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    3605 research outputs found

    Exploring the experience of natural green space among South Asian Muslim people in the UK

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    Visiting Natural Green Spaces (NGS) is an important lifestyle factor that contributes to quality of life. Whilst NGS can be used to combat health issues, many of which are experienced by South Asian Muslim communities in the UK, it is concerning that such communities face the largest disparities in access to NGS compared to other ethnic minority groups. This paper responds to the paucity in research of South Asian people’s experiences of NGS. Data were generated through individual semi-structured interviews with 20 South Asian Muslim men and women. Using Bourdieu’s concepts of field, habitus and capital, data underwent thematic analysis. This paper reports on the key findings of the study: defining the field of NGS; enhancing wellbeing in NGS; and challenges of accessing NGS. The study concludes that we understand NGS as fields in which capital is shaped by race, religion and gender, and provides suggestions for how policy and practice can consider NGS in health enhancing interventions

    SCMC: Smart city measurement and control process for data security with data mining algorithms

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    In this paper the importance of monitoring smart city with integration of sensors and Internet of Things (IoT) is discussed with establishment of node control process. To describe the feature of smart cities time measurements are considered with one hop distance between various nodes. Hence the system model is established for various parameters that are integrated with K-means algorithm for clustering and C4.5 for classification. As a result of combining the dual algorithms with system model it is possible to establish a secured state for each data with proper response factor. The major significance of proposed method is to introduce node point where all increasing queues in smart cities are controlled due to the information that is achieved from every data points. Moreover the improvement in projected model can be observed with four scenarios where security at every data point plays an important role at an increased level of 84%. In addition to security the amount of stable points is increased with reduction in disparities for about 2% thereby every applications in smart cities are monitored in a precise way

    Normalisation and equity of referral to the NHS Low Calorie Diet programme pilot; a qualitative evaluation of the experiences of health care staff.

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    BACKGROUND: Health and wellbeing can be profoundly impacted by both obesity and type 2 diabetes, while the normalisation and equity of care for people living with these non-communicable diseases remain as challenges for local health systems. The National Health Service Low Calorie Diet programme in England, aims to support people to achieve type 2 diabetes remission, while also reducing health inequalities. We have explored the experiences of health care staff who have made a referral to the LCD programme, while identifying effective and equitable delivery of programme referrals, and their normalisation into routine care. METHODS: Nineteen individual semi-structured interviews were completed health care staff in the first year of the Low Calorie Diet programme. Interviewees were purposively sampled from the ten localities who undertook the Low Calorie Diet programme pilot. Each interview explored a number of topics of interest including communication and training, referrals, equity, and demands on primary care, before being subjected to a thematic analysis. RESULTS: From the data, five core themes were identified: Covid-19 and the demands on primary care, the expertise and knowledge of referrers, patient identification and the referral process, barriers to referrals and who gets referred to the NHS LCD programme. Our findings demonstrate the variation in the real world settings of a national diabetes programme. It highlights the challenge of COVID-19 for health care staff, whereby the increased workload of referrals occurred at a time when capacity was curtailed. We have also identified several barriers to referral and have shown that referrals had not yet been normalised into routine care at the point of data collection. We also raise issues of equity in the referral process, as not all eligible people are informed about the programme. CONCLUSIONS: Referral generation had not yet been consistently normalised into routine care, yet our findings suggest that the LCD programme runs the risk of normalising an inequitable referral process. Inequalities remain a significant challenge, and the adoption of an equitable referral process, normalised at a service delivery level, has the capacity to contribute to the improvement of health inequalities

    Adherence to the Eatwell Guide and population and planetary health: A Rank Prize Forum report.

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    This report summarises a Forum conducted in June 2023 to explore the current state of the knowledge around the Eatwell Guide, which is the UK government's healthy eating tool, in relation to population and planetary health. The 1.5-day Forum highlighted the limited, albeit promising evidence linking higher adherence to the Eatwell Guide with favourable health outcomes, including reduced overall mortality risk, lower abdominal obesity in post-menopausal women and improved cardiometabolic health markers. Similarly, evidence was presented to suggest that higher adherence to the Eatwell Guide is associated with reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Presentations were given around cultural adaptations of the Eatwell Guide, including African Heritage and South Asian versions, which are designed to increase the acceptability and uptake of the Eatwell Guide in these communities in the United Kingdom. Presentations highlighted ongoing work relevant to the applications of the Eatwell Guide in randomised controlled trials and public health settings, including the development of a screening tool to quantify Eatwell Guide adherence. The Forum ended with a World Café-style event, in which the strengths and limitations of the Eatwell Guide were discussed, and directions for future research were identified. This Forum report serves as a primer on the current state of the knowledge on the Eatwell Guide and population and planetary health and will be of interest to researchers, healthcare professionals and public health officials

    Stress biomarker changes following a series of repeated static and dynamic apneas in non-divers

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    Purpose This study examined the magnitude of physiological strain imposed by repeated maximal static and dynamic apneas through assessing a panel of stress-related biomarkers. Methods Eleven healthy men performed on three separate occasions (≥72-h apart): a series of five repeated maximal (i) static (STA) or (ii) dynamic apneas (DYN) or (iii) a static eupneic protocol (CTL). Venous blood samples were drawn at 30, 90, and 180-min after each protocol to determine ischaemia modified albumin (IMA), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), myoglobin, and high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hscTnT) concentrations. Results IMA was elevated after the apnoeic interventions (STA,+86%;DYN,+332%,p ≤ 0.047) but not CTL (p = 0.385). Myoglobin was higher than baseline (23.6 ± 3.9 ng/mL) 30-min post DYN (+70%,38.8 ± 13.3 ng/mL,p = 0.030). A greater myoglobin release was recorded in DYN compared with STA and CTL (p ≤ 0.035). No changes were observed in NSE (p = 0.207) or hscTnT (p = 0.274). Conclusions Five repeated maximal DYN led to a greater muscle injury compared with STA but neither elicited myocardial injury or neuronal-parenchymal damage

    Acute biomechanical responses to wearing a controlled ankle motion (CAM) walker boot during walking

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    Background Controlled ankle motion (CAM) boots are often prescribed during the rehabilitation of lower limb injuries and pathologies to reduce foot and ankle movement and loading whilst allowing the patient to maintain normal daily function. Research question The aim of this study was to quantify the compensatory biomechanical mechanisms undergone by the ipsilateral hip and knee joints during walking. In addition, the compensatory mechanisms displayed by the contralateral limb were also considered. Methods Twelve healthy participants walked on an instrumented treadmill at their preferred walking speed. They underwent kinematic and kinetic analysis during four footwear conditions: normal shoes (NORM), a Malleo Immobil Air Walker on the right leg (OTTO), a Rebound® Air Walker on the right leg with (EVEN) and without (OSS) an Evenup Shoelift™ on the contralateral leg. Results CAM boot wear increased the relative joint contribution to total mechanical work from the ipsilateral hip and knee joints (p < 0.05), which was characterised by increased hip and knee abduction during the swing phase of the gait cycle. EVEN increased the absolute work done and relative contribution of the contralateral limb. CAM boot wear reduced walking speed (p < 0.05), which was partially compensated for during EVEN. Significance The increased hip abduction in the ipsilateral leg was likely caused by the increase in effective leg length and limb mass, which could lead to secondary site complications following prolonged CAM boot wear. Although prescribing an even-up walker partially mitigates these compensatory mechanisms, adverse effects to contralateral limb kinematics and kinetics (e.g., elevated knee joint work) should be considered

    GPT models in construction industry: Opportunities, limitations, and a use case validation

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    Large Language Models (LLMs) trained on large data sets came into prominence in 2018 after Google introduced BERT. Subsequently, different LLMs such as GPT models from OpenAI have been released. These models perform well on diverse tasks and have been gaining widespread applications in fields such as business and education. However, little is known about the opportunities and challenges of using LLMs in the construction industry. Thus, this study aims to assess GPT models in the construction industry. A critical review, expert discussion and case study validation are employed to achieve the study's objectives. The findings revealed opportunities for GPT models throughout the project lifecycle. The challenges of leveraging GPT models are highlighted and a use case prototype is developed for materials selection and optimization. The findings of the study would be of benefit to researchers, practitioners and stakeholders, as it presents research vistas for LLMs in the construction industry

    Tackling the tackle 1: a descriptive analysis of 14,679 tackles and risk factors for high tackles in a community-level male amateur rugby union competition during a lowered tackle height law variation trial

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    Objective In rugby union (rugby), the tackle is the most frequent cause of concussion and thus a target for intervention to reduce concussion incidence. The aim of this study is to describe tackle characteristics and factors associated with illegal high tackles in amateur community-level rugby during a lowered (arm-pit level) tackle height law variation trial. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Methods Video surveillance of a single season, four-league competition with coding of video data according to a predefined coding framework. Descriptive statistics of tackle detail and logistic regression was performed to analyse factors associated with high tackles. Results One hundred and eight matches with 14,679 tackles and a mean of 137 (± 30) tackles per match were analysed. High tackles (above armpit-level) had significantly greater odds of occurring in the lower (2nd-4th) leagues (OR: 1.95; 95 % CI: 1.6–2.4; p < 0.001), front-on tackles (OR: 1.61; 95 % CI: 1.3–2.0; p < 0.001), arm tackles (OR: 1.65; 95 % CI: 1.3–2.1; p < 0.001), bent-at-waist ball carrier (OR: 1.93; 95 % CI: 1.6–2.4; p < 0.001), falling/diving ball carrier (OR: 2.21; 95 % CI: 1.6–3.1; p < 0.001), and an upright tackler (OR: 3.38; 95 % CI: 2.7–4.2; p < 0.001). A falling/diving tackler had significantly lower odds of being associated with a high tackle (OR: 0.44; 95 % CI: 0.3–0.6; p < 0.001). Conclusions Overall mean tackles per match was similar to that of senior amateur and elite rugby. League, tackle type, tackle aspect, and player body positions were associated with high tackles. These findings reiterate the need for ongoing efforts to identify and implement mitigating strategies to reduce tackle-related injury risk

    A Novel Case Study Approach to the Investigation of Leg Strength Asymmetry and Rugby League Player’s Multidirectional Speed

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    Leg strength and multidirectional speed qualities have repeatedly been linked with increased performance during Rugby League (RL) match play and associated with career attainment. However, very little of this evidence for strength has been gained through unliteral measurements with no study available that has examined the impact of strength asymmetry, in this population, on speed qualities in RL players. Therefore, this study examined the association between unilateral strength and as a novel development the subject with the most extreme asymmetry was identified for further analysis. 50 RL players undertook the rear foot elevated split squat five repetition maximum, 20 m linear sprint and modified 505 change of direction test. The mean leg strength for the group was 88.92 ±12.59 kg, when divided by body weight the mean relative strength (REL) was 1.03 ±0.17 kg/kg and the mean asymmetry was 3.21 ±5.70 %. The participant with the greatest asymmetry (subject A) had an imbalance of 33% and a mean leg strength of 75 kg (REL = 0.78 kg/kg) and a body mass one standard deviation above the group mean. Analysis of the group’s data and that of subject A did not indicate that leg strength asymmetry was either frequent or harmful, with respect to speed performance. However, relative leg strength was associated with both improved linear and multidirectional speed. Practitioners are recommended to prioritise the development of relative leg strength and disregard the aspiration for between leg performance symmetry

    PUDT: Plummeting uncertainties in digital twins for aerospace applications using deep learning algorithms

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    Identifying objects in aircraft monitoring systems poses significant challenges due to the presence of extreme loading conditions. Despite the presence of several sensor units, the transmission of precise data to multiple data units is hindered by an increase in time intervals. Therefore, the suggested methodology is specifically developed for the purpose of generating digital replicas for aeronautical applications, wherein an aero transfer function is correlated with the digital twins. Mapping functions are utilized in the monitoring of diverse parameters that are associated with the identification of objects inside data transmission networks, with the aim of minimizing uncertainty. The suggested system model is enhanced by incorporating analytical representations and deep learning methods, resulting in the provision of zero point twin functionalities. The present study investigates the aforementioned integrated procedure through the analysis of four different situations. In these settings, an aero communication tool box is employed to transform the device configuration into simulation outputs. The results obtained from the comparison of these scenarios reveal that the projected model significantly enhances the maintenance period while minimizing data errors


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