Open Research Exeter

    The Impact of Intra-group Interaction on Identity and Action

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    The unifying theme of the chapters presented in this thesis is that intra-group interaction impacts on in-group identity content, and this content provides a foundation for social action and social behaviour. The primary goals of this thesis are first, to demonstrate that social realities can be established and transformed through interaction; and second, to investigate why the process of intra-group interaction can spark and exacerbate social conflict. In Chapter 1, I review and attempt to theoretically integrate the disparate literatures on group discussion, identity and action. In Chapter 2, I investigate the effect of interaction on the positive-negative asymmetry effect (PNAE). In Study 2.1, participants were more likely to discriminate on rewards than fines, and find allocating rewards to be a more legitimate and pleasant act than allocating fines. Conversely, participants thought allocating fines would have a more negative effect on recipients and felt more negative about allocating fines than rewards. In Study 2.2, when in-group advancement was obstructed, no PNAE was found: obstruction was sufficient justification for out-group punishment in its own right. When in-group advancement was not obstructed, the PNAE reversed after group discussion, such that more hostility occurred when participants administered fines than when they awarded rewards. This reversal was mediated by processes of norm formation. In Chapter 3, I describe three studies which show that consensual intra-group discussions about a negatively regarded out-group increased inter-group hostility. Study 3.1 compared group discussion about immigrants with individual reflection. Results showed that group discussion informed the content of stereotypes, which led to support for anti-immigrant policies. In Study 3.2, participants discussed either an irrelevant topic, the out-group stereotype, or the out-group stereotype plus what concrete actions should be taken towards that group. Only discussion of the stereotype significantly increased hostility, suggesting that the psychological products of discussion per se (cohesion, identification, etc.) are not solely responsible for hostility. Rather, social validation of the stereotype explained why its discussion increased hostility. Study 3.3 replicated these results with a behavioural measure. In Chapter 4, I present two studies which controlled for the content of interaction by showing participants short films of similar others having a group discussion. Study 4.1 investigated the paradoxical finding that when groups discuss potential courses of action against an out-group, they are less likely to act than when they discuss simply the out-group stereotype (Chapter 3). Results suggested that when group discussions imply that there is social consensus about a course of action, even the advocacy of extreme actions can increase support for (more moderate) social action. Study 4.2 manipulated whether or not the discussants consensualised on the out-group stereotype, whilst controlling for discussion content. Only when the discussion ended in consensus did participants identify with the discussants and perceive norms for social action. In Chapter 5, I address how social identities and their associated (self-) stereotypes can disadvantage members of low status groups, but how they can also promote social change. The data demonstrates that consensualisation in small groups can transform (or reconfirm) such stereotypes, thereby eliminating (or bolstering) stereotype threat effects. In Study 5.1, female participants were asked why men are (or are not) better at maths. They generated their answers individually or through group discussion. Stereotype threat was undermined only when they collectively challenged the stereotype. Content analyses suggest that discussions redefined in-group and out-group stereotypes, providing the basis for stigma reversal or confirmation. In Study 5.2, male and female participants confirmed or challenged the stereotype in same-gender discussion groups or no discussion, baseline conditions. After a discussion that confirmed the stereotype, women displayed signs of stereotype threat and men’s performance was “lifted”. When they challenged the stereotype, the difference between men and women on the maths test was eliminated. Overall, the results reported in this thesis suggest that intra-group interaction enables group members to develop an understanding of their common ideology, which may establish the consensual basis of their identity content. If such consensualisation occurs, this provides them with a sense that their perceptions of reality are socially valid, and gives rise to (implicit or explicit) in-group norms. This provides individuals with a solid foundation upon which they may act. The implications of these conclusions are discussed in Chapter 6.Economic and Social Research Counci

    The Progressive Ideas of Anna Letitia Barbauld

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    In an age of Revolution, when the rights of the individual were being fought for, Anna Letitia Barbauld was at the centre of the ideological debate. This thesis focuses on her political writing; it argues that she was more radical than previously thought. It provides new evidence of Barbauld’s close connection to an international network of reformers. Motivated by her Dissenting faith, her poems suggest that she made topical interventions which linked humanitarian concerns to wider abuses of power. This thesis traces Barbauld’s intellectual connections to seventeenth- and eighteenth-century religious and political thought. It examines her dialogues with the leading thinkers of her era, in particular Joseph Priestley. Setting her political writing in the context of the 1790s pamphlet wars, I argue that it is surprising that her 1792 pamphlet, Civic Sermons, escaped prosecution; its criticism of the government has similarities to the ideas of writers who were tried. My analysis of Barbauld’s political and socio-economic ideas suggests that, unlike many of her contemporaries, she trusted ordinary people, believing that they had a right to be involved in government. She argued that intellectuals should provide them with information but not tell them what to think. These democratic ideas were reflected in her literary approach; she employed different genres to reach different audiences. She critiqued and used the discourses of enthusiasm and sensibility to appeal to the emotions of her readers. I argue that, by adapting the traditionally male genre of political pamphlets, her work was part of a tradition of progressive female political thought dating back to the seventeenth century. Her innovative defence of civil liberties contributed to the development of liberalism

    Processing of emotional expression in subliminal and low-visibility images

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    This thesis investigated the processing of emotional stimuli by the visual system, and how the processing of emotions interacts with visual awareness. Emotions have been given ‘special’ status by some previous research, with evidence that the processing of emotions may be relatively independent of striate cortex, and less affected by disruption to awareness than processing of emotionally neutral images. Yet the extent to which emotions are ‘special’ remains questionable. This thesis focused on the processing of emotional stimuli when activity in V1 was disrupted using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and whether emotional properties of stimuli can be reliably discriminated, or affect subsequent responses, when visibility is low. Two of the experiments reported in this thesis disrupted activity in V1 using TMS, Experiment 1 with single pulses in an online design, and Experiment 2 with theta burst stimulation in an offline design. Experiment 1 found that a single pulse of TMS 70-130 ms following a presentation of a body posture image disrupted processing of neutral but not emotional postures in an area of the visual field that corresponded to the disruption. Experiment 2 did not find any convincing evidence of disruption to processing of neutral or emotional faces. From Experiment 1 it would appear that emotional body posture images were relatively unaffected by TMS, and appeared to be robust to disruption to V1. Experiment 2 did not add to this as there was no evidence of disruption in any condition. Experiments 3 and 4 used visual masking to disrupt awareness of emotional and neutral faces. Both experiments used a varying interval between the face and the mask stimuli to systematically vary the visibility of the faces. Overall, the shortest SOA produced the lowest level of visibility, and this level of visibility was arguably outside awareness. In Experiment 3, participants’ ability to discriminate properties of emotional faces under low visibility conditions was greater than their ability to discriminate the orientation of the face. This was despite the orientation discrimination being much easier at higher levels of visibility. Experiment 4 used a gender discrimination task, with emotion providing a redundant cue to the decision (present half of the time). Despite showing a strong linear masking function for the neutral faces, there was no evidence of any emotion advantage. Overall, Experiment 3 gave some evidence of an emotion advantage under low visibility conditions, but this effect was fairly small and not replicated in Experiment 4. Finally, Experiments 5-8 used low visibility emotional faces to prime responses to subsequent emotional faces (Experiments 5 and 6) or words (Experiments 7 and 8). In Experiments 5, 7 and 8 there was some evidence of emotional priming effects, although these effects varied considerably across the different designs used. There was evidence for meaningful processing of the emotional prime faces, but this processing only led to small and variable effects on subsequent responses. In summary, this thesis found some evidence that the processing of emotional stimuli was relatively robust to disruption in V1 with TMS. Attempts to find evidence for robust processing of emotional stimuli when disrupted with backwards masking was less successful, with at best mixed results from discrimination tasks and priming experiments. Whether emotional stimuli are processed by a separate route(s) in the brain is still very much open to debate, but the findings of this thesis offers small and inconsistent evidence for a brain network for processing emotions that is relatively independent of V1 and visual awareness. The network and nature of brain structures involved in the processing of subliminal and low visibility processing of emotions remains somewhat elusive.ESR

    Mapping New Jerusalem: Space, National Identity and Power in British Espionage Fiction 1945-79.

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    This thesis argues that the espionage fiction of Graham Greene, Ian Fleming and John le Carré published between 1945 and 1979 illustrates a number of discontinuities, disjunctions and paradoxes related to space, sovereignty and national identity in post-war Britain. To this effect, the thesis has three broad aims. Firstly, to approach the representations of space and sovereign power in the work of these authors published during the period 1945-1979, examining the way in which sovereign power produces space, and then how that power is distributed and maintained. Secondly, to analyse the effect that sovereign power has on a variety of social and cultural environments represented within spy fiction and how the exercise of power affects the response of individuals within them. Thirdly, to establish how the intervention of sovereign power within environments relates to the creation, propagation and exclusion of national identities within each author’s work. By mapping the application of sovereign power throughout various environments, the thesis demonstrates that the control of environment is inextricably linked to the sovereign control of British subjects in espionage fiction. Moreover, the role of the spy in the application of sovereign power reveals a paradox integral to the espionage genre, namely that the maintenance of sovereign power exists only through the undermining of its core principles. Sovereignty, in these texts, is maintained only by weakening the sovereign control of other nations

    Ready to learn? A qualitative investigation into what key stage 2 children say contributes to their subjective well-being and facilitates their learning in school, and the development of an instrument to capture change in this domain.

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    An overview of the research In November 2009, considerable interest was generated by a study day of the National Association of Principal Educational Psychologists (NAPEP) on evaluation of outcomes of the work of Educational Psychology Services (EPSs). Following this, my service requested that I investigate this area during my training placement, as a topic for my doctoral research. A review of the literature and professional networking sites (for example, EPNET) revealed that although many services at the time were considering or actively seeking valid and reliable ‘tools’ to evaluate services, using both qualitative and quantitative approaches, in practice, few were undertaking evaluation systematically, and those that were did not feel confident that they were doing it well. While a number of services were regularly collecting data on how much service (quantity) they were delivering, to whom and in what ways, and on the subjective experience for a range of service users, few were focussing on outcomes, and even fewer were measuring these in any systematic way (Norgate, 2010). My service was one of those that already collected data on delivery in terms of quantity and subjective quality, and they had just introduced Target Monitoring and Evaluation (TME) (Dunsmuir, Brown, Iyadurai and Monsen, 2009), as a goals-based approach to informing service delivery, and a way of recording consultation and engagement with children, families and schools. While this was a positive step towards more systematic evaluation, it was noted that a missing dimension was what the children themselves felt about the outcome of engagement with an EP, and whether they felt that things had been improved in domains that were significant to them. While there was considerable interest in hearing children’s voices driven by international agreements, legislation, policy initiatives and research, a review of the literature suggested that engaging with children in meaningful ways, and eliciting valid views, was a challenging endeavour. This was particularly true for certain groups of children and young people; those with additional needs, particularly those with profound and multiple difficulties or severe language difficulties, and also for the youngest children in the pre-school and primary years. The two research studies presented here aimed to begin to redress that balance. I chose to focus on the collective voice of local children aged 7 – 11 years in Key Stage 2 (KS2), in mainstream primary schools, and of all abilities, including children with additional needs at all three stages of the Special Educational Needs Code of Practice. My reason for this was to ascertain the views of ‘typical’ children in mainstream education, so that they might be better understood by adults (presented in Paper 1), and in order to produce a general measure (presented in Paper 2), which could later be modified and refined, as appropriate, for other groups, for example, younger age groups, or children with more significant difficulties. Paper 1 briefly reviews the literature on hearing children’s voices, some of the difficulties encountered in this enterprise, and approaches that have been proposed to overcome these, including attempts to actively involve them in decision making and research about issues that affect their lives. The findings of a selection of studies, which have explored what children and young people have identified as being important factors in their school lives, are presented. The qualitative research study that follows is informed by this review of the selected literature. The approach is informed by ‘positive psychology’, with an explicit focus on ‘what works’, while not denying or ignoring what children say does not work for them. Forty primary school children in Key stage 2 were interviewed using a range of approaches. The children were recruited from local schools with differing demographics in the South West of the United Kingdom. The research approach was pragmatic, and adopted a critical realist perspective and mixed methodology. A thematic analysis was carried out to explore children’s understandings of what helped them to learn at school (Paper 1), and these understandings were subsequently used within a realist approach to develop a tool co-designed with the children (Paper 2). The approach was also inductive, being driven by the data rather than theory. The aim was to put the children at the centre of the research, not just as participants, but as collaborators and co-constructors of the interpretations made of their ‘talk’, and of the subsequent design of a ‘tool’ to facilitate helpful conversations about what they might like to change, and to subsequently measure any impact of interventions. The interview data were analysed using a thematic approach, and the findings were discussed, modified and validated through focus groups with the original interviewees. A thematic network or ‘map of the child’s-eye view’ is presented. A descriptive reading of three emerging topics; academic competence, social competence and social recognition, is offered and discussed, and exemplified by original quotes from the children. (Due to the word limit, additional descriptive analysis is presented in the appendices). Finally, at a deeper level of analysis, two overarching themes, ‘competence’ and ‘connectedness’ are suggested as having emerged from the data. The results of the thematic analysis are linked to previous research, and it is proposed that, while this is only one possible reading of the data presented, there are significant resonances with data collected for children and young people across cultures and age ranges. Therefore findings may tentatively be generalised beyond the local culture. The implications of the findings for EP practice are discussed. In Paper 2, the previous study is used to inform the design of a measure to assess children’s satisfaction with their school life, in terms of issues that are important to them. Current literature on evaluating outcomes in EP services is briefly reviewed. This is followed by discussion of a selection of the measures currently available which target aspects of children’s life in schools, and the advantages and drawbacks of using these in evaluation. Finally, I discuss why it might be advantageous to view school life from the perspective of children’s subjective well-being or ‘happiness’, and review evidence from experimental research, within a positive psychology framework, and particularly the ‘Broaden-and-Build’ Theory of Positive Emotions (Frederickson, 2005). Subsequently, the thematic network, created in Paper 1, was used with four focus groups of the original interviewees, to design items for an instrument to assess subjective satisfaction with school life; what makes them ‘happy’ and ‘ready-to-learn’ in school. The children were included in every step of the design, including; choosing and wording the items (guided by frequency data and the range of topics and themes identified in Study 1), choice of the rating system, instructions for completion and layout, and naming of the instrument (the ‘Ready-to-Learn’ Scale). Following piloting and minor modification, the ‘Ready-to-Learn’ Scale was administered to an opportunity sample of 344 children from the four participating schools over the summer term of 2011. Principal components analysis on the data generated a six factor solution, interpreted as six sub-scales: school competence (α = .81), social competence (α = .80), academic competence (α = .78), distress and discomfort in school (α = .68), environmental support for learning (α = .70), and acceptance and recognition by adults (α = .80), with an overall scale reliability, α = .92, and a 95% confidence interval of 17 (16.72). The scale now requires further validity checks and standardisation, but is offered as a useful instrument for initial engagement with children in this age group. It provides a focussed and enjoyable approach to identifying areas which a child would like to change (which are important to children themselves, and not specified by adults), and allows possible interventions to be negotiated with the child. It also provides a pre and post intervention measure that may be particularly helpful in capturing and quantifying change in social and emotional targets, which may be harder to operationalise and measure, as part of a comprehensive evaluation process. It is now being subjected to ongoing evaluation in practice. Current use in practice suggests, however, that it may prove most useful as an interview tool in exploring the school experience with children

    Perceptions and Understandings of the Roles of Businesses as Corporate Citizens in a Post-Conflict Society: The Bosnia and Herzegovina Case

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    This research seeks to expand the field of Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Citizenship by investigating the expected social roles of companies in Bosnian and Herzegovina, and what context specific conditions have helped shape these expectations. Traditional investigations within this field of study have largely focused on the roles that corporations undertake in relatively stable contexts. By challenging these boundaries, academics and practitioners can start to develop a clearer view of the expected social roles of companies and the factors that affect these expectations. This research uses a case study strategy, using Bosnia and Herzegovina as the case boundary, informed by semi-structured interviews with actors of various responsibility levels in different sectors. These interviewees were selected due to their level of interaction with the phenomenon of corporate social responsibility and to triangulate data from different sectors in the society. Field notes of social observations and CSR networking meetings were also complied in the data set. The data were analysed using a template analysis coding method. This research found that that instability in the Bosnian society has impacted expectations of the social roles of businesses. These impacts come from the transition from socialism to free market capitalism, the ethnic tensions and distrust, the damaged physical and economic infrastructures, the political modus operandi, and the lack of pressure for actors to be socially responsible. Companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina generally follow an ad hoc approach, and they are only beginning to incorporate strategy into their CSR activities. This is opposed to the ‘western’ expectations that CSR should be a strategic approach. Stakeholder participation is still limited, providing few chances for dialogue on expectations and defining corporate social citizenship. This research has helped highlight how abandoning the assumption of stability in a society can affect the understandings of development and expectations of corporate social roles. The factors impacting these expectations can change the fundamental premises of the business social contract in ways that are not accounted for in extant literature

    Home Tutoring for Children in Care - Student, Tutor and Carers' Perspectives

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    Please see full thesis for detail

    The concept of Ananke in Greek Literature before 400 BCE

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    This study seeks to explore the concept of ἀνάγκη (and the related terms ἀναγκαίος and ἀναγκαίως) in Greek literature written before 400 BCE. All passages containing these words from the time period were located, translated and analysed according to specific criteria concerning the usage and interpretation of the term. The resulting exploration was then split into five main sections: physical compulsion, moral compulsion, cosmology, circumstantial compulsion and the personification of compulsion. These sections were then examined according to both context and subtle differences in the meaning of ἀνάγκη terms within these contexts. The vast majority concerned some form of violence, physical force or fear of violent repercussions. Although the focus was on the interpretation of texts dating to before 400 BCE, owing to their fragmentary nature but considerable importance, the cosmological texts had to be examined in conjunction with later texts in order to shed more light on the meaning of ἀνάγκη in this context. Statistical analysis was performed on the 466 texts located and they were further analysed to track variations across time and genre-specific usages. Several types of usage were seen to develop only towards the end of the fifth century after 450 BCE including the notion of relative compulsions; the necessity for revenge and compelled alliances were seen to develop at this time. Recommendations were made with regards to the best and most appropriate translations; the majority of passages would require either the translation of coercion, constraint or compulsion for ἀνάγκη with the exception of the adjectival ἀναγκαίος which can mean blood relatives or similarly obligated individuals. The translation of necessity, although generally the given interpretation of ἀνάγκη was seldom appropriate since it did not grasp the entire meaning of the term in context

    Central Management of Local Performance: A Comparison of England and Korea

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    The author analyses performance measurement in the public sector and empirically tests the validity, legitimacy and functionality of Comprehensive Performance Assessment in England and Joint Performance Assessment in Korea on the basis of comparative methodology.Since the 1980s, New Public Management (NPM) has deeply influenced the public sector across the world, and thus measuring or managing performance has become a principal element of government reform. In terms of borrowing models and techniques from the private sector, performance measurement has been significantly extended into government, but differences between the two sectors have led to difficulties and criticism of this practice with a wide inconsistent variety of different theoretical explanations about it. In this context, this thesis investigates the effectiveness of performance measurement and theoretical explanations of conditions for its success in the public sector. It focuses through a comparative methodology on Comprehensive Performance Assessment and Joint Performance Assessment that have recently been introduced between the levels of government in England and Korea for the improvement of local government performance and accountability. Extensive analysis of literature and case studies have allowed the thesis to find firstly, that the introduction of such unique assessment systems, by which the centre assesses localities, was deeply affected by the environmental commonalities of both countries such as centralisation in inter-governmental relations and enthusiasm for NPM. Second, the empirical evaluation of both tools shows that they have in practice been valid for accurate assessment, and directly functional for improvement and indirectly for accountability to the public. Their high validity and functionality proved to be mainly attributable to two characteristics. One was institutionally that both frameworks were based on a balanced approach to performance and the disclosure of assessment results to the public for facilitating competition between localities. The other was that both had impacted on internal management of local government which led to change in organisational culture with more focus on performance. However, it identified a necessity for local authorities to participate in the development process of those tools to ensure legitimacy of central management of local performance since they enjoy their own electorally based political support. The research has also found the importance of assessors’ expertise for accurate assessment and a possibility that performance measurement can contribute to the resolution of political tension and cooperation between central and local government when it focuses more on outcomes than input and process. A deeper theoretical and practical understanding of these successful experiences and important policy elements in contemporary public management contributes significantly to knowledge in the three settings of evaluation of policy instruments, comparison between countries and central-local relations. Finally, the study assists each country and others to draw lessons from each other

    Investigations into the bioavailability of manufactured nanoparticles in fish

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    The field of nanotoxicology has emerged as a discipline in parallel with the rapid expansion of nanotechnology and the use of nanomaterials in modern life. Assessing the potential impacts of manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) on the environment and human health is critical to the sustainable development of the nano-industry. Current knowledge on the ecological implications of nanotoxicology has major uncertainties surrounding the fate and behaviour of nanomaterials in the exposure environment. Bioavailability, uptake and partitioning of nanomaterials to organisms are key determinates to toxicity, yet these foundations of basic data are only now just starting to emerge in any useful and coherent manner for aquatic animals. This thesis work set out to address this gap in knowledge and further our understanding of these important principles for fish. In an attempt to develop a high through-put screening system for toxicity of MNPs, studies assessing the utility of primary isolated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes found they showed very limited responses to a range of MNPs. There was a lack of any evidence for either lipid peroxidation or xenobiotic detoxification activity. In these studies isolated trout hepatocytes were found to be unresponsive to the induction of these biological responses after exposure to positive controls. The findings demonstrated that the MNPs tested showed low toxicity generally and that fish hepatocytes do not provide a useful system for the screening of potential toxic effects of MNPs. In this cell culture work, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy was applied to demonstrate that the particles supplied in the culture medium did cross the cell membrane and enter into the exposed cells. In the second phase of the work in this thesis CARS was investigated as an experimental technique for tracing a wide range of metal and metal oxide MNPs into cells and tissues. CARS was applied to evaluate initial detection of different MNPs and investigate the imaging capability on a range of cells, tissues and organisms. Finally, CARS was applied to assess localisation ability of MNPs within biological matrices. MNPs were shown to be taken into trout hepatocytes using a 3D reconstruction to determine the origin of the MNP signal within the cell. Uptake of MNPs was established into trout gill and kidney tissue, corophium and daphnia species and were shown to have different partitioning in zebrafish embryos. In summary CARS showed great potential for tracing particle uptake and bio-distribution both in vitro and in vivo. Particular benefits include imaging MNPs in living organisms, without the need for labelling or fixing the material. Limitations of the CARS technique are also discussed. In chapter 4, the consequences of the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) were investigated on the uptake of MNPs into fish. Carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed to cerium dioxide (CeO2) MNPs in combination with NOM over 28 days. Elevated levels of uptake of cerium were measured in the brain, gill and kidney tissue by induction coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) for fish exposed to 50 μg/l CeO2 MNPs in combination with 250 μg/l of NOM. There were no such effects of the NOM enhancing uptake for the bulk CeO2 particles. Detailed studies on the behaviour of the CeO2 MNPs in the exposure medium demonstrated the highly complex and dynamic nature of the interactions with NOM. This study discusses some of the difficulties in the techniques, analysis and interpretation of data derived from studies of this nature. The finding that NOM may enhance MNP uptake presents a potential issue for current risk assessment criteria for MNPs that do not consider natural conditions. The final experimental chapter considered maternal transfer as a potentially important route for exposure of embryos and early life stage animals to MNPs in live bearing animals. In this work guppies (Poecilia reticulata) were exposed to 7 nm silver citrate stabilised particles and citrate stabilised bulk sized particles, dosed via the diet for a full gestation cycle. Maternal transfer of Ag to the larvae was significantly higher for the nanoparticulate treatment compared with the bulk and control treatments and larval burden was significantly higher compared with the maternal sires. However, there was no impact of Ag on larval survival, birth weights, or on indices of body condition in the exposed adults. The enhanced uptake of nano Ag compared to bulk Ag particles into the guppy offspring emphasises the potential for exposure to sensitive early life stages of organisms, which to date has not been widely considered and suggests greater research is needed in this area. Collectively, the studies conducted in this thesis contribute to the science base of nanotoxicology, specifically in areas where data are especially lacking and with a focus on bioavailability. These studies have identified that fish hepatocytes do not offer an effective screen for MNPs, and the data produced further suggests that the MNPs tested are not toxic in that form. Working with CARS I have helped advance the understanding on its utility for nanotoxicology studies, with regards to its application and limitation for uptake analyses. The study of MNPs in combination with NOM has identified the fundamental change that real life exposure scenarios may instigate for toxicity assessments of MNPs, with significant impact on risk assessment criteria. Finally, I’ve established that maternal transfer is an exposure route for MNPs that requires further study, with evidence of transfer to sensitive life stages in a non-mammalian system.DEFR
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