81,726 research outputs found

    An Examination of the Influence of Top Executives on Entrepreneurial Orientation

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    This collection of essays examines the influence that top executives have on the level of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) within an organization. EO is defined as the degree to which a firm exhibits behaviors and managerial philosophies that are innovative, proactive and risk-taking. EO is an extensively studied construct, yet there is still much to be explored and understood about its effects and predictors. This study adds to the discussion by examining predictors of EO in the two essays. Essay 1 examines the influence of top management team characteristics on entrepreneurial orientation and the moderating effect of managerial discretion. It adds to the discussion of EO by invoking both the entrepreneurial orientation concept and upper echelons theory in an attempt to evaluate how the characteristics of the top management team (TMT) are related to the firm’s exhibition of an entrepreneurial orientation. It is posited that the more heterogeneous the team in industry and functional background the greater the organization’s EO. It is further argued that the level of education completed by the top management team will have a positive relationship with EO. Industry-level managerial discretion (managerial discretion) is hypothesized to moderate the TMT characteristics-EO relationship. Results from this research have important implications, for example, for human resource practices at the top management team level. Essay 2 examines the relationship between CEO tenure and entrepreneurial orientation within family and non-family firms. This essay adds to the knowledge base pertaining to EO by examining how CEO tenure is related to EO. Furthermore, it is expected that this relationship will be moderated by firm ownership type; specifically, family versus non-family firms. Over the course of a CEO’s tenure, an inverted-U relationship is posited such that EO is lower, but increasing in the CEO’s early-tenure stage, highest in the mid-tenure stage, and decreasing in the late-tenure stage. Managerial implications include the need to align incentives that encourage or discourage entrepreneurial behavior with the CEOs’ time-in-office as a basis for achieving or sustaining an appropriately entrepreneurial posture

    THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE TOWARDS ENTREPRENEURIAL ORIENTATION IN SRI LANKAN HOSPITALITY OPERATIONS

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    The article examines the relationship between the organizational culture and the entrepreneurial orientation in the Sri Lankan hospitality sector. The data for the study was collected from 215 managers occupying senior positions star class hotel sector. The analysis was performed based on CFA SEM techniques using AMOS 21 software to identify the relationship. The quantitative data analysis revealed there is a significant relationship between organizational culture and entrepreneurial orientation. In the research entrepreneurial orientation was reflected with three dimensions proactiveness, risk taking and innovativeness. The organizational culture was reflected with four dimensions organizational climate, flexibility or the support to change, team work and employee empowerment. This study develops a better understanding of elements of organizational culture and entrepreneurial orientation.  Article visualizations

    Entrepreneurial Orientation In Management Buy-Outs And The Contribution Of Venture Capital

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    This paper focuses on the development of entrepreneurial orientation (EO)after a management buy-out (MBO) and on the role played by venture capitalfirms in enhancing EO. It presents results of two exploratory case studiesof divisional buy-outs with regard to their EO and the areas where theventure capital firm (VC) has been of greatest help. We discuss theircontribution to elements of the EO of the buy-out firm. The key output isexpected to be a better understanding of the functioning and operations ofthe VC with regard to their contribution to the EO of the firm after an MBO.This will also benefit the management team that seeks venture capitalsupport to improve the firm?s economic performance by using its upsidepotential.governance;venture capital;entrepreneurial orientation;management buy-outs

    Antecedents of Employees’ Entrepreneurial Orientation: The Role of Organizational Culture and the Enabling Environment

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    There is an abundant literature on Entrepreneurship within organization, but the evidence on how it is caused, is still dispersed. Moreover, it still lacks a proper theoretical framework. Brettelet. al. (2015) used Competing Values Model in explaining the effect of organisational culture on Entrepreneurial Orientation. We modified this model, including enabling environment factors, as well as more enriched dimensions of Entrepreneurial Orientation. Hence we hypothesized that organizational culture (Clan, Hierarchical, Developmental, Rational, and Open Culture), and enabling environment (Flexibility/ support, Open Communication, External Orientation, and Team Work) affect Employees’ Entrepreneurial Orientation measured by new product innovation, new organizational practice, proactivity, and risk-taking. We applied this model by conducted a survey using likert scale type questionnaire. The data was collected from 325 employees working in different organisations in Karachi. Data was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structured equation modeling. The results showed that new product innovation was positively influenced by Rational Culture, Open Culture, Flexibility, and External Orientation. And negatively affected by Clan Culture. Similarly, risk taking ability is positively influenced by Developmental Culture, External Orientation, and Team Work. Proactivity is positively affected by Rational Culture, and External Orientation. Unlike Innovation, which was negatively affected by Clan culture, New Organizational Practice got positively affected along with Open Communication. Keywords: Clan Culture, Hierarchical Culture, Developmental Culture, Rational Culture, Open Culture, Flexibility, Open Communication, External Orientation, Team Work, new product innovation, new organizational practice, proactivity, risk-taking DOI: 10.7176/RHSS/10-11-02 Publication date:June 30th 202

    Examining the relationship between team-level entrepreneurial orientation and team performance

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    PurposeThis article investigates (in)direct relationships between team-level entrepreneurial orientation and team performance, where team entrepreneurial orientation (EO) is measured as a team-level construct, not as concentration of team members' scores. In this article, the authors present and explore how EO-oriented behaviour within a team affect its performance, taking into account the team's trust in a manager and commitment to team and company goals.Design/methodology/approachThis article focuses on a quantitative analysis of 55 teams operating within a large high-tech manufacturing enterprise, gathered through a traditional survey. The conceptual framework for this research was based on the theories of organisational citizenship, extra-role behaviour and social exchange. The authors explain how contextual factors establish a framework which enables team EO transformation towards higher performance of teams.FindingsThe results show that (team) performance benefits from EO-related behaviours. However, individual dimensions of EO are not universally beneficial and need to be combined with a mutual trust and/or commitment to team enterprise's goals to achieve high performance.Originality/valueThe findings provide important insight into which team factors may be targeted at the intervention or support of team members, including managers and immediate superiors who lack an active personality and are not willing to take risks at workplace. The authors adopted EO instruments, mutual trust and commitment from an individual scale to a team one, and also offer new opportunities to analyse such phenomena from a new level and evaluate them from the perspective of team managers

    Managing Entrepreneurial Orientation

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    In this dissertation, we evaluate the roles senior management teams and individual middle managers play in realizing the performance benefits of entrepreneurial orientations. We investigate the role of senior management teams by focusing on a sample of 9.000 firms in the Netherlands. The first study focuses on antecedents of entrepreneurial orientation, i.e. internal and external knowledge acquisition of senior management teams. We find that both internal and external knowledge acquisition are important and that a premium in terms of the entrepreneurial orientation of the firm may be obtained by simultaneously sourcing for both types of knowledge. Our second study presents a model for top management teams aiming to enhance the performance benefits of the entrepreneurial orientation of the firm. We investigate team attributes such as team heterogeneity and shared vision and find some compelling results with respect to their context specific applicability for leveraging the entrepreneurial orientation of the firm. Our final study, based within the European branch of a single firm operating at the intersection of hardware, software and IT consulting, examines the individual entrepreneurial orientation of middle managers and subsequent performance benefits. We find that strong network ties of relatively higher placed middle managers are instrumental for realizing the inherent value of entrepreneurial orientation. Together, our results emphasize the performance benefits that may be obtained if the entrepreneurial orientation of organizations and individuals is appropriately managed. Attention for knowledge acquisition, team composition, the environmental context as well as network ties and the hierarchical position of individual managers represent essential aspects of effective management of entrepreneurial orientations

    The relationship between top management team (TMT) metacognition, entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)

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    This study integrates entrepreneurial orientation and top management team (TMT) behavioural integration, as a mediator and moderator respectively, to determine the effect of TMT metacognition on firm performance in SMEs. Fifteen hundred SMEs were surveyed and 140 usable returns were used in this study. The result revealed that risk in entrepreneurial orientation is often associated with lower firm performance and innovativeness and proactiveness could be considered the mechanisms through which TMT metacognition contributes most to higher organisational performance. This finding is significant for SMEs, whose resources are limited, and TMT could consider less risky projects, but still maintaining its innovativeness and proactiveness, particularly in the niche market areas. Furthermore, the empirical result supported previous findings that top managers’ abilities and behaviour collectively as a team could be seen as an important factor in their innovative and competitive outcomes in SMEs

    Exploring the contextualization of workplace spirituality in South Korean startups

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    This study explores how spirituality in workplaces is contextualized in South Korean startups. With the unprecedented development of technology, new small-sized ventures, so-called startups have emerged as the major drivers in today’s global market (Schwab, 2017). The disruptive changes that startup creates in the market imply the growing needs of both organizations and individuals to be more adaptive to the given changes. Backing up these trends, an increasing amount of new consumers’ needs is fulfilled through innovative breakthrough, possibly only temporarily, at the expense of tremendous stress that individual employees at startups suffer from. Nonetheless, to survive through the volatile market, secure the competitive edge of the fast-paced industry as well as to create an inclusive work environment, numerous startups emphasized entrepreneurial orientation as well as team spirit. Here, entrepreneurial orientation means the ideation and implementation of new ideas as well as the exploration of new business opportunities. Additionally, team spirit refers to team members\u27 attached feelings to commit themselves to their team\u27s shared goal. The emphasis on the spiritual dimension of entrepreneurship and teamwork aligns with the spiritual movement”(Ashmos and Duchon, 2000). Based on the paradigm shift in organization science, which leads to the empowerment of individuals by prioritizing employee\u27s work-life balance, spirituality in workplaces has gained much attention in the early 2000s. This movement aims to make the workplace more inclusive so that spirituality enhances individual employees\u27 well-being, highlights their self-existential meaning in workplaces, and deepens the understanding of interconnectivity with others (Karakas, 2010; Houghton, Neck and Krishnakumar, 2016). Despite the debate over defining spirituality, a plethora of empirical studies have substantiated the positive effect of spirituality at workplaces, especially regarding the link between spirituality and performance/productivity (Giacalone and Jurkiewicz, 2003; Duchon and Plowman, 2005; Rego, Cunha, Souto, 2007; Petchsawang and Duchon, 2012). As the efforts that South Korean startups have exhibited to link this ‘spirit’ discourse to their productivity aligns with the aforementioned spiritual movement in workplaces, this study is designed to seek an answer to the fundamental question around this matter; does the emphasis on ‘spirit’ positively influence the perceived productivity in South Korean Startups? To corroborate this link, this study explores the mediating effect of team spirit in the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and the team\u27s performance towards the South Korean startups. Based on the analysis of 240 responses from 66 startup teams, this study concludes that team spirit fully mediates the positive association between entrepreneurial orientation and team productivity. The conclusion also suggests the organizational development strategy to build a more inclusive workplace for startup employees

    Entrepreneurial Characteristics And Firm Performance Of Small And Medium Enterprises In Malaysian Food Manufacturing Industry

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    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) make a significant contribution to the national economy in Malaysia and there have been concerted efforts by the government over the years to assist SMEs in setting up and expanding their business.With their smaller operations,lower capital outlay and limited human resources,the business models of SMEs are significantly different from large corporations and require a different approach.This study draws upon the concept of entrepreneur characteristics, strategic orientation and attempts to examine how such approaches help improve the performance of SMEs in Malaysia.Using the Resource-Based View as the theoretical foundation,this study has combined the entrepreneur’s entrepreneurial characteristics such as internal locus of control,need for cognition and need for achievement as enabling elements for firms to develop their sustained competitive advantage.As a consequence,this study employs market and entrepreneurial orientation as mediating variable and GSPs is employed as moderator on each variable in this research in order to reflect factors that can intervene in the actions of a firm and its performance in real life.Data were collected from SME food manufacturing firms in Malaysia using a cross sectional study design and stratified random sampling method.A total of 396 usable questionnaires were collected using conducting face to face question and answer session through the set of questionnaire and online survey method and analyzed with Covariance-Based SEM (CB-SEM).12 out of 18 hypothesized relationships were supported.This study found internal locus of control and need for cognition have direct relationship with firm performance,while need for achievement has non-significant relationship with firm performance. Furthermore,market and entrepreneurial orientation have strong influence with firm performance that revealed significant mediating effect.GSPs also moderates the relationship between entrepreneur’s entrepreneurial characteristics,market orientation,entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance.This research makes several theoretical contributions and provides further insights on the relationship between entrepreneur’s entrepreneurial characteristics and impacts on performance of food manufacturing industry.From the managerial viewpoint,this study provides a valid and applicable framework for food manufacturing industriesto have entrepreneur who able to be competitive and enable the adoption of market and entrepreneurial orientation and the role of GSPs as moderator in their organizations. Practical contribution indicates that the reflection of entrepreneur’s characteristics and will influence on the firm’s strategy and outcomes.The implications of this study to the policy makers,academics and food manufacturing practitioners is enhancing the awareness of the intangible resources already owned by the firm and the impact of market and entrepreneurial orientation towards achieving better firm performance.This study could also be a useful tool in selecting team members for management team and evaluating applicants for partnership and joint venture potential.In other words,the selection of the business strategies and the cultural development are the practices of “actions” or the entrepreneurial characteristics of the managers/owners

    Entrepreneurial orientation and performance of Nigerian banks: The mediating effect of teamwork

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    Business environment has become highly competitive, dynamic, and heterogenic.As a result, business organizations are expected to be inclined. Also, for corporate entrepreneurial activities to have greater impact on organizational performance, organizational members (employees) must work collaboratively as a team. It is against this background that this study investigated the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and performance of commercial banks in Nigeria and the mediating effect of teamwork on the relationship. Data were collected from 297 bank managers through a self reported questionnaire.SmartPLS-SEM was used to analyse the data collected and test the hypotheses formulated.The results of the structural model indicated a positive and significant relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and performance.Further evaluation of the structural model showed that teamwork fully mediated the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and organizational performance. Based on the findings, it was concluded that while entrepreneurial orientation may be positively related to organizational performance, its impact on organizational performance will be greater if employees work collaboratively as a team
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