St Andrews Research Repository

    The effect of foreign accent on employability : a study of the aural dimensions of aesthetic labour in customer-facing and non-customer-facing jobs

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    Using quantitative methods, this article examines the effect of foreign accents on job applicants’ employability ratings in the context of a simulated employment interview experiment conducted in the USA. It builds upon the literature on aesthetic labour, which focuses largely on the role of physical appearance in employment relations, by shifting attention to its under-investigated auditory and aural dimensions. The results suggest that the managerial respondents actively discriminate in telephone-based job interviews against applicants speaking Chinese-, Mexican- and Indian-accented English, and all three are rated higher in non-customer-facing jobs than in customer-facing jobs. Job applicants who speak British-accented English, especially men, fare as well as, and at times better than, native candidates who speak American English. The article makes a contribution to the sociological literatures surrounding aesthetic labour and discrimination and prejudice against migrant workers.PostprintPeer reviewe

    Phylogeny and phylogeography of a recent HIV-1 subtype F outbreak among men who have sex with men in Spain deriving from a cluster with a wide geographic circulation in Western Europe

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    This work received support from the Dirección General de Farmacia, Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad, Government of Spain, grant EC11-272; European Network of Excellence EUROPRISE (Rational Design of HIV Vaccines and Microbicides), grant LSHP-CT-2006-037611; European Research Infrastructures for Poverty Related Diseases (EURIPRED). Seventh Framework Programme: FP7-Capacities-infrastructures-2012-1, grant agreement 312661; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Subdirección General de Evaluación, and Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER), Plan Nacional I + D + I, through project RD12/0017/0026; Consellería de Sanidade, Government of Galicia, Spain (MVI 1291/08); and the Osakidetza-Servicio Vasco de Salud, Basque Country, Spain (MVI-1255-08). Marcos Pérez-Losada was supported by a DC D-CFAR Research Award from the District of Columbia Developmental Center for AIDS Research (P30AI087714) and by an University Facilitating Fund award from George Washington University. Aurora Fernández-García is supported by CIBER in Epidemiology and Public Health, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.We recently reported the rapid expansion of an HIV-1 subtype F cluster among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the region of Galicia, Northwest Spain. Here we update this outbreak, analyze near full-length genomes, determine phylogenetic relationships, and estimate its origin. For this study, we used sequences of HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase and env V3 region, and for 17 samples, near full-length genome sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analyses were performed via maximum likelihood. Locations and times of most recent common ancestors were estimated using Bayesian inference. Among samples analyzed by us, 100 HIV-1 F1 subsubtype infections of monophyletic origin were diagnosed in Spain, including 88 in Galicia and 12 in four other regions. Most viruses (n = 90) grouped in a subcluster (Galician subcluster), while 7 from Valladolid (Central Spain) grouped in another subcluster. At least 94 individuals were sexually-infected males and at least 71 were MSM. Seventeen near full-length genomes were uniformly of F1 subsubtype. Through similarity searches and phylogenetic analyses, we identified 18 viruses from four other Western European countries [Switzerland (n = 8), Belgium (n = 5), France (n = 3), and United Kingdom (n = 2)] and one from Brazil, from samples collected in 2005?2011, which branched within the subtype F cluster, outside of both Spanish subclusters, most of them corresponding to recently infected individuals. The most probable geographic origin and age of the Galician subcluster was Ferrol, Northwest Galicia, around 2007, while the Western European cluster probably emerged in Switzerland around 2002. In conclusion, a recently expanded HIV-1 subtype F cluster, the largest non-subtype B cluster reported in Western Europe, continues to spread among MSM in Spain; this cluster is part of a larger cluster with a wide geographic circulation in diverse Western European countries.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) : Panchromatic Data Release (far-UV-far-IR) and the low-z energy budget

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    LD and SJM acknowledge support from the European Advanced Investigator grant cosmicism. SB acknowledges support from an ARC Future Fellowship (FT140101166).NB acknowledges support from EC FP7 SPACE project ASTRODEEP (Ref. No: 312725). EI acknowledges funding from CONICYT/FONDECYT post-doctoral project no: 3130504. MALL acknowledges support from UNAM through PAPIIT project IA101315. PN acknowledges the support of the Royal Society through the award of a University Research Fellowship, the European Research Council, through receipt of a Starting Grant (DEGAS-259586) and support of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (ST/L00075X/1). Funding for the SDSS and SDSS-II has been provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the Participating Institutions, the National Science Foundation, the US Department of Energy, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Japanese Monbukagakusho, the Max Planck Society, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England.We present the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) Panchromatic Data Release (PDR) constituting over 230 deg2 of imaging with photometryin 21 bands extending from the far-UV to the far-IR. These data complement our spectroscopic campaign of over 300k galaxies, and are compiled from observations with a variety of facilities including: GALaxy Evolution eXplorer, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Visible and Infrared Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA), Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and Herschel, with the GAMA regions currently being surveyed by VLT Survey Telescope (VST) and scheduled for observations by Australian Square Kilometer Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). These data are processed to a common astrometric solution, from which photometry is derived for ∼221 373 galaxies with r <19.8 mag. Online tools are provided to access and download data cutouts, or the full mosaics of the GAMA regions in each band. We focus, in particular, on the reduction and analysis of the VISTA VIsta Kilo-degree INfrared Galaxy data, and compare to earlier data sets (i.e. 2MASS and UKIDSS) before combining the data and examining its integrity. Having derived the 21-band photometric catalogue, we proceed to fit the data using the energy balance code MAGPHYS. These measurements are then used to obtain the first fully empirical measurement of the 0.1-500 μm energy output of the Universe. Exploring the cosmic spectral energy distribution across three time-intervals (0.3-1.1, 1.1-1.8, and 1.8-2.4 Gyr), we find that the Universe is currently generating (1.5 ± 0.3) ×1035 h70 W Mpc-3, down from (2.5± 0.2) × 1035 h70 W Mpc-32.3 Gyr ago. More importantly, we identify significant and smooth evolution in the integrated photon escape fraction at all wavelengths, with the UV escape fraction increasing from 27(18) per cent at z = 0.18in NUV(FUV) to 34(23) per cent at z = 0.06. The GAMA PDR can be found at: http://gama-psi.icrar.org/.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Equitable tuberculosis care in the North West of England : analysis of tuberculosis cohort review data

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    BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom, tuberculosis (TB) predominantly affects the most deprived populations, yet the extent to which deprivation affects TB care outcomes is unknown. METHODS: Since 2011, the North West TB Cohort Audit collaboration has undertaken quarterly reviews of outcomes against consensus-defined care standard indicators for all individuals notified with TB. We investigated associations between adverse TB care outcomes and Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 2010 scores measured at lower super output area of residence using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of 1831 individuals notified with TB between 2011 and 2014, 62% (1131/1831) came from the most deprived national quintile areas. In single variable analysis, greater deprivation was significantly associated with increased likelihood of the completion of a standardised risk assessment (OR 2.99, 95%CI 5.27–19.65) and offer of a human immunodeficiency virus test (OR 1.72, 95%CI 1.10–2.62). In multivariable analysis, there were no significant associations. CONCLUSIONS: TB patients in the most deprived areas had similar care indicators across a range of standards to those of individuals living in the more affluent areas, suggesting that the delivery of TB care in the North West of England is equitable. The extent to which the cohort review process contributes to, and sustains, this standard of care deserves further study.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Ромская библиография

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    We are delighted to introduce readers and online users to the Ŗomani pustikango đaj / Roma Bibliography. This is the first-ever comprehensive and multilingual bibliography of works on the Roma and all the aspects of their culture. In the past, several attempts were made to compile an exhaustive bibliography of publications in the field of Romani studies, but none lived up to the promise. The Ŗomani pustikango đaj is the most comprehensive and most up-to-date, and even better, it is open access, that is, accessible to all free of charge on the web. We admire the huge amount of work and care the authors devoted to compiling the Ŗomani pustikango đaj. It is a product of a Roma-led team, who compiled it on a voluntary basis, out of the shared desire to “serve the interests of our [Roma] people”. The authors see this bibliography as “an information infrastructure for the collection, processing, dissemination and use of bibliographic data”. The bibliography consists of separate files. The first file contains the authors’ Introduction where they explain motivations which led toward its compilation, followed by the explanation of the principles of the Bibliography’s arrangement. The separate files contain the bibliographical items in the alphabetical order. The Bibliography includes a number of multilingual sources, that is, monographs, articles, reviews, dissertations, expert reports, papers, newspapers, and important non-academic publications. The titles and short annotations are given in the original languages, followed by translations into English and Ukrainian, and in many other instances already into Bulgarian, Czech, French, German, Romanian, Russian, Slovak, and Spanish. And the Authors invite all – Romany and non-Romany activists, scholars, academics - to participate in the further development of this Bibliography to make it really ‘the people’s one’. The Bibliography employs the Romani alphabet originally proposed by Niko Rergo in 1989, and as pointed “adopted in Ukraine by the Ministry of Education”. Some readers may find it a bit unusual at first, but the alphabet’s conventions and writing principles are clearly explained in the introduction. The Ŗomani pustikango đaj is an invaluable source for everyone interested in the Roma and in Roma studies. We are extremely grateful to the Authors for consenting to make this Bibliography available to the Library at University of St Andrews. In turn, we also appreciate the Library’s decision to make the Ŗomani pustikango đaj accessible online to all those who might want to consult it. (Elena Marushiakova and Veselin Popov. ERC Advanced Grant Roma Interbellum)Publisher PD

    Evolutionary conservation and in vitro reconstitution of microsporidian iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis

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    This work was supported by Marie Curie Postdoctoral Fellowships to T.A.W., E. H. and S. L., a European Research Council Advanced Investigator Grant (ERC-2010-AdG-268701) to T.M.E., and a Wellcome Trust Programme Grant (number 045404) to T.M.E. and J.M.L. R.L. acknowledges generous financial support from Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB 593, SFB 987, GRK 1216, LI 415/5), LOEWE program of state Hessen, Max-Planck Gesellschaft, von Behring-Röntgen StiftungMicrosporidians are a diverse group of obligate intracellular parasites that have minimized their genome content and simplified their sub-cellular structures by reductive evolution. Functional studies are limited because we lack reliable genetic tools for their manipulation. Here, we demonstrate that the cristae-deficient mitochondrion (mitosome) of the microsporidian Trachipleistophora hominis is the functional site of iron-sulphur cluster (ISC) assembly, which we suggest is the essential task of this organelle. Cell fractionation, fluorescence imaging and fine-scale immunoelectron microscopy demonstrate that mitosomes contain a complete pathway for [2Fe-2S] cluster biosynthesis that we biochemically reconstituted using purified recombinant mitosomal ISC proteins. Reconstitution proceeded as rapidly and efficiently as observed for yeast or fungal mitochondrial ISC components. Core components of the T. hominis cytosolic iron-sulphur protein assembly (CIA) pathway were also identified including the essential Cfd1-Nbp35 scaffold complex that assembles a [4Fe-4S] cluster as shown by spectroscopic methods in vitro. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that both the ISC and CIA biosynthetic pathways are predominantly bacterial, but their cytosolic and nuclear target Fe/S proteins are mainly archaeal. This mixed evolutionary history of the Fe/S-related proteins and pathways, and their strong conservation among highly reduced parasites, provides additional compelling evidence for the ancient chimeric ancestry of eukaryotes.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    More religious yet still secular? The shifting relationship between the secular and the religious in Syria

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    In More Religious, Yet Still Secular? The Shifting Relationship Between the Secular and the Religious in Syria, Line Khatib takes us on a more recent journey than that of Aldoughli’s narrative, and explores how secularism was in fact enriched by the very religious discourse assumed to be its antagonist. By focusing on the words and actions of various religious scholars active in recent Syrian history, Khatib documents the inclusiveness, moderation, and indeed ‘secularism’ of key religious scholars. She leaves us with a question, perhaps too early to be answered, on whether or not this type of religious sensibility is more representative of Syrians than that of the radical forces now fighting on the ground. In the current politicised and highly inflamed context, it is clearly too difficult to determine how deeply rooted this secular approach to Islam is amongst the majority of Muslims in Syria.Publisher PD

    News from the international study Control of Adolescent Smoking : Parental influences on smoking among Scottish adolescents

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    This study was funded by EC BIOMED II grant BMH4-CT98- 3721, Transnational variation in prevalence of adolescent smoking: the role of national tobacco policies and the school and family environments.Publisher PD

    Sites of struggle: representations of family in Spanish film (1996-2004)

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    Electronic version excludes material for which permission has not been granted by the rights holderThis thesis analyses how ways of thinking about and meanings of family are (re)negotiated and (re)presented in six films that, to varying degrees, are categorised as cine social. The group of films consists of Familia (León de Aranoa, 1996), Solas (Zambrano, 1999), Flores de otro mundo (Bollaín, 1999), Poniente (Gutiérrez, 2002), Te doy mis ojos (Bollaín, 2003) and Cachorro (Albaladejo, 2004). Despite the growing body of critical work on the wide-ranging social themes they deal with, little sustained attention has been given to their representations of family. Scholars tend to mention it only in passing, or refer back to the allegorical/mediating function that family has often played in Spanish cinema. The objective of this thesis is to place the emphasis, as the films do themselves, on the family per se. Insights into family from a range of academic fields including philosophy, sociology, feminist and queer theories and cultural, race and gender studies are combined with close textual readings and a consideration of the modes of representation and address employed in the films to analyse how they function as sites of ideological struggle. The thesis begins by sketching out historically and culturally situated definitions of family and providing an overview of some of its most iconic representations in Spanish cinema. Establishing many of the aspects developed in the main body of the thesis the first chapter concentrates on Familia, which denaturalises the hegemonic family by presenting it as a self-conscious performance. The subsequent four chapters focus on family forms, roles, practices, commitment, power dynamics and domestic space. They explore how the films’ affective and informed modes of address position the spectator in relation to criticisms of the traditional family and evaluations of emerging family ideologies, finally proposing that they could usefully be viewed as a cycle of postmodern family melodramas
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