Repository@Napier

    Design Issues for Peer-to-Peer Massively Multiplayer Online Games.

    Get PDF
    Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs) are increasing in both popularity and scale, and while classical Client/Server (C/S) architectures convey some benefits, they suffer from significant technical and commercial drawbacks. This realisation has sparked intensive research interest in adapting MMOGs to Peer-to-Peer (P2P) architectures. This paper articulates a comprehensive set of six design issues to be addressed by P2P MMOGs, namely Interest Management (IM), game event dissemination, Non-Player Character (NPC) host allocation, game state persistency, cheating mitigation and incentive mechanisms. Design alternatives for each issue are systematically compared, and their interrelationships discussed. We further evaluate how well representative P2P MMOG architectures fulfil the design criteria

    A rule based taxonomy of dirty data.

    Get PDF
    There is a growing awareness that high quality of data is a key to today’s business success and that dirty data existing within data sources is one of the causes of poor data quality. To ensure high quality data, enterprises need to have a process, methodologies and resources to monitor and analyze the quality of data, methodologies for preventing and/or detecting and repairing dirty data. Nevertheless, research shows that many enterprises do not pay adequate attention to the existence of dirty data and have not applied useful methodologies to ensure high quality data for their applications. One of the reasons is a lack of appreciation of the types and extent of dirty data. In practice, detecting and cleaning all the dirty data that exists in all data sources is quite expensive and unrealistic. The cost of cleaning dirty data needs to be considered for most of enterprises. This problem has not attracted enough attention from researchers. In this paper, a rule-based taxonomy of dirty data is developed. The proposed taxonomy not only provides a mechanism to deal with this problem but also includes more dirty data types than any of existing such taxonomies

    Study on employment in rural areas

    Get PDF
    This report is a response to a request by the 2003 Agriculture Council, for a review of rural employment, particularly in relation to young people and women, in order to assess thecontribution of the reformed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the new Rural Development Regulation (RDR) towards meeting the employment objectives agreed at the 2000 Lisbon Council (70% employment rate overall and 60% female employment rate by 2010).2. This immediate policy context, together with the 2004 enlargement, are set against a background of more gradual, but nonetheless far-reaching, changes in the role of agriculture, demographic and social changes, and the realignment of the rural economy.3. The objectives set for the report are therefore both empirical, - to set out a clear, comprehensive and up-to date picture of the European rural labour market, - and evaluative, - by addressing the fundamental issue of the extent to which these trends, are likely to help (or hinder) the EU meet itsLisbon employment objectives. A specific policy dimension is added by the requirement to investigate the role which the reformed CAP (Pillar 1 and Pillar 2) is likely to take in this proces

    What features of the maternity unit promote obedient behaviour from midwives?

    Get PDF
    The aim of this paper was to present a comprehensive picture of characteristics within a maternity hospital which promote obedient behaviour from midwives. The overall objective was to assess midwives’ views about their own acquiescent behaviour. A sensitive qualitative analysis appraised midwives’ views gained from semi-structured interviews conducted within the seven maternity units of North Yorkshire in the UK. Participants included a stratified sample of 20 (7E, 7F, 6G grade) practicing midwives aged between 21–60 years. Taking a post-positivist approach, inductive thematic analysis was used to interpret the data. Two themes of “situational factors that promote obedient behaviour” were derived; “an obligation to follow hospital policies” and “fear of consequences from challenging senior staff”. The key conclusion is that midwives are frequently placed in unenviable positions of relative powerlessness. It was clear that some actions and strategies that midwives use serve to reinforce the fundamental power structures and “status quo”. Quite clearly, midwives are sometimes presented with conflict between a drive to agree with authority and supporting the safe, evidence-based choices of childbearing women in their care. Raising awareness of the processes involved in obedient behaviour and exercising sharing of power may be helpful to midwives in asserting not only their own professional capacity to influence, but also the autonomy of the women they seek to empower

    Reduction and management of perioperative anxiety: facing responsibilities.

    Get PDF
    Patient anxiety is a normal part of the surgical patient’s ‘career’ and would be anticipated by nurses in a number of settings. Anxiety causes a number of undesirable effects which may place the patient at greater perioperative risk. Factors that mitigate against the nurse being able to devote adequate time to this important aspect of patient care will not disappear overnight and arguably, without quality psychological care, patients are being placed at greater risk. This article considers the issue of perioperative anxiety with the aim to revise the concept and highlight the serious implications of giving it a lesser priority within patient care. Alternative strategies should be sought that might also help the patient take back some control over their own challenging situation. Practitioners must acknowledge that there is a need to investigate their current practice and that they have a responsibility to address patient anxiety effectively

    Dynamic response simulation for a nonlinear system.

    Get PDF
    Laboratory simulation testing has for many years contributed significantly to the durability and quality of motor vehicles. Most sophisticated test rigs use an iterative algorithm that generates the input drive files that reproduce service environments under laboratory conditions. Essentially the algorithm solves a nonlinear, multiple channel dynamic system. In this paper, the nonlinear problem is recast as a system of algebraic equations. This mathematical framework allows the application of alternative but well understood solution techniques. Using mathematical simulations, conclusions are drawn concerning the choice of iteration gain in the current algorithm and the better performance of alternative numerical solution procedures

    Learning lessons from the analysis of patient complaints relating to staff attitudes, behaviour and communication, using the concept of emotional labour

    No full text
    Objectives: This paper explores the content of letters of complaint by patients and carers about the behaviour, attitudes and communication of healthcare staff.Background: The most common focus of patient complaints in the UK and other high-income countries is staff attitudes, behaviour and communication. There is a move to learn lessons from patient complaints which can be used to improve patient care and experience.Methods: Fifty letters of complaint made by patients and carers relating to the behaviour, attitudes and communication of healthcare staff were analysed thematically.Results: Poor attitudes, behaviours and communication have significant negative impact on the emotional wellbeing of patients and carers. Many patients and carers have heightened sensitivities due to both health related stresses and also other factors. The health care role is expected to include compassion and kindness. The concept of emotional labour is useful in explaining the skills and effort required of staff in this often invisible and undervalued aspect of health care.Conclusions: Given the increasing focus on patient experience, it is important that the importance of good staff attitudes, behaviours and communication is understood and that the emotional labour associated with this is recognised. Key words: emotional labour, patient experience, qualitative method

    Bleeding Edge, Neo-Liberalism, and the 9/11 Novel.

    No full text
    This article argues that Thomas Pynchon’s Bleeding Edge (2013)can be read within the canon of 9/11 novels in unexpected and productive ways. Its rich, intertwined narrative of the Internet and 9/11 both echoes early 9/11 novels and departs from them as it builds a trenchant critique of neoliberalism

    Differential expression of hDAB2IPA and hDAB2IPB in normal tissues and promoter methylation of hDAB2IPA in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    No full text
    BACKGROUND/AIMS: hDAB2IP is a candidate tumor suppressor gene. We studied the expression of its two variants, hDAB2IPA and hDAB2IPB, in normal tissues, and the expression and methylation status of hDAB2IPA in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and cell lines. METHODS: Conventional or real-time RT-PCR was performed in normal tissue samples, cell lines and HCC samples, and sequencing analysis and methylation-specific PCR in cell lines and HCC samples. RESULTS: hDAB2IPA was the predominant isoform, being expressed in the majority of tissues examined. The expression of hDAB2IPA was silenced or down-regulated but could be restored by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment in liver cancer cell lines. The reactivation of hDAB2IPA was associated with promoter demethylation. The correlation between promoter methylation and hDAB2IPA expression was confirmed in eight pairs of matched HCC samples. Further, the methylation of the hDAB2IPA promoter in HCC was confirmed in an additional 53 pairs of patient samples. More than 80% of HCC samples showed hDAB2IPA promoter methylation, compared to 11.5% in the corresponding adjacent normal tissue (

    Genetic variability of Chlamydophila abortus strains assessed by PCR-RFLP analysis of polymorphic membrane protein-encoding genes

    No full text
    This study used PCR-RFLP to investigate the genetic variability of pmp-encoding genes from fifty-two Chlamydophila abortus (C. abortus) strains originating from abortion cases from various geographical regions and host species. Six primer pairs were used to PCR-amplify DNA fragments encoding eighteen pmps. PCR products were digested using four restriction endonucleases and Bayesian methodologies were used to compare RFLP profiles and assign strains to a RFLP genotype. Strains could be assigned to 2 genotypes in the region encoding pmp18D, 3 genotypes in the regions encoding pmp1A-pmp2B, pmp3E-pmp6H and pmp11G-pmp15G, 4 genotypes in the region encoding pmp7G-pmp10G and 5 genotypes in the region encoding pmp16G-pmp17G. In all regions, the majority of strains (88.4-96.1%) had the same genotype as the reference strain S26/3. No correlation could be made between genotype, host species or geographical origin except for the two variant Greek strains, LLG and POS, which formed a discrete genotype in all pmp-encoding regions except pmp18D. Relative rates of evolution calculated for each pmp-encoding gene locus suggest that differing selective pressures and functional constraints may exist on C. abortus polymorphic membrane proteins. These findings suggest that although intraspecies heterogeneity of pmp-encoding genes in C. abortus is low, the sequence heterogeneity should be an important consideration when using pmps as the basis for novel diagnostics or vaccine development
    Repository@Napier is based in GB