767 research outputs found

    Complex magnetic topology and strong differential rotation on the low-mass T Tauri star V2247 Oph

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    From observations collected with the ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we report the detection of Zeeman signatures on the low-mass classical TTauri star (cTTS) V2247Oph. Profile distortions and circular polarisation signatures detected in photospheric lines can be interpreted as caused by cool spots and magnetic regions at the surface of the star. The large-scale field is of moderate strength and highly complex; moreover, both the spot distribution and the magnetic field show significant variability on a timescale of only one week, as a likely result of strong differential rotation. Both properties make V2247Oph very different from the (more massive) prototypical cTTS BPTau; we speculate that this difference reflects the lower mass of V2247Oph. During our observations, V2247Oph was in a low-accretion state, with emission lines showing only weak levels of circular polarisation; we nevertheless find that excess emission apparently concentrates in a mid-latitude region of strong radial field, suggesting that it is the footpoint of an accretion funnel. The weaker and more complex field that we report on V2247Oph may share similarities with those of very-low-mass late-M dwarfs and potentially explain why low-mass cTTSs rotate on average faster than intermediate mass ones. These surprising results need confirmation from new independent data sets on V2247Oph and other similar low-mass cTTSs.Comment: MNRAS (in press) - 12 pages, 9 figure

    Variable X-ray emission from the accretion shock in the classical T Tauri star V2129 Ophiuchi

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    Context. The soft X-ray emission from high density plasma observed in several CTTS is usually associated with the accretion process. However, it is still unclear whether this high density ‚Äúcool‚ÄĚ plasma is heated in the accretion shock, or if it is coronal plasma fed or modified by the accretion process. Aims. We conducted a coordinated quasi-simultaneous optical and X-ray observing campaign of the CTTS V2129 Oph. In this paper, we analyze Chandra grating spectrometer data and attempt to correlate the observed X-ray emitting plasma components with the characteristics of the accretion process and the stellar magnetic field constrained by simultaneous optical observations. Methods. We analyze a 200 ks Chandra/HETGS observation, subdivided into two 100 ks segments, of the CTTS V2129 Oph. For the two observing segments corresponding to two different phases within one stellar rotation, we measure the density of the cool plasma component and the emission measure distribution. Results. The X-ray emitting plasma covers a wide range of temperatures: from 2 up to 34 MK. The cool plasma component of V2129 Oph (T ‚Čą 3‚ąí4 MK) varies between the two segments of the Chandra observation: during the first observing segment high density plasma (log N_c = 12.1_(-1.1)^(+0.6)) with high EM at ~3‚ąí4 MK is present, whereas, during the second segment, this plasma component has lower EM and lower density (log‚ÄČN_e 3 R_‚čÜ). Conclusions. Our observation provides additional confirmation that the dense cool plasma at a few MK in CTTS is material heated in the accretion shock. The variability of this cool plasma component on V2129 Oph may be explained in terms of X-rays emitted in the accretion shock and seen with different viewing angles at the two rotational phases probed by our observation. In particular, during the first time interval a direct view of the shock region is possible, while, during the second, the accretion funnel itself intersects the line of sight to the shock region, preventing us from observing the accretion-driven X-rays

    Dynamo Processes in the T Tauri star V410 Tau

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    We present new brightness and magnetic images of the weak-line T Tauri star V410 Tau, made using data from the NARVAL spectropolarimeter at Telescope Bernard Lyot (TBL). The brightness image shows a large polar spot and significant spot coverage at lower latitudes. The magnetic maps show a field that is predominantly dipolar and non-axisymmetric with a strong azimuthal component. The field is 50% poloidal and 50% toroidal, and there is very little differential rotation apparent from the magnetic images. A photometric monitoring campaign on this star has previously revealed V-band variability of up to 0.6 magnitudes but in 2009 the lightcurve is much flatter. The Doppler image presented here is consistent with this low variability. Calculating the flux predicted by the mapped spot distribution gives an peak-to-peak variability of 0.04 magnitudes. The reduction in the amplitude of the lightcurve, compared with previous observations, appears to be related to a change in the distribution of the spots, rather than the number or area. This paper is the first from a Zeeman-Doppler imaging campaign being carried out on V410 Tau between 2009-2012 at TBL. During this time it is expected that the lightcurve will return to a high amplitude state, allowing us to ascertain whether the photometric changes are accompanied by a change in the magnetic field topology.Comment: 12 pages, 11 figures, accepted by MNRA

    Dynamic Interstitial Cell Response during Myocardial Infarction Predicts Resilience to Rupture in Genetically Diverse Mice.

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    Cardiac ischemia leads to the loss of myocardial tissue and the activation of a repair process that culminates in the formation of a scar whose structural characteristics dictate propensity to favorable healing or detrimental cardiac wall rupture. To elucidate the cellular processes underlying scar formation, here we perform unbiased single-cell mRNA sequencing of interstitial cells isolated from infarcted mouse hearts carrying a genetic tracer that labels epicardial-derived cells. Sixteen interstitial cell clusters are revealed, five of which were of epicardial origin. Focusing on stromal cells, we define 11 sub-clusters, including diverse cell states of epicardial- and endocardial-derived fibroblasts. Comparing transcript profiles from post-infarction hearts in C57BL/6J and 129S1/SvImJ inbred mice, which displays a marked divergence in the frequency of cardiac rupture, uncovers an early increase in activated myofibroblasts, enhanced collagen deposition, and persistent acute phase response in 129S1/SvImJ mouse hearts, defining a crucial time window of pathological remodeling that predicts disease outcome

    Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections: A Statistically Determined Flare Flux-CME Mass Correlation

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    In an effort to examine the relationship between flare flux and corresponding CME mass, we temporally and spatially correlate all X-ray flares and CMEs in the LASCO and GOES archives from 1996 to 2006. We cross-reference 6,733 CMEs having well-measured masses against 12,050 X-ray flares having position information as determined from their optical counterparts. For a given flare, we search in time for CMEs which occur 10-80 minutes afterward, and we further require the flare and CME to occur within +/-45 degrees in position angle on the solar disk. There are 826 CME/flare pairs which fit these criteria. Comparing the flare fluxes with CME masses of these paired events, we find CME mass increases with flare flux, following an approximately log-linear, broken relationship: in the limit of lower flare fluxes, log(CME mass)~0.68*log(flare flux), and in the limit of higher flare fluxes, log(CME mass)~0.33*log(flare flux). We show that this broken power-law, and in particular the flatter slope at higher flare fluxes, may be due to an observational bias against CMEs associated with the most energetic flares: halo CMEs. Correcting for this bias yields a single power-law relationship of the form log(CME mass)~0.70*log(flare flux). This function describes the relationship between CME mass and flare flux over at least 3 dex in flare flux, from ~10^-7 to 10^-4 W m^-2.Comment: 28 pages, 16 figures, accepted to Solar Physic

    Surface magnetic fields on two accreting T Tauri stars: CV Cha and CR Cha

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    We have produced brightness and magnetic field maps of the surfaces of CV Cha and CR Cha: two actively accreting G and K-type T Tauri stars in the Chamaeleon I star-forming cloud with ages of 3-5 Myr. Our magnetic field maps show evidence for strong, complex multi-polar fields similar to those obtained for young rapidly rotating main sequence stars. Brightness maps indicate the presence of dark polar caps and low latitude spots -- these brightness maps are very similar to those obtained for other pre-main sequence and rapidly rotating main sequence stars. Only two other classical T Tauri stars have been studied using similar techniques so far: V2129 Oph and BP Tau. CV Cha and CR Cha show magnetic field patterns that are significantly more complex than those recovered for BP Tau, a fully convective T Tauri star. We discuss possible reasons for this difference and suggest that the complexity of the stellar magnetic field is related to the convection zone; with more complex fields being found in T Tauri stars with radiative cores (V2129 Oph, CV Cha and CR Cha). However, it is clearly necessary to conduct magnetic field studies of T Tauri star systems, exploring a wide range of stellar parameters in order to establish how they affect magnetic field generation, and thus how these magnetic fields are likely to affect the evolution of T Tauri star systems as they approach the main sequence.Comment: Accepted for publication by MNRAS: 15 pages, 11 figure
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