University of Central Lancashire

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    22771 research outputs found

    Solid-phase C60 in the peculiar binary XX Oph?

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    We present infrared spectra of the binary XX Oph obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The data show some evidence for the presence of solid C60– the first detection of C60 in the solid phase – together with the well-known ‘unidentified infrared’ emission features. We suggest that, in the case of XX Oph, the C60 is located close to the hot component, and that in general it is preferentially excited by stars having effective temperatures in the range 15 000–30 000 K. C60 may be common in circumstellar environments, but unnoticed in the absence of a suitable exciting source

    Orbital motions of a solar sail around the L2 Earth-Moon libration point

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    An oasis of fertility on a barren island: Earthworms at Papadil, Isle of Rum

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    The Isle of Rum, Inner Hebrides, has an impoverished earthworm fauna as the soils are generally acidic and nutrient-poor. Species associated with human habitation are found around deserted crofting settlements subjected to “clearances” in the mid-19th century and at Kinloch, where a large volume of fertile soil was imported from the mainland around 1900. Earthworms, and the dew worm Lumbricus terrestris L. in particular, were investigated at Papadil, an abandoned settlement and one of the few locations on Rum where a naturally developed brown earth soil is present. The small (1.5 ha), fertile location is isolated, so was also suitable for field experimentation. Visits over six years allowed dew worm distribution to be assessed within low lying grassland and woodland and also within an adjacent sloping broadleaved woodland. The factors limiting dew worm distribution at the site were investigated with associated translocation to adjacent uninhabited areas. Small scale spatial dynamics were studied with density manipulation and containment experiments where Visual Implant Elastomer marking of individuals was utilised. Translocations from streamside woodland to adjacent grassland was successful over a short period (5 months), but the colonies did not persist over a longer term (5-6 years). Field trials with earthworm tagging were successful, but highest tag recovery rate was 25%. Where adults/sub-adults were removed, recruitment of juveniles was notable. Exceptionally large (>12 g live mass) individuals were found in soils of terraces on wooded slopes, suggesting that dew worms may be long lived at this location, where food is abundant and relatively few terrestrial predators are present

    Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the life and times of L* galaxies

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    In this work, we investigate in detail the effects the local environment (groups and pairs) has on galaxies with stellar mass similar to the Milky Way (L* galaxies). A volume limited sample of 6150 galaxies are visually classified to determine the emission features, morphological type and presence of a disc. This large sample allows for the significant characteristics of galaxies to be isolated (e.g. stellar mass and group halo mass), and their codependencies determined. We observe that galaxy-galaxy interactions play the most important role in shaping the evolution within a group halo; the main role of halo mass is in gathering the galaxies together to encourage such interactions. Dominant pair galaxies find their overall star formation enhanced when the pair's mass ratio is close to 1; otherwise, we observe the same galaxies as we would in an unpaired system. The minor galaxy in a pair is greatly affected by its companion galaxy, and while the star-forming fraction is always suppressed relative to equivalent stellar mass unpaired galaxies, it becomes lower still when the mass ratio of a pair system increases. We find that, in general, the close galaxy-galaxy interaction rate drops as a function of halo mass for a given amount of stellar mass. We find evidence of a local peak of interactions for Milky Way stellar mass galaxies in Milky Way halo mass groups. Low-mass haloes, and in particular Local Group mass haloes, are an important environment for understanding the typical evolutionary path of a unit of stellar mass. We find compelling evidence for galaxy conformity in both groups and pairs, where morphological type conformity is dominant in groups, and emission class conformity is dominant in pairs. This suggests that group scale conformity is the result of many galaxy encounters over an extended period of time, while pair conformity is a fairly instantaneous response to a transitory interaction

    Developing Employment Opportunities for Care Leavers

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    This article describes an action research project carried out in North West England that aimed to assist Children’s Services Departments and Care Trusts in developing their strategies for supporting care leavers into employment and training. The study found a range of models and approaches that can be utilised to develop local and regional partnerships offering employment and training opportunities designed to meet the needs of care leavers. Relevant questions about the extent to which such opportunities should be ring-fenced or targeted on particular fields of employment are identified

    Particle scattering in turbulent plasmas with amplified wave modes

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    High-energy particles stream during coronal mass ejections or flares through the plasma of the solar wind. This causes instabilities, which lead to wave growth at specific resonant wave numbers, especially within shock regions. These amplified wave modes influence the turbulent scattering process significantly. In this paper, results of particle transport and scattering in turbulent plasmas with excited wave modes are presented. The method used is a hybrid simulation code, which treats the heliospheric turbulence by an incompressible magnetohydrodynamic approach separately from a kinetic particle description. Furthermore, a semi-analytical model using quasilinear theory (QLT) is compared to the numerical results. This paper aims at a more fundamental understanding and interpretation of the pitch-angle scattering coefficients. Our calculations show a good agreement of particle simulations and the QLT for broad-band turbulent spectra; for higher turbulence levels and particle beam driven plasmas, the QLT approximation gets worse. Especially the resonance gap at μ = 0 poses a well-known problem for QLT for steep turbulence spectra, whereas test-particle computations show no problems for the particles to scatter across this region. The reason is that the sharp resonant wave-particle interactions in QLT are an oversimplification of the broader resonances in test-particle calculations, which result from nonlinear effects not included in the QLT. We emphasise the importance of these results for both numerical simulations and analytical particle transport approaches, especially the validity of the QLT. Appendices A-D are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.or

    Assessment of algorithms for mitosis detection in breast cancer histopathology images

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    The proliferative activity of breast tumors, which is routinely estimated by counting of mitotic figures in hematoxylin and eosin stained histology sections, is considered to be one of the most important prognostic markers. However, mitosis counting is laborious, subjective and may suffer from low inter-observer agreement. With the wider acceptance of whole slide images in pathology labs, automatic image analysis has been proposed as a potential solution for these issues. In this paper, the results from the Assessment of Mitosis Detection Algorithms 2013 (AMIDA13) challenge are described. The challenge was based on a data set consisting of 12 training and 11 testing subjects, with more than one thousand annotated mitotic figures by multiple observers. Short descriptions and results from the evaluation of eleven methods are presented. The top performing method has an error rate that is comparable to the inter-observer agreement among pathologists

    Global Ethics and Nanotechnology: A Comparison of the Nanoethics Environments of the EU and China

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    The following article offers a brief overview of current nanotechnology policy, regulation and ethics in Europe and The People’s Republic of China with the intent of noting (dis)similarities in approach, before focusing on the involvement of the public in science and technology policy (i.e. participatory Technology Assessment). The conclusions of this article are, that (a) in terms of nanosafety as expressed through policy and regulation, China PR and the EU have similar approaches towards, and concerns about, nanotoxicity—the official debate on benefits and risks is not markedly different in the two regions; (b) that there is a similar economic drive behind both regions’ approach to nanodevelopment, the difference being the degree of public concern admitted; and (c) participation in decision-making is fundamentally different in the two regions. Thus in China PR, the focus is on the responsibility of the scientist; in the EU, it is about government accountability to the public. The formulation of a Code of Conduct for scientists in both regions (China PR’s predicted for 2012) reveals both similarity and difference in approach to nanotechnology development. This may change, since individual responsibility alone cannot guide S&T development, and as public participation is increasingly seen globally as integral to governmental decision-making

    A Herschel-ATLAS study of dusty spheroids: probing the minor-merger process in the local Universe

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    We use multiwavelength (0.12-500 μm) photometry from Herschel-ATLAS, WISE, UKIDSS, SDSS and GALEX to study 23 nearby spheroidal galaxies with prominent dust lanes (DLSGs). DLSGs are considered to be remnants of recent minor mergers, making them ideal laboratories for studying both the interstellar medium (ISM) of spheroids and minor-merger-driven star formation in the nearby Universe. The DLSGs exhibit star formation rates (SFRs) between 0.01 and 10 M⊙ yr-1, with a median of 0.26 M⊙ yr-1 (a factor of 3.5 greater than the average SG). The median dust mass, dust-to-stellar mass ratio and dust temperature in these galaxies are around 107.6 M⊙, ≈0.05 per cent and ≈19.5 K, respectively. The dust masses are at least a factor of 50 greater than that expected from stellar mass loss and, like the SFRs, show no correlation with galaxy luminosity, suggesting that both the ISM and the star formation have external drivers. Adopting literature gas-to-dust ratios and star formation histories derived from fits to the panchromatic photometry, we estimate that the median current and initial gas-to-stellar mass ratios in these systems are ≈4 and ≈7 per cent, respectively. If, as indicated by recent work, minor mergers that drive star formation in spheroids with (NUV - r) > 3.8 (the colour range of our DLSGs) have stellar mass ratios between 1:6 and 1:10, then the satellite gas fractions are likely ≥50 per cent

    ‘Ichthyologue’: Freshwater Biology in the Poetry of Ted Hughes

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    An ecocritical analysis of Ted Hughes's knowledge of freshwater biology and environmental science, especially the work of his son, Nicholas Hughes. Contains previously unpublished poetry drafts by Ted Hughes


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