to 16 years. This study used a ‘mixed’ list of traits which weren’t only antonyms and a procedure that made the positive and negative trait dimensions explicitly independent. Significantly, Study 2 found ingroup exclusion norm partially mediated the development of the PNAE. These findings support an account of the positive-negative asymmetry effect based upon normative processes

    A new social-cognitive developmental perspective on prejudice: The interplay between morality and group identity.

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    We argue that prejudice should be investigated in the context of social-cognitive development and the interplay between morality and group identity. Our new perspective examines how children consider group identity (and group norms) along with their developing moral beliefs about fairness and justice. This is achieved by developing an integrated framework drawing on developmental and social psychological theories of prejudice. This synthesis results in a perspective which provides a more contextualized analysis of prejudice development than previously offered by developmental theories. We describe research which supports our view that social norms, intergroup contact and perceived out-group threat affect the relative weight children place on moral and group-based criteria during the development of prejudice

    Victimisation of Mentally Ill Patients Living in the Community: Is it a Lifestyle issue?

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    Purpose. Although criminal victimization of mentally ill patients has been researched, what little work there is focuses on in-patient samples. This study aimed to compare crimes against mentally ill patients living in the community with crimes against students who have a high life-style risk of victimization. Methods. The samples were selected via community-based mental health services and a university population. A group of 40 mentally ill patients and 80 students reported experiences of victimization in the previous 12 months and attitudes towards the police. Results. Female mentally ill patients reported the highest victimization, but both male and female patients reported more victimization than did students. Mentally ill patients also held more negative opinions of the police. Conclusions. The results show that mentally ill patients experience more victimization when compared with the victimization experiences of a similar life-style risk group. Discussion focuses on the implications for mentally ill patients living in the community, the support networks available to them, and relations between the police and mentally ill patients

    The House of Lords in Al-Jedda and Public International Law: Attribution of Conduct to Unauthorised Forces and the Power of the Security Council to Displace Human Rights.

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    This article deals with the recent Al-Jedda House of Lords judgment from the point of view of public international law. Mr Al-Jedda unsuccessfully sought a remedy under the Human Rights Act against his prolonged internment without charge or trial in a British prison in Iraq. The article provides an in depth analysis of the opinions delivered by their Lordships. It advances some criticism of the line of reasoning adopted. Despite reaching the right result, the distinguishing arguments employed by the House to eschew the controversial Behrami case by the European Court of Human Rights seem unconvincing. Secondly, the decision that Article 5 ECHR was ‘qualified and/or displaced’ was an inherently ambiguous one. It left too many questions open as to the law applicable to Mr Al-Jedda's internment, some of which this article seeks to clarify

    Self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism in employees: Relationships with burnout and engagement

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    Burnout and engagement impact employees, organizations, and customers in numerous positive and negative ways. Consequently, it is important to know how individual differences contribute to employees‘ burnout and engagement. The present study examined how individual differences in self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism were associated with burnout and engagement in a sample of 106 employees. Results of correlation and regression analyses showed that perfectionism explained variance in all facets of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, reduced efficacy) and engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption). Whereas socially prescribed perfectionism was associated with higher levels of burnout and lower levels of engagement, self-oriented and other-oriented perfectionism were associated with lower levels of burnout and higher levels of engagement. The findings indicate that individual differences in perfectionism may be a contributing factor to burnout and engagement in the workplace

    Who Says Pornography Can't Be Art?

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    This opening chapter provides the contours of the debate about whether art and pornography are mutually exclusive and is meant as an introduction to the main themes of the book. It begins by looking at some of the classic ways of explaining the difference between art and pornography. Pornography, some have said, is sexually explicit and focuses exclusively on certain body parts, while art possesses emotional and psychological depth and is essentially suggestive. Others have stressed that pornography, unlike art, is inherently formulaic, or that pornography is exploitative in a way that art is not, or that pornography aims for a particular response, sexual arousal, that is incompatible with artistic contemplation or aesthetic experience. Such dichotomies, it is argued, are illuminating insofar as they help us to clarify how typical examples of art differ from typical examples of pornography, yet it would be wrong to see them as absolute distinctions. Whenever one attempts to draw a strict line between the two domains, whether it is on the basis of representational content, moral status, artistic quality, or prescribed response, one can always find examples of art or pornography that would fall on the ‘wrong side’ of the divide. Furthermore, it is argued that a value-neutral definition of pornography is to be preferred over any normative characterisation that stipulates that pornographic works, by definition, lack any significant artistic or aesthetic aspect. Finally, after providing a critical assessment of Christy Mag Uidhir’s incompatibilist account, which contrasts the ‘manner specificity’ of art with the ‘manner inspecificity’ of pornography, Maes highlights some of the practical implications of this philosophical discussion
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