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    "They had clothes on their back and they had food in their stomach, but they didn't have me": The contribution of parental mental health problems, substance use, and domestic violence and abuse on young people and parents.

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    This is the final version. Available from Elsevier via the DOI in this record. Data availability: The data that has been used is confidential.BACKGROUND: The parental risk factors of mental health problems, substance use, and domestic violence and abuse each individually negatively impacts children's health and developmental outcomes. Few studies have considered the lived experience and support needs of parents and children in the real-world situation where these common risks cluster. OBJECTIVE: This study explores parents' and young people's lived experiences of the clustering of parental mental health problems, parental substance use, and domestic violence and abuse. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 mothers, 6 fathers, and 7 young people with experiences of these parental risk factors. Transcribed interviews were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four themes were developed, 1) cumulative adversity, 2) the impact of syndemic risk, 3) families navigating risk, and 4) family support. Parents and young people described family situations of stress wherein they experienced cumulative impact of multiple parental risk factors. Parents sought to navigate stressors and parent in positive ways under challenging conditions, often impeded by their own childhood trauma and diminished confidence. Parents and young people spoke of the need for, and benefits of having, support; both as a family and as individuals, to successfully address this trio of parental risks and the related impact. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the high level of stress families experience and the efforts they go to mitigate risk. Services and interventions need to reflect the complexity of multiple needs and consider both the whole family and individuals when providing support.National Institute for Health Research (NIHR

    Researching the Romans on the Roman lower Danube: Challenges and opportunities

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    This is the final version. Available on open access from Archaeopress Publishing via the DOI in this recor

    Nexus between agriculture and photovoltaics (agrivoltaics, agriphotovoltaics) for sustainable development goal: A review

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    This is the final version. Available on open access from Elsevier via the DOI in this recordThe coexistence of agricultural land and solar photovoltaics (PV) can be named Agriphotovoltaics (APV). APV concept was developed two decades ago however its actual implementation is happening nowadays. APV directly solves SDGs 7, and 11 by generating benevolent renewable energy without damaging the land and keep producing food for people. In this work, a comprehensive review of the APV system is documented. Currently available software tools, field experiment results, and PV for APV are described in this work which identified that for forecasting APV, a more robust tool is required. Vertically placed Bifacial PV, transparent, and semitransparent tilted PVs can be suitable for shade-intolerant crops whereas opaque PVs are appropriate for shade-tolerant crops. The knowledge gap between various stakeholders such as solar PV researchers, agricultural researchers, and land users needs to be more rigorous. Economic and policymakers should share dialogue to improve the growth of APV which not only solves SDG 7, and 11 but also meets the target for SDG 5, 8, 9,12, and 15

    Supporting self-management for patients with Interstitial Lung Diseases: Utility and acceptability of digital devices

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    This is the final version. Available from Public Library of Science via the DOI in this record. Data Availability Statement: The fully de-identified research data supporting this publication are openly available as S1 Data and at 10.6084/m9.figshare.24569851INTRODUCTION: Patients diagnosed with Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILD) use devices to self-monitor their health and well-being. Little is known about the range of devices, selection, frequency and terms of use and overall utility. We sought to quantify patients' usage and experiences with home digital devices, and further evaluate their perceived utility and barriers to adaptation. METHODS: A team of expert clinicians and patient partners interested in self-management approaches designed a 48-question cross-sectional electronic survey; specifically targeted at individuals diagnosed with ILD. The survey was critically appraised by the interdisciplinary self-management group at Royal Devon University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust during a 6-month validation process. The survey was open for participation between September 2021 and December 2022, and responses were collected anonymously. Data were analysed descriptively for quantitative aspects and through thematic analysis for qualitative input. RESULTS: 104 patients accessed the survey and 89/104 (86%) reported a diagnosis of lung fibrosis, including 46/89 (52%) idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with 57/89 (64%) of participants diagnosed >3 years and 59/89 (66%) female. 52/65(80%) were in the UK; 33/65 (51%) reported severe breathlessness medical research council MRC grade 3-4 and 32/65 (49%) disclosed co-morbid arthritis or joint problems. Of these, 18/83 (22%) used a hand- held spirometer, with only 6/17 (35%) advised on how to interpret the readings. Pulse oximetry devices were the most frequently used device by 35/71 (49%) and 20/64 (31%) measured their saturations more than once daily. 29/63 (46%) of respondents reported home-monitoring brought reassurance; of these, for 25/63 (40%) a feeling of control. 10/57 (18%) felt it had a negative effect, citing fluctuating readings as causing stress and 'paranoia'. The most likely help-seeking triggers were worsening breathlessness 53/65 (82%) and low oxygen saturation 43/65 (66%). Nurse specialists were the most frequent source of help 24/63 (38%). Conclusion: Patients can learn appropriate technical skills, yet perceptions of home-monitoring are variable; targeted assessment and tailored support is likely to be beneficial.Health Education Englan

    Patient perspectives on home-spirometry in interstitial lung disease: a qualitative co-designed study

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    This is the final version. Available on open access from BMJ Publishing via the DOI in this record. Data availability statement: Data are available upon reasonable request. Deidentified participant data, thematic analysis and coding system will be made available in response to reasonable request made to the corresponding author. We will seek approval from our governance team and patient research partners advisory board.BACKGROUND: Opportunities for home-monitoring are increasing exponentially. Home- spirometry is reproducible and reliable in interstitial lung disease (ILD), yet patients' experiences are not reported. Given the morbidity and mortality associated with ILDs, maintaining health-related quality-of-life is vital. We report our findings from a codesigned, qualitative study capturing the perspectives and experiences of patients using home-spirometry in a UK regional ILD National Health Service England (NHSE) commissioned service. METHODS: Patients eligible for home-spirometry as routine clinical care, able to give consent and able to access a smart phone were invited to participate. In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted at serial time points (baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months), recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. RESULTS: We report on the experiences of 10 recruited patients (8 males; median age 66 years, range 50-82 years; 7 diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 3 other ILDs) who generally found spirometry convenient and easy to use, but their relationships with forced vital capacity results were complex. Main themes emerging were: (1) anticipated benefits-to identify change, trigger action and aid understanding of condition; (2) needs-clinical oversight and feedback, understanding of results, ownership, need for data and a need 'to know'; (3) emotional impact-worry, reassurance, ambivalence/conflicting feelings, reminder of health issues, indifference; (4) ease of home-spirometry-simplicity, convenience and (5) difficulties with home-spirometry-technical issues, technique, physical effort. CONCLUSION: Home-spirometry has many benefits, but in view of the potential risks to psychological well-being, must be considered on an individual basis. Informed consent and decision-making are essential and should be ongoing, acknowledging potential limitations as well as benefits. Healthcare support is vital.National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR

    Viscous dissipation and dynamics in simulations of rotating, stratified plane-layer convection (article)

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Oxford University Press via the DOI in this recorddata availability: The codes used to produce the simulations in this paper, and selected outputs from the simulations themselves, are available for download in ORE at https://doi.org/10.24378/exe.4945Convection in stars and planets must be maintained against viscous and Ohmic dissipation. Here, we present the first systematic investigation of viscous dissipation in simulations of rotating, density-stratified plane layers of convection. Our simulations consider an anelastic ideal gas, and employ the open-source code Dedalus. We demonstrate that when the convection is sufficiently vigorous, the integrated dissipative heating tends towards a value that is independent of viscosity or thermal diffusivity, but depends on the imposed luminosity and the stratification. We show that knowledge of the dissipation provides a bound on the magnitude of the kinetic energy flux in the convection zone. In our non-rotating cases with simple flow fields, much of the dissipation occurs near the highest possible temperatures, and the kinetic energy flux approaches this bound. In the rotating cases, although the total integrated dissipation is similar, it is much more uniformly distributed (and locally balanced by work against the stratification), with a consequently smaller kinetic energy flux. The heat transport in our rotating simulations is in good agreement with results previously obtained for 3D Boussinesq convection, and approaches the predictions of diffusion-free theory.Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)European Research Council (ERC

    Ingestion of a variety of non-animal-derived dietary protein sources results in diverse postprandial plasma amino acid responses which differ between young and older adults.

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    Data availability: Data described in the manuscript may be made available upon request, pending application.Whole-body tissue protein turnover is regulated, in part, by the postprandial rise in plasma amino acid concentrations, although minimal data exist on the amino acid response following non-animal-derived protein consumption. We hypothesised that the ingestion of novel plant- and algae-derived dietary protein sources would elicit divergent plasma amino acid responses when compared with vegan- and animal-derived control proteins. Twelve healthy young (male [m]/female [f]: 6/6; age: 22±1 y) and 10 healthy older (m/f: 5/5; age: 69±2 y) adults participated in a randomised, double-blind, crossover trial. During each visit, volunteers consumed 30 g protein from milk, mycoprotein, pea, lupin, spirulina or chlorella. Repeated arterialised venous blood samples were collected at baseline and over a 5 h postprandial period to assess circulating amino acid, glucose, and insulin concentrations. Protein ingestion increased plasma total and essential amino acid concentrations (P0.05). Postprandial total and essential amino acid availabilities were highest for pea, spirulina and mycoprotein, and lowest for chlorella (all P0.05). The ingestion of a variety of novel non-animal-derived dietary protein sources elicits divergent plasma amino acid responses, which are further modulated by age

    Synthesis of the land carbon fluxes of the Amazon region between 2010 and 2020

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    This is the final version. Available on open access from Nature Research via the DOI in this recordData availability: The spatial dataset of the main figures are available in a raster format and can be found at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10423522. The annual carbon fluxes from each model used in this research (disturbances, old-growth sink and net flux) for the Brazilian Amazon and whole Biogeographical Amazon are available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8348434.Code availability: The code and tables used to reproduce the main paper graphics of Figs. 2a, b, 3a, b, 4a and 5a are available in Zenodo https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.8348435. Further editions to combine the layout of graphics and maps were made in a design software (InkScape).The Amazon is the largest continuous tropical forest in the world and plays a key role in the global carbon cycle. Human-induced disturbances and climate change have impacted the Amazon carbon balance. Here we conduct a comprehensive synthesis of existing state-of-the-art estimates of the contemporary land carbon fluxes in the Amazon using a set of bottom-up methods (i.e., dynamic vegetation models and bookkeeping models) and a top-down inversion (atmospheric inversion model) over the Brazilian Amazon and the whole Biogeographical Amazon domain. Over the whole biogeographical Amazon region bottom-up methodologies suggest a small average carbon sink over 2010-2020, in contrast to a small carbon source simulated by top-down inversion (2010-2018). However, these estimates are not significantly different from one another when accounting for their large individual uncertainties, highlighting remaining knowledge gaps, and the urgent need to reduce such uncertainties. Nevertheless, both methodologies agreed that the Brazilian Amazon has been a net carbon source during recent climate extremes and that the south-eastern Amazon was a net land carbon source over the whole study period (2010-2020). Overall, our results point to increasing human-induced disturbances (deforestation and forest degradation by wildfires) and reduction in the old-growth forest sink during drought.Newton FundRECCAP2 projectEuropean Union Horizon 2020UK National Centre for Earth ObservationState of Sao Paulo Science Foundation (FAPESP

    The increasing importance of satellite observations to assess the ocean carbon sink and ocean acidification

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    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available on open access from Elsevier via the DOI in this recordData availability Data will be made available on request.The strong control that the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) have over Earth's climate identifies the need for accurate quantification of the emitted CO2 and its redistribution within the Earth system. The ocean annually absorbs more than a quarter of all CO2 emissions and this absorption is fundamentally altering the ocean chemistry. The ocean thus provides a fundamental component and powerful constraint within global carbon assessments used to guide policy action for reducing emissions. These carbon assessments rely heavily on satellite observations, but their inclusion is often invisible or opaque to policy. One reason is that satellite observations are rarely used exclusively, but often in conjunction with other types of observations, thereby complementing and expanding their usability yet losing their visibility. This exploitation of satellite observations led by the satellite and ocean carbon scientific communities is based on exciting developments in satellite science that have broadened the suite of environmental data that can now reliably be observed from space. However, the full potential of satellite observations to expand the scientific knowledge on critical processes such as the atmosphere-ocean exchange of CO2 and ocean acidification, including its impact on ocean health, remains largely unexplored. There is clear potential to begin using these observation-based approaches for directly guiding ocean management and conservation decisions, in particular in regions where in situ data collection is more difficult, and interest in them is growing within the environmental policy communities. We review these developments, identify new opportunities and scientific priorities, and identify that the formation of an international advisory group could accelerate policy relevant advancements within both the ocean carbon and satellite communities. Some barriers to understanding exist but these should not stop the exploitation and the full visibility of satellite observations to policy makers and users, so these observations can fulfil their full potential and recognition for supporting society.European Space Agenc

    Dynamic calcium-mediated stress response and recovery signatures in the fungal pathogen, Candida albicans

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    This is the final version. Available on open access from the American Society for Microbiology via the DOI in this recordIntracellular calcium signaling plays an important role in the resistance and adaptation to stresses encountered by fungal pathogens within the host. This study reports the optimization of the GCaMP fluorescent calcium reporter for live-cell imaging of dynamic calcium responses in single cells of the pathogen, Candida albicans, for the first time. Exposure to membrane, osmotic or oxidative stress generated both specific changes in single cell intracellular calcium spiking and longer calcium transients across the population. Repeated treatments showed that calcium dynamics become unaffected by some stresses but not others, consistent with known cell adaptation mechanisms. By expressing GCaMP in mutant strains and tracking the viability of individual cells over time, the relative contributions of key signaling pathways to calcium flux, stress adaptation, and cell death were demonstrated. This reporter, therefore, permits the study of calcium dynamics, homeostasis, and signaling in C. albicans at a previously unattainable level of detail.Wellcome TrustUniversity of ExeterRoyal SocietyMedical Research Council (MRC)European CommissionNational Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR

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