Open Research Exeter

    A two-stage method for the capacitated multi-facility location-allocation problem

    Get PDF
    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Inderscience via the DOI in this recordThis paper examines the capacitated planar multi-facility location-allocation problem, where the number of facilities to be located is specified and each of which has a capacity constraint. A two-stage method is put forward to deal with the problem where in the first stage a technique that discretises continuous space into discrete cells is used to generate a relatively good initial facility configurations. In stage 2, a variable neighbourhood search (VNS) is implemented to improve the quality of solution obtained by the previous stage. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated using benchmark datasets from the literature. The numerical experiments show that the proposed method yields competitive results when compared to the best known results from the literature. In addition, some future research avenues are also suggested

    Size dimorphism and sexual segregation in pheasants: tests of three competing hypotheses (dataset)

    No full text
    This is the dataset used for the Whiteside et al. (2018) article "Size dimorphism and sexual segregation in pheasants: tests of three competing hypotheses".The article incorporates analysis from a large number of datasets over several years to answer a series of question. Each spreadsheet has data for a specific question or set of questions. For each question I have clearly documented the factors that went into the analysis in the article and these factors are labelled at the top of each column on the dataset.The article associated with this dataset is located in ORE at: http://hdl.handle.net/10871/34195Fine scale sexual segregation outside of the mating season is common in sexually dimorphic and polygamous species, particularly in ungulates. A number of hypotheses predict sexual segregation but these are often contradictory with no agreement as to a common cause, perhaps because they are species specific. We explicitly tested three of these hypotheses which are commonly linked by a dependence on sexual dimorphism for animals which exhibit fine-scale sexual segregation; the Predation Risk Hypothesis, the Forage Selection Hypothesis, and the Activity Budget Hypothesis, in a single system the pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; a large, sedentary bird that is predominantly terrestrial and therefore analogous to ungulates rather than many avian species which sexually segregate. Over four years we reared 2,400 individually tagged pheasants from one day old and after a period of 8–10 weeks we released them into the wild. We then followed the birds for 7 months, during the period that they sexually segregate, determined their fate and collected behavioural and morphological measures pertinent to the hypotheses. Pheasants are sexually dimorphic during the entire period that they sexually segregate in the wild; males are larger than females in both body size and gut measurements. However, this did not influence predation risk and predation rates (as predicted by the Predation Risk Hypothesis), diet choice (as predicted by the Forage Selection Hypothesis), or the amount of time spent foraging, resting or walking (as predicted by the Activity Budget Hypothesis). We conclude that adult sexual size dimorphism is not responsible for sexual segregation in the pheasant in the wild. Instead, we consider that segregation may be mediated by other, perhaps social, factors. We highlight the importance of studies on a wide range of taxa to help further the knowledge of sexual segregation.ERC Consolidator Awar

    Hayatleh v Modfy: presuming the validity of a known ceremony of marriage

    No full text
    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Lexis Library.The question to be determined in Hayatleh v Modfy was whether a marriage that had taken place in Syria was valid. Key to this was whether the marriage had been registered, and it was presumed that this had been done, resulting in the marriage being upheld. While none of the English cases on the presumption in favour of marriage involve registration – for the very simple reason that registration is not necessary to the validity of a marriage in this jurisdiction – their overall approach does support the application of the presumption to the registration of a marriage, as well as to its ceremonial aspects. However, while the decision was undoubtedly correct, some of the discussion surrounding the presumption in this and other recent cases raises concerns. Drawing on the case law involving the presumption in favour of marriage where the parties are known to have gone through a specific ceremony of marriage, it is shown that the point of the presumption is to assume the regularity of the ceremony that was known to have taken place, not to validate a doubtful ceremony. It is also demonstrated that where a couple have gone through a ceremony of marriage, there should be no logical necessity for them also to show that they thereafter cohabited for a substantial period of time. The suggestion in recent cases that a lengthy period of cohabitation is necessary can be traced back no further than Chief Adjudication Officer v Bath in 2000. Finally, there is nothing in the case law to support the idea that one might be 'married by estoppel'

    A Little Justification Goes a Long Way: Audience Costs and the EU Referendum

    No full text
    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Palgrave Macmillan via the DOI in this recordThat governments may not always keep their election promises or that they change policy positions may be unsurprising. However, failed promises, backing down on threats or flip-flopping on policy positions may be associated with a loss in support. Bringing together literature on the politics of electoral promises, policy shifts and audience costs, we examine the conditions under which a political leader can back down on a promise, using the EU referendum in the UK as a case study. Based on a survey experiment conducted in the aftermath of the 2015 general election, we examine whether justifications grounded on electoral motives, internal and external opposition would have allowed then Prime Minister David Cameron to avoid paying audience costs for going back on his campaign promise. Our results indicate that domestic audience costs might have been manageable, with only slightly more than a quarter of the participants in our study punishing executive inconsistency regardless of the justification employed. Of particular interest for European Union scholars, justifying backing down due to opposition from other EU member states is particularly effective in mitigating domestic audience costs

    Does Large Igneous Province volcanism always perturb the mercury cycle? Comparing the records of Oceanic Anoxic Event and the end-Cretaceous to other Mesozoic events

    No full text
    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available via the DOI in this recordMercury (Hg) is increasingly being used as a sedimentary tracer of Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism, and supports hypotheses of a coincidence between the formation of several LIPs and episodes of mass extinction and major environmental perturbation. However, numerous important questions remain to be answered before Hg can be claimed as an unequivocal fingerprint of LIP volcanism, as well as an understanding of why some sedimentary records document clear Hg enrichment signals whilst others do not. Of particular importance is evaluating the impact of different volcanic styles on the global mercury cycle, as well as the role played by depositional processes in recording global Hg-cycle perturbations. Here, new mercury records of Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2: ~94 Ma) and the latest Cretaceous (~67 to 66.0 Ma) are presented. OAE 2 is associated with the emplacement of multiple, predominantly submarine, LIPs; the latest Cretaceous with subaerial volcanism of the Deccan Traps. Both of these connections are strongly supported by previously published trends towards unradiogenic osmium- (Os) isotope values in globally distributed sedimentary records. Hg data from both events show considerable variation between different locations, attributed to the effectiveness of different sediment types in registering the Hg signal, with lithologically homogeneous records documenting more clear Hg enrichments than sections with major changes in lithology such as limestones to claystones or organic-rich shales. Crucially, there is no geographically consistent signal of sedimentary Hg enrichment in stratigraphic records of either OAE 2 or the latest Cretaceous that matches Os-isotope evidence for LIP emplacement, indicating that volcanism did not cause a global Hg perturbation throughout the entire eruptive history of the LIPs formed at those times. It is suggested that the discrepancy between Os-isotope and Hg trends in records of OAE 2 is caused by the limited dispersal range of Hg emitted from submarine volcanoes compared to the global-scale distribution of Os. A similar lack of correlation between these two proxies in uppermost Cretaceous strata indicates that, although subaerial volcanism can perturb the global Hg cycle, not all subaerial eruptions will do so. These results highlight the variable impact of different volcanogenic processes on the efficiency of Hg dispersal across the globe. Factors that could influence the impact of LIP eruptions on the global mercury cycle include submarine versus subaerial volcanism, volcanic intensity or explosivity, and the potential contribution of thermogenic mercury from reactions between ascending magma and surrounding organic-rich sediments.We acknowledge the UK Natural Environment Research Council Grant NE/G01700X/1 (to Tamsin Mather), PhD studentship NE/L501530/1 (to Lawrence Percival), Grant NE/H020756/1 (to Ian Jarvis), the European Commission (FP7/2007–2013 grant number 215458), National Science Foundation Grant EAR0643290 (to Bradley Sageman and Jennifer McElwain), Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., and the Leverhulme Trust for funding

    Dramaturging the I-voicer in A Voice Is. A Voice Has. A Voice Does.: Methodologies of autobiophony

    No full text
    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Intellect via the DOI in this record.This practice-research piece proposes autobiophony (vocal autobiography in/through voice) as both a new area of research for interdisciplinary voice studies practitioner-scholars and a distinct methodology for probing the interconnections of selfhood, narration, performativity, intersectional positionality and voicing. Using as a point of departure the PaR performance-lecture A Voice Is. A Voice Has. A Voice Does., devised by the author, this Voicing interrogates the makings of the polyvocal self as monophonic chorus. The I-voicer of the PaR piece is examined as both constitutively plural and communicatively dialogic (but never resolved as either), enacting a complex dramaturgy of belonging. Framed by a working manifesto on autobiophony, the Voicing below is itself composed in a way that invites autobiophonic engagement by the reader-listener and proposes suggestions of using autobiophony as pedagogy, performance analysis tool and research methodology

    Kon-Tiki experiments

    Get PDF
    This is the final version. Available from University of Chicago Press via the DOI in this record.We identify a species of experiment—Kon-Tiki experiments—used to demonstrate the competence of a cause to produce a certain effect, and we examine their role in the historical sciences. We argue Kon-Tiki experiments are used to test middle-range theory, to test assumptions within historical narratives, and to open new avenues of inquiry. We show how the results of Kon-Tiki experiments are involved in projective (rather than consequentialist) inferences, and we argue (against Kyle Stanford) that reliance on projective inferences does not provide historical scientists with any special protection against the problem of unconceived alternatives.John Templeton Foundatio

    Locally Resonant Metamaterial for Surface Acoustic Waves

    No full text
    The control of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) using arrays of annular holes was investigated both experimentally and through numerical modelling. Periodic elastic composites, phononic crystals (PnCs), were designed using these annular holes as constituent elements. Local resonances associated with the annular hole structure were found to induce phonon bandgaps of a highly frequency tailorable nature, at frequencies where radiation of acoustic energy into the bulk of the substrate medium is avoided. These bandgaps are numerically demonstrated to exhibit order-of-magnitude improved extinction ratios for finite numbers of PnC elements, relative to the commonly used cylindrical pillar architecture. Devices fabricated on commercially available lithium niobate SAW delay lines verify the predicted behaviour. Through laser knife-edge detector vibrometry, a bandgap attenuation of 24.5 dB at 97 MHz was measured, in excellent agreement with finite element method (FEM) simulations. The first reported experimental evidence of subwavelength confinement of propagating SAWs was realised using the same annular hole PnC concept. Defect holes of perturbed resonant frequencies are included within the PnC to define waveguides and cavities. Confinement within these defects was demonstrated to occur at subwavelength frequencies which was experimentally observed in fabricated cavities using standard SAW transducers, as measured by laser Doppler vibrometry. The success of this result was attributed to the impedance matching of hybridised modes to Rayleigh SAWs in un-patterned substrates at the defect resonance. The work here has the potential to transform the field by providing a method to enhance SAW interactions, which is a route towards the realisation of many lab-on-chip applications. Finally, the use of annular hole arrays as negative refraction metamaterials was investigated. The symmetry was broken of the unit cells by alternating either the locally resonant frequencies or the distance separating the constituent elements. Both methods, called the bi-dispersive and bi-periodic methods, were numerically demonstrated to exhibit negative group velocity bands within the first Brillouin zone. Preliminary experimental results show that the design has the potential to be used in superlensing, where a SAW spot was imaged over a subwavelength flat lens. Future research looks to demonstrate that this result can be attributed to negative refraction

    From wise humanising creativity to (post-humanising) creativity

    No full text
    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Palgrave Macmillan (Springer) via the DOI in this record.This chapter demonstrates that the concepts of creativity in education put forward to date can only go so far in addressing the rapid, unpredictable changes inherent in the 21st century and the accompanying policy and practice challenges we face. The chapter shifts away from conceptualisation such as ‘wise humanising creativity’ and proposes a different articulation of creativity which may allow us to think about and action creativity to meet these challenges. This (post-humanising) creativity overcomes problems of humanistic conceptualisations as it allows for a full range of ‘players’ within the creative process, it incorporates a different, emergent take on ethics and is willing to see the future too as emergent, rather than always ‘to-bedesigned’. The chapter culminates by offering examples of (post-humanising) creativity in action, aiming to bring alive how it can address our policy and practice dilemmas.In writing this chapter, I would like to acknowledge the support and critical friendship of Professor Teresa Cremin, Dr Lindsay Hetherington, Dr Fran Martin, Professor Karen Mattick, Dr Deborah Osberg and Alex Schmoelz. The CREATIONS project was funded by Horizon 2020 Framework of the European Commission, Grant number 665917. The C2Learn project was funded by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission Grant Number 318480. The Next Choreography project was funded by the Paul Hamlyn Foundation; with Figures 1 and 2 credited to photographer Pari Naderi

    Broken Worlds: Shelley's Fractured Materiality

    No full text
    Percy Bysshe Shelley is often seen to exhibit a linear intellectual development. He moves, allegedly, from a thoroughgoing materialism in his early years to embrace, with varying levels of enthusiasm, a diametrically opposed idealism. Yet, if we are attentive to even an early, supposedly naïvely ‘materialist’ work like Alastor (1816), we discover a much more complex reality. Here, Shelley’s materialism concerns not only the sonorous and physiological elements of existence, but also the gaps, vacancies, silences and interstices of thought. These too, after all, comprise part of our lived experience, and deserve to be designated material. But materialism has struggled, by definition, to explain the real but not-manifest phenomena of human experience. Shelley’s poetry actuates diverse kinds of intermittence and disjunction, and engages with philosophical contexts not previously associated with the poet. He did not seek to resolve the relation between the material and immaterial world of the soul (a quite impossible task anyway), but enact the dynamic between sensuous reality and the gaps and pauses that punctuate it. We see this not only through the incidents that his verse describes; importantly, Shelley also enacts this through performance: through the way in which we recite his poetry into existence, through the pauses and ‘fainting periods’ that our own voice describes. The need to take into account this vocal, performative element of Shelley’s verse belies the notion that he was ever a simple, unreconstructed idealist. Where the recent turn toward materialism has hitherto been somewhat narrowly conceived as a return to objects, things and their thing-ness, Shelley’s sensuousness permits us to ask further: to ask into the nature of the relations between objects, and the ways in which they come into being. His ‘intermitted song’, a poetry of radical pauses, is not only a resonant example of how prosody intersects with, and achieves, philosophically significant thinking, it is also a stinging critique of any account of life or matter that is offered solely in terms of motion, fullness, functionality, and continuity. His achievement is not only of relevance to the Romantic Period and the history of philosophy, or an answer to vital materialism, Shelley’s poetry and prose offer a remarkable reassessment of the notion of a continuing life.College of Humanitie
    Open Research Exeter is based in GB
    Do you manage Open Research Exeter? Access insider analytics, issue reports and manage access to outputs from your repository in the CORE Dashboard!