164 research outputs found

    Open Channel Block of HERG K ϩ Channels by Vesnarinone

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    ABSTRACT Vesnarinone, a cardiotonic agent, blocks I Kr and, unlike other I Kr blockers, produces a frequency-dependent prolongation of action potential duration (APD). To elucidate the mechanisms, we studied the effects of vesnarinone on HERG, the cloned human I Kr channel, heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Vesnarinone caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of HERG currents with an IC 50 value of 17.7 Ϯ 2.5 M at 0 mV (n ϭ 6). When HERG was coexpressed with the ␤-subunit MiRP1, a similar potency for block was measured (IC 50 : 15.0 Ϯ 3.0 M at 0 mV, n ϭ 5). Tonic block of the HERG channel current was minimal (Ͻ5% at 30 M, n ϭ 5). The rate of onset of block and the steady-state value for block of current were not significantly different for test potentials ranging from Ϫ40 to ϩ40 mV [time constant () ϭ 372 Ϯ 76 ms at ϩ40 mV, n ϭ 4]. Recovery from block at Ϫ60, Ϫ90, and Ϫ120 mV was not significantly different ( ϭ 8.5 Ϯ 1.5 s at Ϫ90 mV, n ϭ 4). Vesnarinone produced similar effects on inactivation-removed mutant (G628C/S631C) HERG channels. The IC 50 value was 10.7 Ϯ 3.7 M at 0 mV (n ϭ 5), and the onset and recovery from block of current findings were similar to those of wild-type HERG. Amino acids important for the binding of vesnarinone were identified using alanine-scanning mutagenesis of residues believed to line the inner cavity of the HERG channel. Six important residues were identified, including G648, F656, and V659 located in the S6 domain and T623, S624, and V625 located at the base of the pore helix. These residues are similar but not identical to those determined previously for MK-499, an antiarrhythmic drug. In conclusion, vesnarinone preferentially blocks open HERG channels, with little effect on channels in the rested or inactivated state. These actions may contribute to the favorable frequency-dependent prolongation in APD

    Modification of hERG1 channel gating by Cd2+

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    Each of the four subunits in a voltage-gated potassium channel has a voltage sensor domain (VSD) that is formed by four transmembrane helical segments (S1–S4). In response to changes in membrane potential, intramembrane displacement of basic residues in S4 produces a gating current. As S4 moves through the membrane, its basic residues also form sequential electrostatic interactions with acidic residues in immobile regions of the S2 and S3 segments. Transition metal cations interact with these same acidic residues and modify channel gating. In human ether-á-go-go–related gene type 1 (hERG1) channels, Cd2+ coordinated by D456 and D460 in S2 and D509 in S3 induces a positive shift in the voltage dependence of activation of ionic currents. Here, we characterize the effects of Cd2+ on hERG1 gating currents in Xenopus oocytes using the cut-open Vaseline gap technique. Cd2+ shifted the half-point (V1/2) for the voltage dependence of the OFF gating charge–voltage (QOFF-V) relationship with an EC50 of 171 µM; at 0.3 mM, V1/2 was shifted by +50 mV. Cd2+ also induced an as of yet unrecognized small outward current (ICd-out) upon repolarization in a concentration- and voltage-dependent manner. We propose that Cd2+ and Arg residues in the S4 segment compete for interaction with acidic residues in S2 and S3 segments, and that the initial inward movement of S4 associated with membrane repolarization displaces Cd2+ in an outward direction to produce ICd-out. Co2+, Zn2+, and La3+ at concentrations that caused ∼+35-mV shifts in the QOFF-V relationship did not induce a current similar to ICd-out, suggesting that the binding site for these cations or their competition with basic residues in S4 differs from Cd2+. New Markov models of hERG1 channels were developed that describe gating currents as a noncooperative two-phase process of the VSD and can account for changes in these currents caused by extracellular Cd2+

    Marine Algal Toxin Azaspiracid Is an Open-State Blocker of hERG Potassium Channels

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    Azaspiracids (AZA) are polyether marine dinoflagellate toxins that accumulate in shellfish and represent an emerging human health risk. Although human exposure is primarily manifested by severe and protracted diarrhea, this toxin class has been shown to be highly cytotoxic, a teratogen to developing fish, and a possible carcinogen in mice. Until now, AZA's molecular target(s) has not yet been determined. Using three independent methods (voltage clamp, channel binding assay, and thallium flux assay), we have for the first time demonstrated that AZA1, AZA2, and AZA3 each bind to and block the hERG (human ether-à-go-go related gene) potassium channel heterologously expressed in HEK-293 mammalian cells. Inhibition of K+ current for each AZA analogue was concentration-dependent (IC50 value range: 0.64 - 0.84 μM). The mechanism of hERG channel inhibition by AZA1 was investigated further in Xenopus oocytes where it was shown to be an open state-dependent blocker and, using mutant channels, to interact with F656 but not with Y652 within the S6 transmembrane domain that forms the channel's central pore. AZA1, AZA2, and AZA3 were each shown to inhibit [3H]dofetilide binding to the hERG channel and thallium ion flux through the channel (IC50 value range: 2.1 – 6.6 μM). AZA1 did not block K+ current of the closely related EAG1 channel. Collectively, these data suggest that the AZAs physically block the K+ conductance pathway of hERG1 channels by occluding the cytoplasmic mouth of the open pore. Although the concentrations necessary to block hERG channels are relatively high, AZA-induced blockage may prove to contribute to the toxicological properties of the AZAs

    Voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv) in GtoPdb v.2021.3

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    The 6TM family of K channels comprises the voltage-gated KV subfamilies, the EAG subfamily (which includes hERG channels), the Ca2+-activated Slo subfamily (actually with 7TM, termed BK) and the Ca2+-activated SK subfamily. These channels possess a pore-forming α subunit that comprise tetramers of identical subunits (homomeric) or of different subunits (heteromeric). Heteromeric channels can only be formed within subfamilies (e.g. Kv1.1 with Kv1.2; Kv7.2 with Kv7.3). The pharmacology largely reflects the subunit composition of the functional channel

    Voltage-gated potassium channels (version 2019.4) in the IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology Database

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    The 6TM family of K channels comprises the voltage-gated KV subfamilies, the EAG subfamily (which includes hERG channels), the Ca2+-activated Slo subfamily (actually with 7TM, termed BK) and the Ca2+-activated SK subfamily. These channels possess a pore-forming α subunit that comprise tetramers of identical subunits (homomeric) or of different subunits (heteromeric). Heteromeric channels can only be formed within subfamilies (e.g. Kv1.1 with Kv1.2; Kv7.2 with Kv7.3). The pharmacology largely reflects the subunit composition of the functional channel

    Activation of Slo2.1 channels by niflumic acid

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    Slo2.1 channels conduct an outwardly rectifying K+ current when activated by high [Na+]i. Here, we show that gating of these channels can also be activated by fenamates such as niflumic acid (NFA), even in the absence of intracellular Na+. In Xenopus oocytes injected with <10 ng cRNA, heterologously expressed human Slo2.1 current was negligible, but rapidly activated by extracellular application of NFA (EC50 = 2.1 mM) or flufenamic acid (EC50 = 1.4 mM). Slo2.1 channels activated by 1 mM NFA exhibited weak voltage dependence. In high [K+]e, the conductance–voltage (G-V) relationship had a V1/2 of +95 mV and an effective valence, z, of 0.48 e. Higher concentrations of NFA shifted V1/2 to more negative potentials (EC50 = 2.1 mM) and increased the minimum value of G/Gmax (EC50 = 2.4 mM); at 6 mM NFA, Slo2.1 channel activation was voltage independent. In contrast, V1/2 of the G-V relationship was shifted to more positive potentials when [K+]e was elevated from 1 to 300 mM (EC50 = 21.2 mM). The slope conductance measured at the reversal potential exhibited the same [K+]e dependency (EC50 = 23.5 mM). Conductance was also [Na+]e dependent. Outward currents were reduced when Na+ was replaced with choline or mannitol, but unaffected by substitution with Rb+ or Li+. Neutralization of charged residues in the S1–S4 domains did not appreciably alter the voltage dependence of Slo2.1 activation. Thus, the weak voltage dependence of Slo2.1 channel activation is independent of charged residues in the S1–S4 segments. In contrast, mutation of R190 located in the adjacent S4–S5 linker to a neutral (Ala or Gln) or acidic (Glu) residue induced constitutive channel activity that was reduced by high [K+]e. Collectively, these findings indicate that Slo2.1 channel gating is modulated by [K+]e and [Na+]e, and that NFA uncouples channel activation from its modulation by transmembrane voltage and intracellular Na+

    Methodologies for in vitro and in vivo evaluation of efficacy of antifungal and antibiofilm agents and surface coatings against fungal biofilms

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    KT acknowledges receipt of a mandate of Industrial Research Fund (IOFm/05/022). JB acknowledges funding from the European Research Council Advanced Award 3400867/RAPLODAPT and the Israel Science Foundation grant # 314/13 (www.isf.il). NG acknowledges the Wellcome Trust and MRC for funding. CD acknowledges funding from the Agence Nationale de Recherche (ANR-10-LABX-62-IBEID). CJN acknowledges funding from the National Institutes of Health R35GM124594 and R21AI125801. AW is supported by the Wellcome Trust Strategic Award (grant 097377), the MRC Centre for Medical Mycology (grant MR/N006364/1) at the University of Aberdeen MaCA: outside this study MaCA has received personal speaker’s honoraria the past five years from Astellas, Basilea, Gilead, MSD, Pfizer, T2Candida, and Novartis. She has received research grants and contract work paid to the Statens Serum Institute from Astellas, Basilea, Gilead, MSD, NovaBiotics, Pfizer, T2Biosystems, F2G, Cidara, and Amplyx. CAM acknowledges the Wellcome Trust and the MRC MR/N006364/1. PVD, TC and KT acknowledge the FWO research community: Biology and ecology of bacterial and fungal biofilms in humans (FWO WO.009.16N). AAB acknowledges the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft – CRC FungiNet.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Reprogramming of Escherichia coli K-12 Metabolism during the Initial Phase of Transition from an Anaerobic to a Micro-Aerobic Environment

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    Background: Many bacteria undergo transitions between environments with differing O2 availabilities as part of their natural lifestyles and during biotechnological processes. However, the dynamics of adaptation when bacteria experience changes in O2 availability are understudied. The model bacterium and facultative anaerobe Escherichia coli K-12 provides an ideal system for exploring this process. Methods and Findings: Time-resolved transcript profiles of E. coli K-12 during the initial phase of transition from anaerobic to micro-aerobic conditions revealed a reprogramming of gene expression consistent with a switch from fermentative to respiratory metabolism. The changes in transcript abundance were matched by changes in the abundances of selected central metabolic proteins. A probabilistic state space model was used to infer the activities of two key regulators, FNR (O2 sensing) and PdhR (pyruvate sensing). The model implied that both regulators were rapidly inactivated during the transition from an anaerobic to a micro-aerobic environment. Analysis of the external metabolome and protein levels suggested that the cultures transit through different physiological states during the process of adaptation, characterized by the rapid inactivation of pyruvate formate-lyase (PFL), a slower induction of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) activity and transient excretion of pyruvate, consistent with the predicted inactivation of PdhR and FNR. Conclusion: Perturbation of anaerobic steady-state cultures by introduction of a limited supply of O2 combined with time-resolved transcript, protein and metabolite profiling, and probabilistic modeling has revealed that pyruvate (sensed by PdhR) is a key metabolic signal in coordinating the reprogramming of E. coli K-12 gene expression by working alongside the O2 sensor FNR during transition from anaerobic to micro-aerobic conditions
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