Juelich Shared Electronic Resources

    Nuclear magnetic resonance: a tool for imaging belowground damage caused by Heterodera schachtii and Rhizoctonia solani on sugar beet

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    Belowground symptoms of sugar beet caused by the beet cyst nematode (BCN) Heterodera schachtii include the development of compensatory secondary roots and beet deformity, which, thus far, could only be assessed by destructively removing the entire root systems from the soil. Similarly, the symptoms of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR) caused by infections of the soil-borne basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani require the same invasive approach for identification. Here nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for the non-invasive detection of belowground symptoms caused by BCN and/or RCRR on sugar beet. Excessive lateral root development and beet deformation of plants infected by BCN was obvious 28 days after inoculation (dai) on MRI images when compared with non-infected plants. Three-dimensional images recorded at 56 dai showed BCN cysts attached to the roots in the soil. RCRR was visualized by a lower intensity of the MRI signal at sites where rotting occurred. The disease complex of both organisms together resulted in RCRR development at the site of nematode penetration. Damage analysis of sugar beet plants inoculated with both pathogens indicated a synergistic relationship, which may result from direct and indirect interactions. Nuclear MRI of plants may provide valuable, new insight into the development of pathogens infecting plants below- and aboveground because of its non-destructive nature and the sufficiently high spatial resolution of the method

    Coevolution of synchronous activity and connectivity in coupled chaotic oscillators

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    We investigate the coevolution dynamics of node activities and coupling strengths in coupled chaotic oscillators via a simple threshold adaptive scheme. The coupling strength is synchronous activity regulated, which in turn is able to boost the synchronization remarkably. In the case of weak coupling, the globally coupled oscillators present a highly clustered functional connectivity with a power-law distribution in the tail with γ≃3.1, while for strong coupling, they self-organize into a network with a heterogeneously rich connectivity at the onset of synchronization but exhibit rather sparse structure to maintain the synchronization in noisy environment. The relevance of the results is briefly discussed

    AGATA—Advanced GAmma Tracking Array

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    The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is a European project to develop and operate the next generation γ-rayγ-ray spectrometer. AGATA is based on the technique of γ-rayγ-ray energy tracking in electrically segmented high-purity germanium crystals. This technique requires the accurate determination of the energy, time and position of every interaction as a γγ ray deposits its energy within the detector volume. Reconstruction of the full interaction path results in a detector with very high efficiency and excellent spectral response. The realisation of γ-rayγ-ray tracking and AGATA is a result of many technical advances. These include the development of encapsulated highly segmented germanium detectors assembled in a triple cluster detector cryostat, an electronics system with fast digital sampling and a data acquisition system to process the data at a high rate. The full characterisation of the crystals was measured and compared with detector-response simulations. This enabled pulse-shape analysis algorithms, to extract energy, time and position, to be employed. In addition, tracking algorithms for event reconstruction were developed. The first phase of AGATA is now complete and operational in its first physics campaign. In the future AGATA will be moved between laboratories in Europe and operated in a series of campaigns to take advantage of the different beams and facilities available to maximise its science output. The paper reviews all the achievements made in the AGATA project including all the necessary infrastructure to operate and support the spectrometer

    Calibrating atomic-scale force sensors installed at the tip apex of a scanning tunneling microscope

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    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tips decorated with either a single carbon monoxide molecule or a single xenon atom are characterized by simultaneous force and conductance measurements using a combined low-temperature noncontact atomic force and scanning tunneling microscope (NC-AFM/STM). It is shown that in both cases the particle decorating the tip simultaneously performs the function of an atomic-scale force sensor and transducer which couples the short-range force acting on the tip to the tunneling conductance of the junction. On the basis of the experimental data, two distinct coupling regimes are identified; in one of them the force sensor-transducer function is calibrated quantitatively

    Enthalpies of Formation of (Cu,Ni)3_{3}Sn, (Cu,Ni)6_{6}Sn5_{5}-HT and (Ni,Cu)3_{3}Sn2_{2}-HT

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    Standard enthalpies of formation of ternary phases in the Cu-Ni-Sn system were determined along sections at 25, 41 and 45.5 at.% Sn applying tin solution drop calorimetry. Generally, the interaction of Ni with Sn is much stronger than that of Cu with Sn. Along all sections the enthalpy of formation changes almost linearly with the mutual substitution of Cu and Ni within the respective homogeneity ranges. Thus no additional ternary interaction promoting the formation of further Cu-Ni-Sn phases can be assumed. The results are discussed and compared with literature values relevant to this system

    Pion Electromagnetic Form Factor at Spacelike Momenta

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    A novel method is employed to compute the pion electromagnetic form factor, Fπ(Q2), on the entire domain of spacelike momentum transfer using the Dyson-Schwinger equation (DSE) framework in QCD. The DSE architecture unifies this prediction with that of the pion’s valence-quark parton distribution amplitude (PDA). Using this PDA, the leading-order, leading-twist perturbative QCD result for Q2Fπ(Q2) underestimates the full computation by just 15% on Q2≳8  GeV2, in stark contrast to the result obtained using the asymptotic PDA. The analysis shows that hard contributions to the pion form factor dominate for Q2≳8  GeV2, but, even so, the magnitude of Q2Fπ(Q2) reflects the scale of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, a pivotal emergent phenomenon in the standard model

    Detection of Prion Protein Particles in Blood Plasma of Scrapie Infected Sheep

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    Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals. The agent of the disease is the prion consisting mainly, if not solely, of a misfolded and aggregated isoform of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP). Transmission of prions can occur naturally but also accidentally, e.g. by blood transfusion, which has raised serious concerns about blood product safety and emphasized the need for a reliable diagnostic test. In this report we present a method based on surface-FIDA (fluorescence intensity distribution analysis), that exploits the high state of molecular aggregation of PrP as an unequivocal diagnostic marker of the disease, and show that it can detect infection in blood. To prepare PrP aggregates from blood plasma we introduced a detergent and lipase treatment to separate PrP from blood lipophilic components. Prion protein aggregates were subsequently precipitated by phosphotungstic acid, immobilized on a glass surface by covalently bound capture antibodies, and finally labeled with fluorescent antibody probes. Individual PrP aggregates were visualized by laser scanning microscopy where signal intensity was proportional to aggregate size. After signal processing to remove the background from low fluorescence particles, fluorescence intensities of all remaining PrP particles were summed. We detected PrP aggregates in plasma samples from six out of ten scrapie-positive sheep with no false positives from uninfected sheep. Applying simultaneous intensity and size discrimination, ten out of ten samples from scrapie sheep could be differentiated from uninfected sheep. The implications for ante mortem diagnosis of prion diseases are discussed

    Chemical vapor deposition and infiltration for the production of tungsten fiber reinforced tungsten composite material

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    Contribution submission to the conference Regensburg 2016Chemical vapor deposition and infiltration for the productionof tungsten fiber reinforced tungsten composite material —∙Martin Aumann1, Jan Willem Coenen1, Hanns Gietl2, TillHoeschen2, Johann Riesch2, Klaus Schmid2, Rudolf Neu2, andChristian Linsmeier1 — 1Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institutfür Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Juelich — 2Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 GarchingDue to its high melting point, high corrosion resistance and its preferableproperties in terms of hydrogen retention, tungsten is a promisingcandidate in future nuclear fusion devices. However, the mechanicalbehavior of tungsten is crucial, as it is inherently brittle at room temperature.As possibility to overcome this brittleness, a composite materialcan be formed, which shows pseudo-ductility and therefore avoidscatastrophic failure of the material. A possibility to produce such aWf/W-composite is chemical vapor deposition and chemical vapor infiltration,where tungsten is deposited on small tungsten wires throughthe reaction of WF6 and H2. With ongoing infiltration time, pores areformed between the fibers, which decrease in size through the chemicalreaction. For better process understanding, a pore model was established,which solves the mass balance inside the pore and the resultingpore diameter simultaneously. It shows a significant difference in diameterfor longer infiltration times. This behavior shall be proved inexperiments with an experimental pore, which is similar to the simulatedone. Furthermore also kinetic investigations on the chemicalsurface reaction are carried out to increase the process understanding.Part: MMType: Vortrag;TalkTopic: Transport (Diffusion, Leitfähigkeit,Wärme)/ Transport (Diffusion,conductivity, heat)Email: m.aumann@fz-juelich.d
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