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    Graduate competencies, employability and the transnational Radiography workforce shortage: A systematic literature review of current pre-registration Radiography education and training models

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    Introduction Transnational mobility of the Radiography workforce is challenged due to issues with standardisation of current education and training models which has added to the workforce shortage. To address the growing volume, scope and complexity of clinical Radiography service delivery, educational models need to be given a critical look for transnational relevance in modern times. This study aims to synthesise the characteristics of current pre-registration radiography educational programmes linked with effective knowledge, skill acquisition, and graduate employability to address the current workforce challenges through the development of newer training models. Methods Using a mixed methods systematic review approach, secondary data was obtained from an EBSCOhost search involving key databases including MEDLINE, CINAHL, Academic Search Ultimate, ScienceDirect, and SCOPUS. Themes were developed following a result-based convergent data synthesis. Results Forty articles met the predefined inclusion criteria following the study identification and screening phases. The included studies were conducted from across diverse settings including both low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and high-income countries (HIC). Two broad themes were developed from the findings including: 1. Factors influencing graduate employability and 2) Radiography education and training programme characteristics. Conclusion The findings highlight and advocate for an innovative model for Radiography education and underscores the significance of graduates possessing multi-modality skills, varied competencies, and effective accreditation processes for training. Prioritising alignment with industry needs and holistic skill development is vital to closing the employability gap, ultimately improving graduate skills and competencies to address workforce shortage while improving patient care outcomes. Implications for practice Radiography training institutions should explore the development of new innovative models for multi-modality pre-registration education. This should offer adaptable routes that align seamlessly with the evolving regulatory, technological, and clinical trends

    RIS-Assisted Precoding Spatial Modulation: Optimal Design and Performance Analysis

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    Reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) is a vital enabler of paradigm-shifting transmission technologies for next-generation wireless. In this paper, we propose a RIS-assisted transmitter precoding spatial modulation (RIS-PSM), such that the transmission reliability of the PSM-modulated multiple-input multiple-output systems can be remarkably enhanced. To fulfill our novel design, a two-phase decision process (TPDP) based optimization algorithm is propounded, such that the optimal transmitter precoding vector and the RIS reflection matrix can be jointly achieved in terms of closed-form. In addition, we design two receive detection algorithms, namely the optimal co-detection (OCD) and the sub-optimal detached detection, by which the indices of the designated receive antenna and the baseband modulated signal can be reliably detected with different levels of computational complexity. Eventually, the achievable error performance is evaluated analytically for the RIS-PSM proposal with the detection of OCD. Simulation and numerical results are depicted to demonstrate the superiorities of the proposed system, as well as to substantiate the accuracy of the performance analysis

    The Dunes Contribution to the Ecosystem Service of Coastal Protection on the Northern Coast of RS

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    Coastal dunes have a crucial role in offering the ecosystem service of natural coastal protection. This paper investigates the importance of dunes in providing the ecosystem service of natural coastal protection on the North Coast of the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) in southern Brazil. The Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST®) Coastal Vulnerability Model was used to quantify the relative susceptibility to coastal erosion and flooding within the study area. First, the model was run to assess the susceptibility to coastal hazards considering the presence of dunes. Then, the model was run again without the presence of dunes. By comparing the results of the two model simulations, it was possible to identify where dunes contribute to reducing coastal exposure, which indirectly reflects their role in providing the ecosystem service of natural coastal protection. There are two main dune fields in the study area, one in the northern coastal sector and one in the southern sector, respectively in the municipalities of Torres and Cidreira. The index of exposure values produced by the two model simulations were very similar for locations along the Torres coastline. In contrast, along the coast of Cidreira, results from the model simulation without dunes produced higher exposure values than the simulation with the presence of dunes, suggesting that the dunes have an important role in offering natural coastal protection. Dunes are a natural barrier against coastal erosion and flooding, but they are not the only factor influencing the ecosystem service of coastal protection. In Torres, for instance, the local topography and the wind patterns contribute to reducing local exposure. The greatest threat in this sector is the urban sprawl

    A negative-thermal-quenching LaMgAl11O19: Er3+, Sm3+ phosphor achieved by energy transfer from Er3+ to Sm3+

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    Phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes (pc-wLEDs) are drawing ever-increasing attention towards electronic applications. However, thermal quenching, the intensity decay with increasing temperature, presents a significant challenge for high power operation. We reverse the effect with a negative-thermal-quenching property based on energy transfer from one luminescent center to another center. The LaMgAl11O19: Er3+, Sm3+ (LMA: LaMgAl11O19: Er3+, Sm3+) phosphor has been designed, which shows a positive relationship between emission intensity and operating temperature up to 573 K (300 °C). As the temperature rises, energy transfer from Er3+ to Sm3+ occurs with higher efficiency because of stronger ionic vibration. As a result, the phosphor luminescence intensity at elevated temperatures is enhanced. Our design for negative-thermal quenching phosphor laid the foundation for the research of high-power pc-wLEDs or lasers at higher temperatures. It also has potential for wide-temperature-sensing-range radiometric optical thermometry applications

    E-Textiles for Sports and Fitness Sensing: Current State, Challenges, and Future Opportunities

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    E-textiles have emerged as a fast-growing area in wearable technology for sports and fitness due to the soft and comfortable nature of textile materials and the capability for smart functionality to be integrated into familiar sports clothing. This review paper presents the roles of wearable technologies in sport and fitness in monitoring movement and biosignals used to assess performance, reduce injury risk, and motivate training/exercise. The drivers of research in e-textiles are discussed after reviewing existing non-textile and textile-based commercial wearable products. Different sensing components/materials (e.g., inertial measurement units, electrodes for biosignals, piezoresistive sensors), manufacturing processes, and their applications in sports and fitness published in the literature were reviewed and discussed. Finally, the paper presents the current challenges of e-textiles to achieve practical applications at scale and future perspectives in e-textiles research and development

    The impact of regulatory business environment on SME's funding choices in developing countries - evidence from Africa

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    While it is known that some elements of the business environment (BE), such as macroeconomic conditions, impact access to finance and the funding choices of SMEs, very little is known whether other elements of the BE – such as the institutional setting and the regulatory business environment (RBE) – influence access to (or supply of) finance and the funding choices of SMEs. Using a World Bank Enterprise Surveys panel sample (2003-2020) from 30 African countries and employing Propensity Score Matching (PSM) methods, it is noted that while an enabling institutional setting and RBE in Africa increases access to external finance for SMEs, SMEs still opt for retained earnings over funding from banking and non-banking financial institutions for their working capital. This funding behaviour can be explained by that SMEs located in enabling RBEs have increased productivity and financial performance and so can employ larger amounts of retained earnings for their operations. Furthermore, even though more accessible in enabling RBEs, external finance remains unaffordable for most SMEs in Africa. These findings indicate the need to tailor interventions to make varied finance more accessible and affordable for SMEs in developing countries

    “Make it or fake it?” The Imposter Syndrome in Kitchen Professionals

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    This conference paper explores the imposter phenomenon in the context of commercial kitchens and reports the findings of a global survey conducted in collaboration with the Burnt Chef Project

    Defining Skyscape

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    The term ‘skyscape’ is becoming commonplace among cultural astronomers and archaeologists alike, certainly in the United Kingdom but also further afield. However, not everyone uses it in the same way or with the same meaning. For some it is just another word for astronomy, whereas others use it to emphasise the relation between the sky and the landscape in the worldviews of many societies, past or present. This paper critically reviews these usages of the term skyscape and contrasts them with the original intent, by the author and his collaborators, to effect a change of emphasis within the practice of archaeoastronomy. Although originally published as a 2017 post in the Sophia Centre Press website blog, the key points raised here are still valid today

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