11,125 research outputs found

    International trade network and stock market connectedness: Evidence from eleven major economies

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    Depth of cross-country international trade engagement is an important source of (the strength of) stock-market connectedness, depicting how directional attributes of trade determine the magnitude of spillover of stock returns across economies. We premise and test this hypothesis for a group of eleven major economies during 2000 m1-2021 m6 using both system-wide and directional evidence. We exploit the input–output network of Bilgin and Yilmaz (2018) to construct a trade-network, and use Diebold and Yilmaz, 2009, Diebold and Yilmaz, 2012, Diebold and Yilmaz, 2014 Connectedness Index to proxy for stock-market connectedness among economies. We reveal China’s instrumental role in the trade-network and its rising influence in stock markets dominated by the US. Motivated by the fact that shocks on an economy’s imports and exports may lead to different magnitude of stock market spillover to its trade partner, we further carry out a pairwise directional level investigation. Once the directional dimensions of both the trade flows and the stock market influences are considered, we find that an economy’s stock return spillover to its trade partner is generated from its position as an importer and exporter. More importantly, being an importer is found to be a stronger source of such spillover than being an exporter

    The effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) on fasting serum glucose, the area under the curve (AUC) of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), fasting serum insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in diabetic mice.

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    The effects of a ketogenic diet (KD) on fasting serum glucose, the area under the curve (AUC) of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), fasting serum insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in diabetic mice.</p

    A Review of a Ketogenic Diet In the Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Autism Spectrum Disorder effects millions of people every year, however pharmacological and behavioral treatments remain limited. The need for adjunctive therapies such as diet invervention [sic] that target autism spectrum disorder symptoms Is [sic] needed now more than ever. A connection between a ketogenic diet, which is high in fat and low in carbohydrates, and autism spectrum disorder can be made as the diet has shown potential in ameleriotating [sic] common comorbidities within the autism spectrum disorder population such as metabolic dysfunction, gut-microbiome dysfunction, medication resistant epilepsy, and various psychiatric disorders. Hence, this review focuses on the results and methods of various animal and human studies that implicate the benefits of a ketogenic diet in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder. The data suggest that implementation of a ketogenic diet improves core and associated psychiatric symptoms of autism spectrum disorder such as repetitive behaviors, social behaviors, communication, anxiety, speech, hyperactivity, and cognition

    Data_Sheet_1_Dietary β-hydroxybutyric acid improves the growth performance of young ruminants based on rumen microbiota and volatile fatty acid biosynthesis.docx

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    IntroductionThe ketone body β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHB) plays critical roles in cellular proliferation and metabolic fuel utilization; however, its effects on the rumen microbiota remain unknown.MethodsHere, three doses of BHB (low, medium, and high) were supplemented to early-weaned goat kids.ResultsCompared with controls, the beneficial effects of BHB on growth and rumen development were observed in goats at 90 days of age (d). The low dose of dietary BHB increased the concentration of rumen acetate, propionate, and butyrate on d90. The sequencing results of the rumen microbiota revealed marked shifts in rumen microbial community structure after early-weaned goat kids consumed BHB for 2 months. The signature bacterial ASVs for each treatment were identified and were the main drivers contributing to microbial interactions in the rumen. The bacteria associated with rumen weight were also correlated with body weight. Some classified bacterial signatures, including Prevotella, Olsenella umbonate, and Roseburia faecis, were related to rumen volatile fatty acids and host development.ConclusionOverall, dietary BHB altered rumen microbiota and environments in young goats, which contributed to rumen development and growth.</p

    The role of the peripheral system dysfunction in the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated encephalopathy

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    Sepsis is a condition that greatly impacts the brain, leading to neurological dysfunction and heightened mortality rates, making it one of the primary organs affected. Injury to the central nervous system can be attributed to dysfunction of various organs throughout the entire body and imbalances within the peripheral immune system. Furthermore, central nervous system injury can create a vicious circle with infection-induced peripheral immune disorders. We collate the pathogenesis of septic encephalopathy, which involves microglial activation, programmed cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, neurotransmitter imbalance, and blood–brain barrier disruption. We also spotlight the effects of intestinal flora and its metabolites, enterocyte-derived exosomes, cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, peripheral T cells and their cytokines on septic encephalopathy

    Associations among post-partum rumen fill and motility, subclinical ketosis and fertility in Holstein dairy cows

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    This prospective observational study aimed to investigate the association of rumen fill and motility in post-partum Holstein cows with their future reproductive performance and subclinical ketosis (SCK). The study population consisted of two independent data sets: the first (DS1) included 237 cows from 6 herds and the second one (DS2) 709 cows from 9 herds. Rumen Fill Score (RFS) was transformed into a 3 level-trait, representing very low, low and adequate dry matter intake, respectively. A binary Rumen Contraction Score (RCS) was defined as: 0: &lt;2 contractions/2 min, impaired rumen motility and 1: ≥2 contractions/2 min, normal rumen motility. A combined binary trait based on RFS and RCS (RFCS) was also established, representing unsatisfactory and satisfactory rumen function. Three SCK traits were defined, based on 3 different thresholds, SCK_I: BHB≥1,000 mmol/L, SCK_II: BHB≥1,100 mmol/L and SCK_III: BHB≥1,200 mmol/L. Scores were assessed and blood samples collected on day 7 (DS1) or day 8 (DS2), postpartum. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and Generalized Linear Mixed Models were performed to evaluate the association of rumen and SCK traits with reproduction. Herd, parity, calving season and several postparturient diseases were also included as potential explanatory variables. Mean days from calving to pregnancy after the 1st artificial insemination (AI) and from calving to pregnancy (all AIs) were shorter for levels of rumen traits representing adequate DMI and normal rumen motility; in most cases these differences were statistically significant in both datasets. Cows with adequate DMI and normal rumen motility (only in DS2) had greater hazard (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.84 and 1.61, for RFS and RFCS, respectively) and odds (odds ratio [OR] = 2.49 and 1.98, for RFS and RFCS, respectively) for pregnancy at 1st AI. Assessment of the association of examined rumen traits with hazard and odds for pregnancy at all AIs yielded statistically significant results in both datasets. For RFS, RCS and RFCS, HRs ranged from 1.57 to 3.31 and ORs from 1.95 to 4.83. No statistically significant associations with hazard and odds for pregnancy at 1st or all AIs were detected, for any of the 3 SCK traits, in either dataset. Overall, the combined RFCS trait constantly identified more than twice the number of cows with future reproductive problems than a positive SCK blood test.</p

    Time-restricted ketogenic diet in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case study

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    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder. The most devastating variant is bulbar-onset ALS, which portends a median survival of 24 months from the onset of symptoms. Abundant evidence indicates that neuron metabolism and mitochondrial function are impaired in ALS. Metabolic strategies, particularly fasting and ketogenic diet protocols, alter neuron metabolism and mitochondria function in a manner that may mitigate the symptoms of this disorder. We report the case of a 64-year-old man with a 21-month history of progressive, deteriorating bulbar-onset ALS, with an associated pseudobulbar affect, who implemented a time-restricted ketogenic diet (TRKD) for 18 months. During this time, he improved in ALS-related function (7% improvement from baseline), forced expiratory volume (17% improvement), forced vital capacity (13% improvement), depression (normalized), stress levels (normalized), and quality of life (19% improvement), particularly fatigue (23% improvement). His swallowing impairment and neurocognitive status remained stable. Declines were measured in physical function, maximal inspiratory pressure, and maximal expiratory pressure. Weight loss was attenuated and no significant adverse effects occurred. This case study represents the first documented occurrence of a patient with ALS managed with either a fasting or ketogenic diet protocol, co-administered as a TRKD. We measured improved or stabilized ALS-related function, forced expiratory volume, forced vital capacity, swallowing, neurocognitive status, mood, and quality of life. Measurable declines were restricted to physical function, maximal inspiratory pressure, and maximal expiratory pressure. Now over 45 months since symptom onset, our patient remains functionally independent and dedicated to his TRKD

    Welcoming All: Closing Racial Gaps in School Connectedness

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    This mixed-methods improvement science dissertation in practice (ISDiP) explores the problem of racial gaps in school connectedness at a small suburban elementary school, where Black students report the lowest rates of connection. School connectedness is a crucial predictor of academic and social-emotional success. An exploration of scholarly and professional practice identified restorative practices coaching as a high-yield strategy to close this gap. Restorative practices is a framework of proactive and responsive practices aimed at building community and repairing harm when it occurs. Six fourth- and fifth-grade teachers participated in bi-weekly coaching sessions and classroom observations of circles, a fundamental element of restorative practices. Qualitative results found that teachers felt the coaching increased their implementation of restorative practices. Students reported statistically significant increases in school connectedness, with Black students reporting the largest increase. There was a positive correlation between teachers’ implementation of restorative practices and their perception of student connectedness. Students reported that restorative circles support their feelings of connectedness. This research is promising for using restorative practices coaching in the setting. Recommendations for future research include expanding the intervention to other grade levels and including coaching to support implementation with multi-lingual and neurodiverse learners. This ISDiP can support other schools in implementing restorative practices to close racial gaps in student connectedness

    Review: Metabolic challenges in lactating dairy cows and their assessment via established and novel indicators in milk

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    The increasing lactational performance of dairy cows over the last few decades is closely related to higher nutritional requirements. The decrease in dry matter intake during the peripartal period results in a considerable mobilisation of body tissues (mainly fat reserves and muscle mass) to compensate for the prevailing lack of energy and nutrients. Despite the activation of adaptive mechanisms to mobilise nutrients from body tissues for maintenance and milk production, the increased metabolic load is still a risk factor for animal health. The prevalence of production diseases, particularly subclinical ketosis is high in the early lactation period. Increased β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations further depress gluconeogenesis, feed intake and the immune system. Despite a variety of adaptation responses to nutrient and energy deficit that exists among dairy cows, an early and non-invasive detection of developing metabolic disorders in milk samples would be useful. The frequent and regular milking process of dairy cows creates the ability to obtain samples at any stage of lactation. Routine identification of biomarkers accurately characterising the physiological status of an animal is crucial for decisive strategies. The present overview recapitulates established markers measured in milk that are associated with metabolic health of dairy cows. Specifically, measurements of milk fat, protein, lactose and urea concentrations are evaluated. Changes in the ratio of milk fat to protein may indicate an increased risk for rumen acidosis and ketosis. The costly determination of individual fatty acids in milk creates barriers for grouping of fatty acids into saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Novel approaches include the potential of mid-IR (MIR) based predictions of BHB and acetone in milk, although the latter are not directly measured, but only estimated via indirect associations of concomitantly altered milk composition during (sub)clinical ketosis. Although MIR-based ketone body concentrations in milk are not suitable to monitor the metabolic status of the individual cow, they provide an estimate of the overall herd or specific groups of animals earlier in a particular stage of lactation. Management decisions can be made earlier and animal health status improved by adjusting diet composition
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