Procter & Gamble (United Kingdom)

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    Training volume and high-speed loads vary within microcycle in elite North American soccer players.

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    The purposes of this study were to reduce dimensionality of external training load variables and examine how the selected variables varied within microcycle in elite North American soccer players. Data were collected from 18 players during 2018–2020 in-seasons. Microcycle was categorized as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 days before match day (MD-1, MD-2, MD-3, MD-4, and MD-5, respectively). Training load variables included total distance, average speed, maximum velocity, high-speed running distance (HSR), average HSR, HSR efforts, average HSR efforts, sprint distance, average sprint distance, sprint efforts, average sprint efforts, total PlayerLoad, and average PlayerLoad. The first principal component (PC) can explain 66.0% of the variances and be represented by “high-speed load” (e.g., HSR and sprint-related variables) with the second PC relating to “volume” (e.g., total distance and PlayerLoad) accounting for 17.9% of the variance. Average sprint distance and total distance were selected for further analysis. Average sprint distance was significantly higher at MD-3 than at MD-2 (p = 0.01, mean difference = 0.36 m•minute−1, 95% confidence intervals [CIs] = 0.07–0.65 m•minute−1) and MD-4 (p = 0.012, mean difference = 0.26 m•minute−1, 95% CIs = 0.10–0.41 m•minute−1). Total distance was significantly higher at MD-3 than at MD-1 (p < 0.001, mean difference = 1,465 m, 95% CIs = 1,003–1926 m), and MD-2 (p < 0.001, mean difference = 941 m, 95% CIs = 523–1,360 m). Principal component analysis may simplify reporting process of external training loads. Practitioners may need to choose “volume” and “high-speed load” variables. Elite North American Soccer players may accumulate higher average sprint distance at MD-3 than at other training days

    You clapped, you cheered, but did anybody hear? A mixed-methods systematic review of dementia homecare workers’ training and psychosocial needs

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    The homecare sector’s high turnover rate is linked to poor working conditions and a lack of person-centered practice. Limited research exists on the training and psychosocial needs of homecare workers caring for people living with dementia (PLWD). This systematic review explored these needs and identified 285 studies, of which seven studies met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis identified four themes: “training and education challenges and facilitators;” “social isolation and the importance of peer support;” “emotional attachments and distress experienced by homecare workers;” and “working with families and its emotional impact on homecare workers.” This review highlights the unmet educational and psychosocial needs of homecare workers and the negative impacts these unmet needs have. To improve person-centered practice in homecare, workers require dementia-specific training, and concurrent emotional and peer support, alongside support managing relationships with clients’ families. Future research is required to implement an intervention to meet these needs.</p

    Understanding perceptions of the public and key stakeholders toward a localised cancer screening promotion campaign:Perceptions of cancer screening campaigns

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    The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of members of the public and key stakeholders of a localised campaign to increase engagement with cervical cancer screening. Whilst numerous interventions have been trialled to increase engagement with cancer screening, the evidence for their effectiveness is somewhat mixed. In addition, few studies have explored the perceptions of members of the public targeted by such campaigns nor the perceptions of healthcare professionals who may be involved in delivering such campaigns in the United Kingdom. Members of the public who had potentially been exposed to the campaign in the North-East of England were approached to take part in individual interviews whilst stakeholders were invited to take part in a focus group. A total of 25 participants (13 members of the public, 12 stakeholders) took part. All interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using applied thematic analysis. Four themes were identified, two which were cross-cutting (barriers to screening; factors promoting screening) with one theme being identified which were specific to the public interviews (knowledge of and attitudes toward awareness campaigns) and to the focus group (keeping campaigns relevant). Awareness of the localised campaign was limited however when made aware participants were mostly positive towards the approach although mixed responses were noted in relation to financial incentives. Members of the public and stakeholders identified some common barriers to screening although differed in their perceptions of promotional factors. This study highlights the importance of multiple strategies to promote cervical screening as one size fits all approach may limit engagement

    Teaching patients about pain: the emergence of Pain Science Education, its learning frameworks and delivery strategies

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    Since it emerged in the early 2000’s, intensive education about ‘how pain works’, widely known as pain neuroscience education or explaining pain, has evolved into a new educational approach, with new content and new strategies. The substantial differences to the original have led the PETAL collaboration to call the current iteration ‘Pain Science Education’. This review presents a brief historical context for PSE, the clinical trial, consumer perspective and real-world clinical data that have pushed the field to update both content and method. We describe the key role of educational psychology in driving this change, the central role of constructivism and the constructivist learning frameworks around which PSE is now planned and delivered. We integrate terminology and concepts from the learning frameworks currently being used across the PETAL collaboration in both research and practice – the Interactive, Constructive, Active, Passive (ICAP) framework, transformative learning theory, dynamic model of conceptual change. We then discuss strategies that are being used to enhance learning within clinical encounters, which focus on the skill, will and thrill of learning. Finally, we provide practical examples of these strategies so as to assist the reader to drive their own patient pain education offerings towards more effective learnin

    Web Crippling Behaviour of Cold-Formed High-Strength Steel Unlipped Channel Beams Under Interior-Two-Flange Load Case

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    Cold-Formed Steel (CFS) sections are vulnerable to certain local and global failures, especially web crippling failures. CFS beams are generally employed in construction practices mainly as floor joists or bearers. The design standards, AISI S100, AS/NZS 4600 and Eurocode 3 Part 1–3 predict the web crippling capacity of CFS sections according to the experimental studies conducted in previous years. In most of the cases, the predictions of the equations were unsafe and hence innovative concepts of CFS should be examined undergoing web crippling. Therefore, the web crippling behaviour of the unlipped channel sections with high-strength material under Interior-Two-Flange (ITF) loading condition was investigated in this study by following the AISI S909 standard test method defined for web crippling. Numerical simulations using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software (ABAQUS) were conducted on 243 parametric studies to replicate the loading conditions of ITF following a proper validation. Parametric study data were then taken into account to determine the accuracy of existing equations for web crippling capacity in the design standards and existing literature. Since the available design equations were conservative or unsafe and considering the empirical nature of CFS sections in terms of web crippling capacity, new modified equations were proposed to predict the ultimate web crippling capacity of high-strength unlipped channel sections and a new design approach based on the Direct Strength Method (DSM) was also developed.</p

    Facile synthesis of solar active charcoal passivated Ag<sub>3</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> and their two-channel mechanisms for H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> formation in aerated water

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    This work presents the use of activated charcoal passivated-Ag3PO4 (CAgP) and bare Ag3PO4(AgP) nanoparticles (NPs) as effective photocatalysts for the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in air-saturated water containing either formic acid (FA) or silver nitrate (AgNO3). The synthesized CAgP and pristine AgP were characterized using various state-of-the-art optical and electron microscopy techniques. The CAgP composites showed remarkable photocatalyzed H2O2 formation compared to bare AgP NPs. The CAgP photocatalyzed-assisted H2O2 formation from O2-saturated water under sunlight was achieved via two-channel mechanisms. First, in the presence of FA as a hole scavenger, enhanced H2O2 formation was facilitated by the decomposition of FA to produce proton (H+), followed by a spontaneous reduction of dissolved molecular oxygen by the valence band electrons. The second pathway involves the formation of H2O2 in the absence of electrons (using AgNO3 as an electron scavenger) which occurs via the oxidation of H2O by photo-induced holes to generate hydroxyl radicals (•HO) and the combination of •HO radicals to produce H2O2. The most notable feature of CAgP composite as a photocatalyst is the ease of H2O2 formation in O2/H2O and O2/H2O/FA system, as well as the ability to reuse the recovered CAgP catalyst for a few reaction cycles without losing substantial catalytic activity or mass.</p

    Ruben- Mayhew, Roshana

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    Zhang, Peilin

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    Kuenstner, Todd J.

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    Consideration of within-patient diversity highlights transmission pathways and antimicrobial resistance gene variability in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium

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    BackgroundWGS is increasingly being applied to healthcare-associated vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) outbreaks. Within-patient diversity could complicate transmission resolution if single colonies are sequenced from identified cases.ObjectivesDetermine the impact of within-patient diversity on transmission resolution of VREfm.Materials and methodsFourteen colonies were collected from VREfm positive rectal screens, single colonies were collected from clinical samples and Illumina WGS was performed. Two isolates were selected for Oxford Nanopore sequencing and hybrid genome assembly to generate lineage-specific reference genomes. Mapping to closely related references was used to identify genetic variations and closely related genomes. A transmission network was inferred for the entire genome set using Phyloscanner.Results and discussionIn total, 229 isolates from 11 patients were sequenced. Carriage of two or three sequence types was detected in 27% of patients. Presence of antimicrobial resistance genes and plasmids was variable within genomes from the same patient and sequence type. We identified two dominant sequence types (ST80 and ST1424), with two putative transmission clusters of two patients within ST80, and a single cluster of six patients within ST1424. We found transmission resolution was impaired using fewer than 14 colonies.ConclusionsPatients can carry multiple sequence types of VREfm, and even within related lineages the presence of mobile genetic elements and antimicrobial resistance genes can vary. VREfm within-patient diversity could be considered in future to aid accurate resolution of transmission networks

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