LJMU Research Online

    Isorhamnetin: A review of pharmacological effects.

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    Isorhamnetin is one of the most important active ingredients in the fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides L. and the leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., which possesses extensive pharmacological activities. At present, there have been numerous investigations on isorhamnetin, which has the effects of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protection, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation, organ protection, prevention of obesity, etc. The related mechanisms involve the regulation of PI3K/AKT/PKB, NF-κB, MAPK and other signaling pathways as well as the expression of related cytokines and kinases. Isorhamnetin has a high value of development and application. However, the investigations on its mechanism of action are limited and lack of detailed scientific validation. The manuscript reviewed the pharmacological effects of isorhamnetin and related mechanisms of action for the development of its medicinal properties further

    Congenital Cardiac Surgery and Parental Perception of Risk: A Quantitative Analysis

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    Introduction: Interpretation of risk by parents of children undergoing congenital cardiac surgery is poorly documented. The available evidence highlights a dichotomy, where clinicians suggest parents may not grasp the complexity and risk associated with procedures, whilst some parents suggest risk is unnecessarily over-emphasised. Aim: To quantify how risk is perceived by parents Methods: 106 parents of children undergoing cardiac surgery were recruited and completed a Likert scale from 1 (perceived low-risk) to 6 (perceived high-risk), at five points: arrival at pre-admission; post discussion with anaethetist/surgeon; day of surgery; discharge from intensive care; at outpatient follow up. The surgical sample was stratified according to risk adjustment in congenital heart surgery. Analysis: Data was analysed using Wilcoxon rank tests for differences in distributions of scores, and Krippendorff's Alpha to examine level of agreement. Results: Median parental risk scores varied over time, with no consistent risk scores observed. Maternal scores were consistently higher than paternal scores at every time point (p<0.001). Postoperative complications resulted in a persistent rise in risk perception at follow up (p<0.001). Analysis of parental risk scores, and objective measures of surgical risk highlighted poor agreement that was particularly marked at the extremes of risk. Conclusions: Parents perceived higher risk scores than those reported by the clinical team. Mothers reported statistically significant higher scores than their partners, highlighting potential tensions. In addition, the changing perception of risk over time emphasizes the need for flexible levels of support and information as parents navigate uncertainty

    TDDB mechanism in a-Si/TiO2 non-filamentary RRAM device

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    Mechanisms of time-dependent-dielectric-breakdown (TDDB) in non-filamentary a-Si/TiO2 RRAM cell (a-VMCO) have been examined in this work, including defects generation in the grain boundary, defects clustering and different defects generation rates in a-Si and TiO2 layers. The unique feature of a bimodal Weibull distribution at low resistance state (LRS) and a single shallow slope distribution at high resistance state (HRS) cannot be explained by the above mechanisms. By using a combination of constant-voltage-stress (CVS), time-to-breakdown Weibull distribution and random-telegraph-noise (RTN) based defect profiling in devices of various sizes, layer thickness and processes, it is revealed that the defect profile is modulated when switching between HRS and LRS and the correlation of defect profile modulation with local defect generation rate can explain the difference in Weibull distributions at HRS and LRS. The transition from bimodal distribution at LRS to a single-steep- slope with thinner a-Si layer, and the good area scaling of Weibull distribution at HRS but not at LRS, can also be explained. The critical layers affecting the TDDB in a-VMCO are identified, providing useful guidance for device performance improvement

    A Superluminous Supernova in High Surface Density Molecular Gas within the Bar of a Metal-rich Galaxy

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    We report the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of the metal-rich host galaxy of superluminous supernova (SLSN) PTF10tpz, a barred spiral galaxy at z = 0.03994. We find the CO(1–0) emission to be confined within the bar of the galaxy. The distribution and kinematics of molecular gas in the host galaxy resemble gas flows along two lanes running from the tips of the bar toward the galaxy center. These gas lanes end in a gaseous structure in the inner region of the galaxy, likely associated with an inner Lindblad resonance. The interaction between the large-scale gas flows in the bar and the gas in the inner region plausibly leads to the formation of massive molecular clouds and consequently massive clusters. This in turn can result in formation of massive stars, and thus the likely progenitor of the SLSN in a young, massive cluster. This picture is consistent with SLSN PTF10tpz being located near the intersection regions of the gas lanes and the inner structure. It is also supported by the high molecular gas surface densities that we find in the vicinity of the SLSN, surface densities that are comparable with those in interacting galaxies or starburst regions in nearby galaxies. Our findings therefore suggest in situ formation of massive stars due to the internal dynamics of the host galaxy and also lend support to high densities being favorable conditions for formation of SLSN progenitors

    Effectiveness of mortars composition on the embodied carbon long-term impact

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    Refurbishment activities represent more than 17% of the saving potential of the EU up to 2050. However, studies on buildings structure and finishing reparation of rendering mortars using LCA are still lacking. An innovative design approach is required to drive the minimisation of embodied carbon using objective performance information of buildings behaviour. This research work is focused on the reparation of rendering mortars and intends to demonstrate that the choice of mortars for buildings affects the maintenance actions needed and can increase the construction environment liability and embodied carbon expenditure. A new leaching risk analysis combined with LCA of different mortars composition (cement and lime based) was implemented enabling to predict the longevity of the rendering and the embodied carbon expenditure on 20th century buildings. It is demonstrated that some mortars may have a higher impact at the outset, such as cement-based mortars, but result in a much lower impact across the building service life. The embodied carbon of repair actions of mortars similar to OPC are expected to reduce the environmental impact of rendering repair actions at least in 10 times in comparison to less hydraulic mortars

    Anti-Aging Liposomal formulation: A Mini Review

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    Due to very intensive and technological industrial development, different preparation techniques are being introduced to the pharmaceutical/ cosmeceutical industry. Lipid-based formulation cover most of the formulations based on cosmetics products. They are primarily used in antiaging products. Liposomes used as a carrier for anti-aging and cosmeceutical formulations in order to exhibit better absorption properties by the skin than the standard cosmeceutical products. The use of liposomes in Cosmeceutical preparations is a promising technique for the formulation of more effective anti-aging products with less side effects, improved stability and a targeted delivery of the active component

    Cloud versus Edge: Who Serves the Internet-of-Things Better?

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    Usually announced to the ICT community as rivals in the Internet-of-Things (IoT) context, cloud and edge could work together according to their respective capabilities. Today’s IoT applications cannot be dependent on a single technology (either SQL or noSQL) nor a single operation model (either centralized or decentralized). The challenges are multiple including complexity of user scenarios, multiplicity of things, sensitivity of data, etc. This paper raises the question of who serves IoT better? Cloud, only; edge, only; or both together. To answer this question, clouds’ and edges’ duties are identified and then a set of collaborative scenarios are discussed with respect to these duties

    The NOS3 G894T (rs1799983) and-786T/C (rs2070744) polymorphisms are associated with elite swimmer status

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    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) generates nitric oxide in blood vessels and is involved in the regulation of vascular function, metabolism and muscle fibre type transformations. Evidence suggests that the NOS3 G894T (rs1799983) and -786T/C (rs2070744) polymorphisms are associated with athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the NOS3 G894T and -786T/C polymorphisms with elite swimmer status in Polish athletes. One hundred and ninety-seven Polish swimmers (104 males and 93 females), who competed in national and international events, and 379 healthy control subjects (222 males and 157 females) were recruited for this study. The swimmers were divided into two groups: short distance swimmers (SDS; n=147; 50-200 m) and long distance swimmers (LDS; n=49; more than 500 m). As expected, the frequencies of the -786T/C T allele (77.0 vs. 63.1%, p = 0.0085) and G-T haplotype (63.7 vs. 52.0, p=0.025) were significantly higher in the LDS group in comparison with controls. Compared with the -786T/C CC genotype, the chance of being a long distance swimmer was 8.49 times higher (CI=1.14-62.78, p=0.023) for the carriers of -786T/C T allele than in control subjects. On the other hand, the Asp allele frequency was significantly higher in the female SDS group compared with controls (34.3 vs. 18.5%, p=0.00043). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the T allele and the G-T haplotype of the -786T/C and G894T polymorphisms may be beneficial for long distance swimmers

    Introduction (to the Margaret Atwood special issue)

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    Chimpanzees and their mammalian sympatriates in the Issa Valley, Tanzania

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    Chimpanzees have been studied for nearly 300 combined years across Africa, but aside from their roles as predators or prey, remarkably little is known about the diverse species with whom they share habitats. We calculated likely chimpanzee encounter rates with sympatric mammals in the Issa Valley, Tanzania, through modelling actual researcher encounter rates with all medium and large mammals. Compared to other long‐term chimpanzee study sites, Issa had a relatively high diversity in medium and large mammal species present, with 36 species documented. We encountered common duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) most frequently, followed by yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) and bushbuck. Chimpanzees ranked fifth overall. Chimpanzees, on the other hand, were predicted to most frequently encounter bushbuck, klipspringer and hartebeest—all woodland species. We compare these results to published literature and contextualise them in light of reconstructing diverse mammalian communities in which hominins lived during the Plio‐Pleistocene and the use of chimpanzees as flagship species for conservation policy
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