33,752 research outputs found

    Conhecimento ecológico local de ecossistemas marinhos vulneráveis na plataforma e talude continental portuguesa

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    Sponges and corals form highly structured and vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs) that serve as refuge areas and feeding grounds for many marine species. Knowledge on the distribution of these VMEs is critical to ensure their sustainable management and conservation but is largely lacking in some areas. This study aimed to co-develop a knowledge baseline on the diversity and distribution of VME-indicator species (VMEIs) by assembling Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK) of professional fishers operating bottom-contacting gears in mainland North and Central Portugal. In total, 70 fishermen of commercial vessels (trawlers, gill- and trammel netters and bottom longliners) were interviewed in three fishing harbours (P√≥voa de Varzim, Matosinhos, Aveiro). We assessed fishers‚Äô LEK, by asking them to identify species from a catalogue, and provide information on their geographical and bathymetric distribution, and abundance. In total, 54 species in the catalogue were recognised by the fishermen, of which 33 are currently classified as indicators of various VME habitat types such as cold-water coral reefs, coral gardens, seapen fields and deep-sea sponge aggregations. The framework-forming scleractinian corals Dendrophyllia cornigera, Lophelia pertusa, Dendrophyllia ramea, alongside the soft coral Callogorgia verticillata, the red Corallium rubrum and the hydrocoral Errina dabneyi were the species most commonly recognised. Sponges were only occasionally recognised but among these, rock sponges (Neochrammeniella bowerbankii and Neophrissospongia nolitangere) and other demospongiae (Axinella infundibuliformis and Cliona celata) were the ones fishermen recognised most. The higher average number of species recognised by fishermen using gill-/trammel nets vs trawls reflects the communities associated with the type of seafloor (hard vs soft substrate) over which these two fleets operate. Level of fishing experience and role onboard doesn‚Äôt seem to influence their LEK. This study shows the immense potential of LEK as a tool for the possible precense of vulnerable marine ecosystems and provides a framework that could play an important role in the identification and codevelopment of area-based management tools (e.g., designation of MPAs), and other effective conservation measures (e.g., bottom-fisheries closures and move-on rule protocols). It could also inform potential restoration activities where these habitats may have been impacted. Ensuring that fishing communities are directly involved in these processes is likely to result in better management outcomes.As esponjas e corais formam ecossistemas marinhos vulner√°veis (VMEs) profundamente complexos e estruturantes que servem como √°reas de ref√ļgio e alimenta√ß√£o para muitas esp√©cies marinhas. O conhecimento sobre a distribui√ß√£o destes VME indicadores √© fundamental para garantir uma gest√£o e conserva√ß√£o sustent√°vel, que em algumas √°reas √© praticamente inexistente. Este estudo visa em desenvolver a cocria√ß√£o de uma base de conhecimento sobre a diversidade e distribui√ß√£o destas esp√©cies e habitats marinhos na plataforma e talude portugu√™s, utilizando, desta forma, o conhecimento ecol√≥gico local (CEL) das comunidades piscat√≥rias que operam com redes de pesca de contacto com o fundo. No total, foram entrevistados 70 pescadores (arrast√Ķes, redes de emalhar e tresmalho e de palangre de fundo) em tr√™s portos de pesca (P√≥voa de Varzim, Matosinhos, Aveiro). Investigamos o conhecimento dos pescadores, pedindo-lhes que identificassem as esp√©cies (a partir de um guia de imagens) e fornecessem informa√ß√Ķes sobre sua distribui√ß√£o geogr√°fica, batimetria e ocorr√™ncia. No total, 54 das 67 esp√©cies do cat√°logo foram reconhecidas. Os corais escleract√≠neos formadores de habitats, tais como Dendrophyllia cornigera, Lophelia pertusa, Dendrophyllia ramea e as gorg√≥nias Callogorgia verticillata, Corallium rubrum e o hidrocoral Errina dabneyi, foram as esp√©cies mais facilmente reconhecidas pelos pescadores. As Esponjas, foram ocasionalmente reconhecidas, sendo que o grupo das esponjas mais reconhecido pelos pescadores foram as litisitdas (Neochrammeniella bowerbankii e Neophrissospongia nolitangere) seguidas de outras demoesponjas (Axinella infundibuliformis e Cliona celata). A maioria dos pescadores da frota de redes de emalhar e tresmalho reconheceram em m√©dia um maior n√ļmero de esp√©cies em compara√ß√£o √† frota do arrasto devido ao diferente tipo de fundo onde estas frotas operam. Ao n√≠vel da experi√™ncia, o papel a bordo da embarca√ß√£o parece n√£o existir rela√ß√Ķes relevantes com o ECL. Este estudo mostra o imenso potencial que o CEL, pode ter quando aplicado como uma ferramenta na identifica√ß√£o da presen√ßa de ecossistemas marinhos vulner√°veis e √© capaz de fornecer uma estrutura que pode desempenhar um papel fundamental na identifica√ß√£o e desenvolvimento na aplica√ß√£o de medidas de gest√£o sobre √°reas que precisam de ser protegidas (AMPs), como outras medidas de conserva√ß√£o (restri√ß√£o de zonas de pesca). CEL tamb√©m √© capaz ajudar no desenvolvimento de medidas de restaura√ß√£o que permita que as comunidades piscat√≥rias estejam diretamente envolvidas na resolu√ß√£o e aplica√ß√£o de medidas de gest√£o.Mestrado em Biologia Marinha Aplicad

    O impacto do conflito trabalho-família no engagement, um estudo com enfermeiros

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    Disserta√ß√£o de mestrado em Gest√£o de Unidades de Sa√ļdeA incompatibilidade entre a esfera do trabalho e da fam√≠lia √© uma realidade que assola muitos trabalhadores na atualidade. A dif√≠cil articula√ß√£o destes dois dom√≠nios conduz √† viv√™ncia do fen√≥meno designado por Conflito Trabalho-Fam√≠lia (CTF). Esta dificuldade de articula√ß√£o de pap√©is tem reflexos negativos ao n√≠vel do empenho e desempenho profissional podendo interferir com os n√≠veis de engagement dos profissionais, onde se incluem os enfermeiros. Face √† escassez de estudos desenvolvidos no grupo profissional de enfermeiros, pretende-se com este estudo avaliar o impacto que o CTF poder√° ter nos n√≠veis do engagement dos enfermeiros e identificar as suas principais vari√°veis. Foram inquiridos 128 enfermeiros a exercer fun√ß√Ķes no Centro Hospitalar M√©dio Ave (CHMA) e no Agrupamento de Centros de Sa√ļde (ACES) Ave-Famalic√£o atrav√©s da aplica√ß√£o de um question√°rio online. As quest√Ķes deste question√°rio foram formuladas com o objetivo de obter a caracteriza√ß√£o sociodemogr√°fica e profissional da amostra. Na avalia√ß√£o das respostas dos inquiridos foram utilizadas as escalas Survey Work Home Interaction (SWING) e Ultrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). Os resultados do estudo revelaram baixos n√≠veis de intera√ß√£o trabalho-fam√≠lia e um moderado n√≠vel de engagement. Destaca-se a m√©dia mais elevada na intera√ß√£o fam√≠lia-trabalho positiva e o n√≠vel mais elevado na dimens√£o dedica√ß√£o no referente ao engagement. Conclu√≠mos, ent√£o, pelos resultados obtidos, que os enfermeiros n√£o apresentam uma rela√ß√£o de conflito entre o trabalho e a fam√≠lia, remetendo para o equil√≠brio dos pap√©is, pelo facto de os valores da intera√ß√£o positiva e negativa percecionada pelos respondentes ao question√°rio serem baixos. A relev√Ęncia deste estudo prende-se com as implica√ß√Ķes que o CTF poder√° trazer para as institui√ß√Ķes de sa√ļde e para a necessidade de as hierarquias/organiza√ß√Ķes/decisores pol√≠ticos estarem alerta e conscientes para a adequa√ß√£o, promo√ß√£o e implementa√ß√£o de estrat√©gias de concilia√ß√£o trabalho fam√≠lia de forma a reduzir o conflito.The unbalance between the spheres of work and family is a reality that afflicts many workers today. The difficult intertwine of these two spheres leads to the worker‚Äôs perceptions of Work-Family Conflict (WFC). The struggle in articulating distinct roles has negative effects on the level of workers‚Äô commitment and professional performance, and may interfere with the work engagement of professionals, including nurses. Given the scarcity of studies developed in the professional group of nurses, this study aims to assess the impact that WFC may have on nurses' engagement levels and identify its main variables. We conducted an online survey questionnaire with a total of 128 nurses working at the Hospital Medical Centre of Ave (CHMA) and the Grouping of Health Centres of Ave-Famalic√£o (ACES). The survey comprised questions on the sociodemographic and professional characterization of the sample, as well as measurement scales drawn from the Survey Work Home Interaction (SWING) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES). The study‚Äôs results revealed low levels of work-family interaction and a moderate level of work engagement. The results also highlight the highest average in the positive family-work interaction, and in the dedication dimension pertaining to engagement. Departing from the study‚Äôs results, we conclude, that nurses do not present a conflicting relationship between work and family, pointing to the balance of roles, due to the low values of positive and negative interaction perceived by the survey‚Äôs respondents. The relevance of this study is related to the implications that the WFC may bring to health institutions and to the need for hierarchies/organizations/policy-makers to be attentive and aware of the adequacy, promotion and implementation of work-family reconciliation strategies, as a means of WFC decrease

    Vascular nitrosative stress in hypertension induced by fetal undernutrition in rats

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    Fetal undernutrition predisposes to hypertension development. Since nitric oxide (NO) is a key factor in blood pressure control, we aimed to investigate the role of NO alterations in hypertension induced by fetal undernutrition in rats. Male and female offspring from dams exposed to undernutrition during the second half of gestation (MUN) were studied at 21 days (normotensive) and 6 months of age (hypertension developed only in males). In aorta, we analyzed total and phosphorylated endothelial NO synthase (eNOS, p-eNOS), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), and Nrf2 (Western blot). In plasma we assessed l-arginine, asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, SDMA; LC‚ÄďMS/MS), nitrates (NOx, Griess reaction), carbonyl groups, and lipid peroxidation (spectrophotometry). In iliac arteries, we studied superoxide anion production (DHE staining, confocal microscopy) and vasodilatation to acetylcholine (isometric tension). Twenty-one-day-old MUN offspring did not show alterations in vascular e-NOS or 3NT expression, plasma l-Arg/ADMA ratio, or NOx. Compared to control group, 6-month-old MUN rats showed increased aortic expression of p-eNOS/eNOS and 3-NT, being Nrf2 expression lower, elevated plasma l-arginine/ADMA, NOx and carbonyl levels, increased iliac artery DHE staining and reduced acetylcholine-mediated relaxations. These alterations in MUN rats were sex-dependent, affecting males. However, females showed some signs of endothelial dysfunction. We conclude that increased NO production in the context of a pro-oxidative environment, leads to vascular nitrosative damage and dysfunction, which can participate in hypertension development in MUN males. Females show a better adaptation, but signs of endothelial dysfunction, which can explain hypertension in ageingOpen Access funding provided thanks to the CRUE-CSIC agreement with Springer Natur

    Feedback-controlled flux modulation for high-temperature superconducting magnets in persistent current mode

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    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets have found wide applications in high-field settings owing to their high current capabilities. Typically, these magnets are powered by high-current power supplies via current leads, which can complicate insulation between cryogenic and room temperature environments. However, new developments in flux pumps for HTS magnets have enabled charging of kA levels of current without power supplies. By combining flux pumps with HTS persistent current operation, it is possible to achieve accurate flux modulation and eliminate the need for power supplies and current leads. In this study, we report on a novel feedback-controlled flux modulation for HTS magnets in persistent current operations. This flux modulation is based on a flux pump mechanism that generates a DC voltage across the charging superconductor by applying a current higher than its critical current. With closed-loop feedback control, our flux modulation can achieve precise injection and reduction of HTS magnet current in increments of 0.5 A. This technology can lead to stable magnetic fields in HTS magnet designs. We anticipate that this work will enable future magnets to operate in a stable persistent current mode within a closed cryogenic chamber, significantly reducing the footprint and power demand of HTS magnets and opening up new opportunities for their applications

    Holistic analysis of lysine acetylation in aquaculture pathogenic bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus under bile salt stress

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    Lysine acetylation modification is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification, which plays an important role in the metabolism and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria. Vibrio alginolyticus is a common pathogenic bacterium in aquaculture, and bile salt can trigger the expression of bacterial virulence. However, little is known about the function of lysine acetylation in V. alginolyticus under bile salt stress. In this study, 1,315 acetylated peptides on 689 proteins were identified in V. alginolyticus under bile salt stress by acetyl-lysine antibody enrichment and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Bioinformatics analysis found that the peptides motif ****A*Kac**** and *******Kac****A* were highly conserved, and protein lysine acetylation was involved in regulating various cellular biological processes and maintaining the normal life activities of bacteria, such as ribosome, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, fatty acid metabolism, two-component system, and bacterial secretion system. Further, 22 acetylated proteins were also found to be related to the virulence of V. alginolyticus under bile salt stress through secretion system, chemotaxis and motility, and adherence. Finally, comparing un-treated and treated with bile salt stress lysine acetylated proteins, it was found that there were 240 overlapping proteins, and found amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, beta-Lactam resistance, fatty acid degradation, carbon metabolism, and microbial metabolism in diverse environments pathways were significantly enriched in bile salt stress alone. In conclusion, this study is a holistic analysis of lysine acetylation in V. alginolyticus under bile salt stress, especially many virulence factors have also acetylated

    The enterovirus genome can be translated in an IRES-independent manner that requires the initiation factors eIF2A/eIF2D

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    RNA recombination in positive-strand RNA viruses is a molecular-genetic process, which permits the greatest evolution of the genome and may be essential to stabilizing the genome from the deleterious consequences of accumulated mutations. Enteroviruses represent a useful system to elucidate the details of this process. On the biochemical level, it is known that RNA recombination is catalyzed by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase using a template-switching mechanism. For this mechanism to function in cells, the recombining genomes must be located in the same subcellular compartment. How a viral genome is trafficked to the site of genome replication and recombination, which is membrane associated and isolated from the cytoplasm, is not known. We hypothesized that genome translation was essential for colocalization of genomes for recombination. We show that complete inactivation of internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation of a donor enteroviral genome enhanced recombination instead of impairing it. Recombination did not occur by a nonreplicative mechanism. Rather, sufficient translation of the nonstructural region of the genome occurred to support subsequent steps required for recombination. The noncanonical translation initiation factors, eIF2A and eIF2D, were required for IRES-independent translation. Our results support an eIF2A/eIF2D-dependent mechanism under conditions in which the eIF2-dependent mechanism is inactive. Detection of an IRES-independent mechanism for translation of the enterovirus genome provides an explanation for a variety of debated observations, including nonreplicative recombination and persistence of enteroviral RNA lacking an IRES. The existence of an eIF2A/eIF2D-dependent mechanism in enteroviruses predicts the existence of similar mechanisms in other viruses

    Shuffled ATG8 interacting motifs form an ancestral bridge between UFMylation and autophagy

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    UFMylation involves the covalent modification of substrate proteins with UFM1 (Ubiquitin‚Äźfold modifier 1) and is important for maintaining ER homeostasis. Stalled translation triggers the UFMylation of ER‚Äźbound ribosomes and activates C53‚Äźmediated autophagy to clear toxic polypeptides. C53 contains noncanonical shuffled ATG8‚Äźinteracting motifs (sAIMs) that are essential for ATG8 interaction and autophagy initiation. However, the mechanistic basis of sAIM‚Äźmediated ATG8 interaction remains unknown. Here, we show that C53 and sAIMs are conserved across eukaryotes but secondarily lost in fungi and various algal lineages. Biochemical assays showed that the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has a functional UFMylation pathway, refuting the assumption that UFMylation is linked to multicellularity. Comparative structural analyses revealed that both UFM1 and ATG8 bind sAIMs in C53, but in a distinct way. Conversion of sAIMs into canonical AIMs impaired binding of C53 to UFM1, while strengthening ATG8 binding. Increased ATG8 binding led to the autoactivation of the C53 pathway and sensitization of Arabidopsis thaliana to ER stress. Altogether, our findings reveal an ancestral role of sAIMs in UFMylation‚Äźdependent fine‚Äźtuning of C53‚Äźmediated autophagy activation

    Selenium nanoparticles modulate histone methylation via lysine methyltransferase activity and S-adenosylhomocysteine depletion

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    At physiological levels, the trace element selenium plays a key role in redox reactions through the incorporation of selenocysteine in antioxidant enzymes. Selenium has also been evaluated as a potential anti-cancer agent, where selenium nanoparticles have proven effective, and are well tolerated in vivo at doses that are toxic as soluble Se. The use of such nanoparticles, coated with either serum albumin or the naturally occurring alkaline polysaccharide chitosan, also serves to enhance biocompatibility and bioavailability. Here we demonstrate a novel role for selenium in regulating histone methylation in ovarian cancer cell models treated with inorganic selenium nanoparticles coated with serum albumin or chitosan. As well as inducing thioredoxin reductase expression, ROS activity and cancer cell cytotoxicity, coated nanoparticles caused significant increases in histone methylation. Specifically, selenium nanoparticles triggered an increase in the methylation of histone 3 at lysines K9 and K27, histone marks involved in both the activation and repression of gene expression, thus suggesting a fundamental role for selenium in these epigenetic processes. This direct function was confirmed using chemical inhibitors of the histone lysine methyltransferases EZH2 (H3K27) and G9a/EHMT2 (H3K9), both of which blocked the effect of selenium on histone methylation. This novel role for selenium supports a distinct function in histone methylation that occurs due to a decrease in S-adenosylhomocysteine, an endogenous inhibitor of lysine methyltransferases, the metabolic product of methyl-group transfer from S-adenosylmethionine in the one-carbon metabolism pathway. These observations provide important new insights into the action of selenium nanoparticles. It is now important to consider both the classic antioxidant and novel histone methylation effects of this key redox element in its development in cancer therapy and other applications

    A Educação Física como força de trabalho do SUS: análise dos tipos de vínculos profissionais

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    Resumo Considerando a inser√ß√£o de Profissionais de Educa√ß√£o F√≠sica como for√ßa de trabalho no Sistema √önico de Sa√ļde, este estudo teve como objetivo analisar os tipos de v√≠nculos e a carga hor√°ria de trabalho desses profissionais nos diferentes n√≠veis de aten√ß√£o √† sa√ļde e regi√Ķes do Brasil entre 2007 e 2021. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo de abordagem quantitativa com base em pesquisa no Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Sa√ļde. Foi observado que a aten√ß√£o prim√°ria √† sa√ļde constitui o principal n√≠vel de atua√ß√£o, seguida da aten√ß√£o secund√°ria e terci√°ria. Na aten√ß√£o prim√°ria, o n√ļmero de cadastros de Profissionais de Educa√ß√£o F√≠sica com v√≠nculo de trabalho prec√°rio √© maior do que os com v√≠nculo protegido, mas o inverso ocorre na aten√ß√£o secund√°ria e terci√°ria. Nas regi√Ķes Sul e Sudeste, foi revelado maior n√ļmero de cadastro desses profissionais com v√≠nculo de trabalho protegido, e nas demais regi√Ķes prevaleceu o v√≠nculo de trabalho prec√°rio. Foi identificado que 44,7% dos cadastros de Profissionais de Educa√ß√£o F√≠sica possuem carga hor√°ria maior ou igual a 40 horas por semana. Em conclus√£o, a aten√ß√£o √† sa√ļde pode ser prejudicada pelo tipo de v√≠nculo de trabalho do profissional por causar rotatividade e dificuldade na continuidade do cuidado
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