5,609 research outputs found

    Finding Cycles and Trees in Sublinear Time

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    We present sublinear-time (randomized) algorithms for finding simple cycles of length at least k≄3k\geq 3 and tree-minors in bounded-degree graphs. The complexity of these algorithms is related to the distance of the graph from being CkC_k-minor-free (resp., free from having the corresponding tree-minor). In particular, if the graph is far (i.e., Ω(1)\Omega(1)-far) {from} being cycle-free, i.e. if one has to delete a constant fraction of edges to make it cycle-free, then the algorithm finds a cycle of polylogarithmic length in time \tildeO(\sqrt{N}), where NN denotes the number of vertices. This time complexity is optimal up to polylogarithmic factors. The foregoing results are the outcome of our study of the complexity of {\em one-sided error} property testing algorithms in the bounded-degree graphs model. For example, we show that cycle-freeness of NN-vertex graphs can be tested with one-sided error within time complexity \tildeO(\poly(1/\e)\cdot\sqrt{N}). This matches the known Ω(N)\Omega(\sqrt{N}) query lower bound, and contrasts with the fact that any minor-free property admits a {\em two-sided error} tester of query complexity that only depends on the proximity parameter \e. For any constant k≄3k\geq3, we extend this result to testing whether the input graph has a simple cycle of length at least kk. On the other hand, for any fixed tree TT, we show that TT-minor-freeness has a one-sided error tester of query complexity that only depends on the proximity parameter \e. Our algorithm for finding cycles in bounded-degree graphs extends to general graphs, where distances are measured with respect to the actual number of edges. Such an extension is not possible with respect to finding tree-minors in o(N)o(\sqrt{N}) complexity.Comment: Keywords: Sublinear-Time Algorithms, Property Testing, Bounded-Degree Graphs, One-Sided vs Two-Sided Error Probability Updated versio

    The Global Baroclinic Instability in Accretion Disks. II: Local Linear Analysis

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    This paper contains a local linear stability analysis for accretion disks under the influence of a global radial entropy gradient beta = - d log T / d log r for constant surface density. Numerical simulations suggested the existence of an instability in two- and three-dimensional models of the solar nebula. The present paper tries to clarify, quantify, and explain such a global baroclinic instability for two-dimensional flat accretion disk models. As a result linear theory predicts a transient linear instability that will amplify perturbations only for a limited time or up to a certain finite amplification. This can be understood as a result of the growth time of the instability being longer than the shear time which destroys the modes which are able to grow. So only non-linear effects can lead to a relevant amplification. Nevertheless, a lower limit on the entropy gradient ~beta = 0.22 for the transient linear instability is derived, which can be tested in future non-linear simulations. This would help to explain the observed instability in numerical simulations as an ultimate result of the transient linear instability, i.e. the Global Baroclinic Instability.Comment: 35 pages, 11 figures; ApJ in pres

    Long-term Stable Equilibria for Synchronous Binary Asteroids

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    Synchronous binary asteroids may exist in a long-term stable equilibrium, where the opposing torques from mutual body tides and the binary YORP (BYORP) effect cancel. Interior of this equilibrium, mutual body tides are stronger than the BYORP effect and the mutual orbit semi-major axis expands to the equilibrium; outside of the equilibrium, the BYORP effect dominates the evolution and the system semi-major axis will contract to the equilibrium. If the observed population of small (0.1 - 10 km diameter) synchronous binaries are in static configurations that are no longer evolving, then this would be confirmed by a null result in the observational tests for the BYORP effect. The confirmed existence of this equilibrium combined with a shape model of the secondary of the system enables the direct study of asteroid geophysics through the tidal theory. The observed synchronous asteroid population cannot exist in this equilibrium if described by the canonical "monolithic" geophysical model. The "rubble pile" geophysical model proposed by \citet{Goldreich2009} is sufficient, however it predicts a tidal Love number directly proportional to the radius of the asteroid, while the best fit to the data predicts a tidal Love number inversely proportional to the radius. This deviation from the canonical and \citet{Goldreich2009} models motivates future study of asteroid geophysics. Ongoing BYORP detection campaigns will determine whether these systems are in an equilibrium, and future determination of secondary shapes will allow direct determination of asteroid geophysical parameters.Comment: 17 pages, 1 figur

    Simulations of Incompressible MHD Turbulence

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    We simulate incompressible MHD turbulence in the presence of a strong background magnetic field. Our major conclusions are: 1) MHD turbulence is most conveniently described in terms of counter propagating shear Alfven and slow waves. Shear Alfven waves control the cascade dynamics. Slow waves play a passive role and adopt the spectrum set by the shear Alfven waves, as does a passive scalar. 2) MHD turbulence is anisotropic with energy cascading more rapidly along k_perp than along k_parallel, where k_perp and k_parallel refer to wavevector components perpendicular and parallel to the local magnetic field. Anisotropy increases with increasing k_perp. 3) MHD turbulence is generically strong in the sense that the waves which comprise it suffer order unity distortions on timescales comparable to their periods. Nevertheless, turbulent fluctuations are small deep inside the inertial range compared to the background field. 4) Decaying MHD turbulence is unstable to an increase of the imbalance between the flux of waves propagating in opposite directions along the magnetic field. 5) Items 1-4 lend support to the model of strong MHD turbulence by Goldreich & Sridhar (GS). Results from our simulations are also consistent with the GS prediction gamma=2/3. The sole notable discrepancy is that 1D power law spectra, E(k_perp) ~ k_perp^{-alpha}, determined from our simulations exhibit alpha ~ 3/2, whereas the GS model predicts alpha = 5/3.Comment: 56 pages, 30 figures, submitted to ApJ 59 pages, 31 figures, accepted to Ap

    An Exact, Three-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Wave Solution in Local Keplerian Flow

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    We present an exact three-dimensional wave solution to the shearing sheet equations of motion. The existence of this solution argues against transient amplification as a route to turbulence in unmagnetized disks. Moreover, because the solution covers an extensive dynamical range in wavenumber space, it is an excellent test of the dissipative properties of numerical codes.Comment: 22 pages, 4 figures. To appear Apj Dec 1 200

    Gravity-Modes in ZZ Ceti Stars: IV. Amplitude Saturation by Parametric Instability

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    ZZ Ceti stars exhibit small amplitude photometric pulsations in multiple gravity-modes. We demonstrate that parametric instability, a form of resonant 3-mode coupling, limits overstable modes to amplitudes similar to those observed. In particular, it reproduces the observed trend that longer period modes have larger amplitudes. Parametric instability involves the destabilization of a pair of stable daughter modes by an overstable parent mode. The 3-modes must satisfy exact angular selection rules and approximate frequency resonance. The lowest instability threshold for each parent mode is provided by the daughter pair that minimizes (Ύω2+Îłd2)/Îș2(\delta\omega^2+\gamma_d^2)/\kappa^2, where Îș\kappa is the nonlinear coupling constant, Ύω\delta\omega is the frequency mismatch, and Îłd\gamma_d is the energy damping rate of the daughter modes. The overstable mode's amplitude is maintained at close to the instability threshold value. Although parametric instability defines an upper envelope for the amplitudes of overstable modes in ZZ Ceti stars, other nonlinear mechanisms are required to account for the irregular distribution of amplitudes of similar modes and the non-detection of modes with periods longer than 1,200\s. Resonant 3-mode interactions involving more than one excited mode may account for the former. Our leading candidate for the latter is Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of the mode-driven shear layer below the convection zone.Comment: 16 pages with 10 figures, abstract shortened, submitted to Ap

    Physical Constraints On Fast Radio Burst

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    Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) are isolated, \ms radio pulses with dispersion measure (DM) of order 10^3\DMunit. Galactic candidates for the DM of high latitude bursts detected at \GHz frequencies are easily dismissed. DM from bursts emitted in stellar coronas are limited by free-free absorption and those from HII regions are bounded by the nondetection of associated free-free emission at radio wavelengths. Thus, if astronomical, FRBs are probably extra-galactic. FRB 110220 has a scattering tail of \sim 5.6\pm 0.1 \ms. If the electron density fluctuations arise from a turbulent cascade, the scattering is unlikely to be due to propagation through the diffuse intergalactic plasma. A more plausible explanation is that this burst sits in the central region of its host galaxy. Pulse durations of order \ms constrain the sizes of FRB sources implying high brightness temperatures that indicates coherent emission. Electric fields near FRBs at cosmological distances would be so strong that they could accelerate free electrons from rest to relativistic energies in a single wave period.Comment: 5 pages, accepted by ApJ

    Origin of chaos in the Prometheus–Pandora system

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    We demonstrate that the chaotic orbits of Prometheus and Pandora are due to interactions associated with the 121:118 mean motion resonance. Differential precession splits this resonance into a quartet of components equally spaced in frequency. Libration widths of the individual components exceed the splitting resulting in resonance overlap which causes the chaos. A single degree of freedom model captures the essential features of the chaotic dynamics. Mean motions of Prometheus and Pandora wander chaotically in zones of width 1.8 deg yr^−1 and 3.1 deg yr^−1, respectively