2,522 research outputs found

    Quantification of the pressures generated during insertion of an epidural needle in labouring women of varying body mass indices

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    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to measure pressure generated on a Tuohy needle during the epidural procedure in labouring women of varying body mass indices (BMI) with a view of utilising the data for the future development of a high fi delity epidural simulator. High-fi delity epidural simulators have a role in improving training and safety but current simulators lack a realistic experience and can be improved. Methods: This study was approved by the National Research Ethics Service Committee South Central, Portsmouth (REC reference 11/SC/0196). After informed consent epidural needle insertion pressure was measured using a Portex 16-gauge Tuohy needle, loss-of-resistance syringe, a three-way tap, pressure transducer and a custom-designed wireless transmitter. This was performed in four groups of labouring women, stratifi ed according to BMI kg/m2: 18-24.9; 25-34.9; 35-44.9 and >=45. One-way ANOVA was used to compare difference in needle insertion pressure between the BMI groups. A paired t-test was performed between BMI group 18-24.9 and the three other BMI groups. Ultrasound images of the lumbar spine were undertaken prior to the epidural procedure and lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed within 72h post-delivery. These images will be used in the development of a high fi delity epidural simulator. Results: The mean epidural needle insertion pressure of labouring women with BMI 18-24.9 was 461mmHg; BMI 25-34.9 was 430mmHg; BMI 35-44.9 was 415mmHg and BMI >=45 was 376mmHg, (p=0.52). Conclusion: Although statistically insignifi cant, the study did show a decreasing trend of epidural insertion pressure with increasing body mass indices

    Characterisation of Delayed Onset of Muscle Soreness (DOMS) in the hand, wrist and forearm using a finger dynamometer: A pilot study

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    Background: Experimentally-induced delayed-onset muscle soreness of large muscle groups is frequently used in as an injurious model of muscle pain. We wanted to develop an experimental model of DOMS to mimic overuse injuries from sports where repeated finger flexion activity is vital such as rock climbing. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the utility of a ‘finger trigger device’ to induce DOMS in the fingers, hands, wrists and lower arms. Methods: A convenient sample of six participants completed an experiment in which they undertook finger exercises to exhaustion after which measurements of pain, skin sensitivity to fi ne touch, forearm circumference and grip strength in the hand, wrist and forearm were taken from the experimental and contralateral none-exercised (control) arms. Results: Pain intensity was greater in the experimental arm at rest and on movement when compared with the control arm up to 24 hours after exercise, although the location of pain varied between participants. Pressure pain threshold was significantly lower in the experimental arm compared with the control arm immediately after exercises locations close to the medial epicondyle but not at other locations. There were no statistical significant differences between affected and non-affected limbs for mechanical detection threshold, forearm circumference or grip strength. Conclusion: Repetitive finger flexion exercises of the index finger by pulling a trigger against a resistance can induced DOMS. We are currently undertaking a more detailed characterization of sensory and motor changes following repetitive finger flexion activity using a larger sample

    Diagnostic imaging in congenital adrenal hyperplasia – how does it help?

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    The phenotypic manifestation of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is variable, and this largely depends on the extent of 21-Hydroxylase enzyme deficiency. In non- classic CAH (NCCAH), the clinical features predominantly reflect the androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency. In boys, the condition may not present until much later in childhood, where the diagnosis is made following presentation with precocious puberty, features of aldosterone insufficiency, or this condition may be detected during fertility workup Imaging is generally not used in the evaluation of CAH, but may be helpful for the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of these patients. CAH can result in adrenal enlargement in both classic and non-classic forms of adrenal hyperplasia. The so-called adrenal rest tissue may be seen at several sites throughout the body, including the celiac plexus region, broad ligaments, normal ovaries, and testes. Sustained elevation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in patients with CAH has been postulated to cause adrenal rest cells to grow and become functionally active. The discovery of bilateral adrenal enlargement during radiologic evaluation for unrelated disease processes might serve as a mode of presentation for clinically not apparent or non- classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH)

    A retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship of airway hyperresponsiveness to type 2 biomarkers in persistent asthma

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    Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a hallmark of persistent asthma measured using direct or indirect airway bronchial challenge testing. The purpose of this study is to investigate the putative relationships between type 2 inflammatory biomarkers, airway geometry (FEV1 and FEF25-75) and specific IgE (RAST or skin prick) to AHR. We performed a retrospective analysis of our database (n = 131) of patients with asthma. Of these subjects, 75 had a histamine challenge and 56 had a mannitol challenge. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) but not blood eosinophils were significantly higher in patients with AHR to either histamine or mannitol. FEV1 % and FEF25 - 75 % were significantly lower in patients with AHR. Elevated Type 2 biomarkers including FeNO and specific IgE but not blood eosinophils were associated with AHR. Highlights: FeNO and specific IgE but not blood eosinophils are raised in patients with airway hyperresponsiveness

    Common transcriptional regulation of ABA and ethylene

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    Plant hormones are versatile chemical regulators of plant growth. The concept of hormone ‘interaction’[1] has gained much importance and several key players of hormonal network are uncovered for major plant hormones. The fact that hormones are structurally unrelated and their interaction elicits different genomic and non-genomic responses suggest hormone interaction involve co-regulation at multiple levels [2]. Recent studies suggest that hormonal interaction involves control over biosynthesis genes [3-6], key components of signalling pathways [7, 8], hormone distribution [9, 10], and interaction at the level of gene expression [11-13]. The spatial and temporal changes in hormone sensitivity add further complexity as they are developmental stagedependent [14]. Understanding how these mechanisms are integrated would allow us to manipulate hormone interaction-regulated growth response under environmental changes. One such prominent emerging hormone interaction is ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) in several growth processes. In this short review, I discuss some of the common transcriptional regulators of ethylene and ABA

    Effect of hemodialysis session on acute changes in inflammatory and cardiovascular risk biomarkers

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    Background: Inflammation is associated with enhanced cardiovascular risk profile and increased cardiovascular mortality in end-stage kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. Mechanisms of activated acute phase reaction in patients on chronic hemodialysis remain to be identified. As successful treatment of the inflammatory condition in these patients may improve long-term survival, we studied potential changes in different inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in end-stage kidney disease patients after a mid-week hemodialysis session. Methods: Inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular risk (cystatin-C, homocysteine, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, pentraxin-3, serum amyloid-A) and atherogenic plasma lipoproteins (Lipoprotein(a), cholesterol low and high density lipoproteins) were studied in 21 end-stage kidney disease patients previously and after a mid-week hemodialysis session. Results: We found a significant reduction in serum levels of low molecular weight molecules: cystatin-C (5.56 to 1.85 mg/L, 66.73%, p < 0.001), homocysteine (22.85 to 13.25 µmol/L, 42.01%, p < 0.001) and procalcitonin (0.788 to 0.457 ng/mL, 42.01%, p < 0.001). Large molecules as C-reactive protein (9.70 to 9.90 mg/L, 2.06%, p = 0.022) and pentraxin-3 (1.67 to 4.28 ng/mL, 156%, p < 0.001) increased, but serum amyloid-A decreased (15.90 to 12.70 mg/L, 20.13%, p < 0.05). There was no change in Lipoprotein (a) levels. Conclusion: Pentraxin-3 was a more specific inflammatory vascular marker than C-reactive protein, and the best inflammatory marker associated with hemodialysis. Homocysteine, procalcitonin and the other small proteins could be released and removed during hemodialysis session. Further studies are needed to understand the behavior and significance of these markers after successive hemodialysis


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    Excitation functions of 169Tm( 12 C, 4n) 177Re, 169Tm( 12C, 5n) 176Re, 169Tm( 12C, n) 176Ta , 169 Tm( 12C, 2n) 175Ta , 169Tm( 12 C, 3n) 174Ta , 169Tm( 12C, 4n) 173Ta , and 169Tm( 12C, 22n) 171Lu reaction channels populated in the interaction of 12C projectile with 169Tm target were considered in order to investigate the mechanisms of complete and incomplete fusion reactions. The theoretically predicted excitation functions using PACE4 code were compared with the previously measured excitation functions. For non–α emitting channels cross-section values predicted by PACE 4 in general were found to be in good agreement with the experimentally measured values. However, for α-emitting channels the measured cross-section values were found to be higher than the values predicted by PACE4. The observed disagreement may be credited to projectile break-up in the vicinity of n-n interaction. Keywords: alpha emitted, CF reaction, excitation functions, heavy-ion fusion, ICF reaction, non-alpha emitte

    A Case-Study of the Anatomy of a Miscommunication: Why colleagues as patients develop complications?

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    This is an anatomy of a miscommunication, written by the patient, a medical school professor and his orthopaedic consultant, who was also a colleague leading to a series of misunderstandings. This raises the practical question of who is responsible for effective communication with the patient who is also a colleague. At the pre-operative assessment a combination of the diffidence of an inexperienced nurse and the patient’s wrong assumptions about his post-operative mobility and his keenness to maintain his independence and identity nearly led to a delayed discharge. The miscommunication was due to the patient’s assumptions about previous orthopaedic and recent cardiac surgery hospital experience. Neither he nor the nurse checked these assumptions and we speculate might this possibly account for why senior colleagues who become patients sometimes have unexpected complications. There are lessons to be learned from this frank exploration of the colleague patient’s experience of a miscommunication

    Scraping cytology and scanning electron microscopy in diagnosis and therapy of corneal ulcer by mycobacterium infection

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    Purpose: This work is aimed at demonstrating that scraping cytology and scanning electron microscopy can successfully assist in the diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteria infection. For this purpose, we report the use of both these techniques in the diagnosis of cornel ulcer in a previously healthy young man.Methods: Cytological samples were achieved by scraping technique on the mucosa, both sub palpebral and temporal area of the eye tarsal conjunctiva. The obtained sample was affixed to a sanded rectangular slide, stained with the Pappenheim method, washed in bidistilled water, treated in Giemsa solution, washed again and subsequently dried on a hot plate and observed with a microscope at various magnifications.Results: After a therapy based on a 500 mg clarithromycin tablet administered every 12 hours for 30 days as systemic therapy, a complete recovery of the patient from left eye inflammation was observed and SEM cytology showed that NTM colonies had disappeared.Conclusion: Conjunctival cytology scraping and SEM technologies can be therefore exploited as new tools in diagnosis and fast identification of these newly discovered mycobacteria. In fact, they have a new way for studying ocular pathology, because of the simple execution and remarkable accuracy in the diagnosis. In fact, this technique allows to gather valuable information about all pathogens expression and the cellular action involved in pathology. As a further plus, this technique provides clinicians with the opportunity to repeat the SEM cytology for monitoring patients during therapy, hence leading to evaluate the efficacy of the pharmaceutical regimen in real time

    Biomarkers in Enteropathic Arthritis

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    Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)-associated arthritis is called Enteropathic Arthritis (EA) which is classified among the group of Spondyloarthritis (SpA), because its presentation is variable. The current trend is to classify them as autoinflammatory rather than autoimmune diseases, since no antibodies have yet been identified. The study of biomarkers (BM) will help us with early identification and hence, to provide treatment in the early stages, prior to radiographic progression, which will enable prompt identification of the disease phenotype. 42 patients diagnosed with IBD were included, of which 48% were females; the mean age of the study group was 48.12 &plusmn; 5.02 (95% CI). The average time of evolution of disease was 37.57 &plusmn; 14.28 months; most patients referred to the rheumatologist had a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (83%). According to our analysis, we were able to determine that the three most significant variables influencing the development of sacroiliitis were: Lactoferrin, ANCA and HLA B27 (p &lt; 0.5). The variable that can be ruled out because of its almost neglectable contribution was fecal calprotectin
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