University of Southern Queensland ePrints

    Learner training in digital language learning for pre-service translators and interpreters

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    Given the importance of language learners' digital literacy skills in digital environments, there is a need for learner training in the use of digital technologies for language learning. Learner training can help learners develop language learning skills and strategies and become effective and independent language learners. This chapter presents a study examining the implementation of technical, strategic, pedagogical and contextual training offered through a series of face-to-face workshops for advanced language learners enrolled in Master programs of translation and interpreting at an Australian university. It describes the context of the training and discusses the training content and process. It then looks at the participants' responses to a digital literacy questionnaire administered in the beginning of the training. It also offers comparisons between the participants' attitudes and views of technology-enhanced language learning before and after the training based on quantitative and qualitative data collected through the digital literacy questionnaire and a post-training questionnaire. The results of the study suggest that learner training needs context-specific approaches and needs to offer more opportunities for learners to select and use digital tools and resources for their learning

    Muscle strengthening, aerobic exercise, and obesity: a pooled analysis of 1.7 million US adults

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    Objective: Both aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening exercise are recommended for obesity prevention. However, at the population level, the independent and/or combined associations of these physical activity modalities with obesity are unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening exercise with obesity among a representative sample of adults. Methods: Data were pooled from four US public health surveillance surveys from 2011 to 2017. Cross-sectional associations between adherence to the aerobic physical activity (≥ 150 min/wk) and muscle-strengthening exercise (≥ 2 times/wk) guidelines with different classes of BMI-defined obesity were examined using Poisson regression. Prevalence ratios are reported as both unadjusted and adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics. Results: Data were available for 1,677,108 adults (≥ 18 years old). Compared with meeting neither guideline (reference category), meeting both guidelines was associated with the lowest adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) for the following: Class I obesity and above (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2), APR = 0.54 (95% CI: 0.53-0.54); Class II obesity and above (BMI ≥ 35.0 kg/m2), APR = 0.32 (95% CI: 0.31-0.33); and Class III obesity and above (BMI ≥ 40.0 kg/m2), APR = 0.21 (95% CI: 0.20-0.21). Conclusions: Among nearly 1.7 million US adults, meeting both aerobic and muscle-strengthening exercise guidelines was associated with a lower obesity prevalence, and associations were more pronounced for higher obesity classes

    Competition laws in ASEAN: opportunities and obligations for SMEs

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    The ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) Economic Community (AEC), formally established at the end of 2015, brings about a single market and production base in the region and provides for free movement of goods, services, investments, skilled labour and free flow of capital. With a combined population of about 625 million and a combined gross domestic product of US$2.4 trillion, it offers a tremendous growth opportunity for the private sector. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are the backbone of ASEAN, and SME development is vital to achieve long-run and sustainable economic growth. SMEs account for more than 96% of all enterprises and 50 to 85% of domestic employment. The contribution of this sector to GDP is between 30 and 53%, while its contribution to exports is between 19 and 31%. Regionalisation means lower barriers to entry and convergence across industries due to the reduction of trade barriers within the region, resulting in increased international competition. While liberalisation is good for an economy, it may harm local SMEs who are unprepared for international competition. SMEs need to be well placed to take advantage of these opportunities. Businesses need to be more entrepreneurial, competitive and resilient to withstand the increased competition within the region, or they may lose out to foreign players. This report considers the ASEAN competition laws, their implication for SMEs, how the laws have been applied to SMEs in ASEAN to date and how the laws should encourage businesses to innovate and improve their production capabilities. Finally, it addresses the compliance issue, providing a brief insight into how SMEs could prepare for the introduction of competition laws across the region

    Radial-basis-function calculations of heat and viscous flows in multiply-connected domains

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    This PhD research project is concerned with the development of accurate and efficient numerical methods, which are based on one-dimensional integrated radial basis function networks (1D-IRBFNs), point collocation and Cartesian grids, for the numerical simulation of heat and viscous flows in multiply-connected domains, and their applications to the numerical prediction of the material properties of suspensions (i.e. particulate fluids). In the proposed techniques, the employment of 1D-IRBFNs, where the RBFN approximations on each grid line are constructed through integration, provides a powerful means of representing the field variables, while the use of Cartesian grids and point collocation provides an efficient way to discretise the governing equations defined on complicated domains. Firstly, 1D-IRBFN-based methods are developed for the simulation of heat transfer problems governed by Poisson equations in multiply-connected domains. Derivative boundary conditions are imposed in an exact manner with the help of the integration constants. Secondly, 1D-IRBFN based methods are further developed for the discretisation of the stream-function - vorticity formulation and the stream-function formulation governing the motion of a New- tonian fluid in multiply-connected domains. For the stream-function - vorticity formulation, a novel formula for obtaining a computational vorticity boundary condition on a curved boundary is proposed and successfully verified. For the stream-function formulation, double boundary conditions are implemented without the need to use external points or to reduce the number of interior nodes for collocating the governing equations. Processes of implementing cross derivatives and deriving the stream-function values on separate boundaries are presented in detail. Thirdly, for a more efficient discretisation, 1D-IRBFNs are incorporated into the domain embedding technique. The multiply-connected domain is transformed into a simply-connected domain, which is more suitable for problems with several unconnected interior moving boundaries. Finally, 1D-IRBFN-based methods are applied to predict the bulk properties of particulate suspensions under simple shear conditions. All simulated results using Cartesian grids of relatively coarse density agree well with other numerical results available in the literature, which indicates that the proposed discretisation schemes are useful numerical techniques for the analysis of heat and viscous flows in multiply-connected domains

    Optimal relay placement in microgrids considering critical clearing time

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    This paper is concerned with the optimal placement of protection devices in a microgrid using particle swarm optimization algorithm. One of the main advantages of Distributed Generation (DG) scheme and microgrids in modern distribution systems is the reduction of number of outages and the associated damages caused by them. This task is accomplished by supplying a feeder from multiple sources. In order to prevent generator instability in DGs connected to utility, it is necessary to improve the protective schemes of traditional distribution systems and also to use proper relaying and setting for DGs. All of the downstream overcurrent (OC) relays of each DG are coordinated together and also should be coordinated with OC relay that is installed on the Point of Common Coupling (PCC) which is set at Critical Clearing Time (CCT) as a definite time, to have a desirable performance on each outage. In this paper, by the use of graph theory, various branches of a feeder are identified and the constraints for using particle swarm optimization algorithm to optimize the location of protective equipment are derived. In the proposed algorithm, the location, type and direction of relays are optimized simultaneously

    Microfinance and social capital in Nepal: the case for an integrated approach

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    While microfinance is often used in developing countries as a poverty alleviation tool, many studies of microfinance programs question its effectiveness as a genuine means of alleviating poverty and developing social capital. A growing body of literature has more recently identified problems with microfinance brought about by the apparent misuse of loans by the finance recipients, pointing to recipients who have found themselves compelled to use the loan to fund necessary health care and other basic needs. Increasing evidence indicates that minimal support is not enough to assist impoverished people. This is because the causes of poverty are multidimensional and the recipients need more than finance to break the cycle of poverty. This paper proposes that, in order for microfinance to make a significant and worthwhile contribution to the lives of impoverished people and their communities, microfinance programs need to take a more holistic or integrated approach, where the provision of microfinance should support the recipient’s productive use of the loan, and their capacity to repay the loan from that productive use. This paper describes a research project that seeks to understand how the provision of integrated microfinance in Nepal could contribute to the development of social capital in that country and hence assist in overcoming poverty and its related issues

    Proactive interference effects on aging: is inhibition a factor?

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    [Abstract]: Elderly people show memory deficits over short retention intervals. One explanation for this effect that has been proposed is that the elderly have problems with inhibiting irrelevant material. To test this proposition, younger and older adults were compared on a short-term cued recall task in which proactive interference was manipulated. Elderly people were expected to be more susceptible to PI than the younger group. While there were age differences in absolute levels of performance there was no evidence for differential susceptibility to PI. The error patterns were the same for both groups suggesting that over short retention intervals, inhibition processes do not deteriorate with age

    Relevant, challenging, integrative and exploratory curriculum design: perspectives from theory and practice for middle schooling in Australia

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    Integrative curriculum design, or student-centred curriculum integration, promises much for middle grades teachers wishing to develop classroom programmes that will encourage early adolescents to actively engage in their learning (Beane 1990, 1997). Integrative designs are highly responsive to the educational and developmental needs of young people. In contrast, student-centred multidisciplinary curriculum designs (Jacobs 1989) may result in significant but largely unrecognised drawbacks when they are applied to the middle grades. This paper critically examines the integrative and the multidisciplinary models of curriculum integration with respect to the educational and developmental needs of students in the middle grades. It draws its data from a doctoral study that traced a century of development of curriculum integration in the USA: from John Dewey's Laboratory School a century ago through to contemporary middle schools

    Design and retrofit a compressed gas powered engine to a motor scooter

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    Modelling herbicide movement from farm to catchment using the swat model

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    [Abstract]Water quality in Australia’s northern grains farming areas often exceeds water quality trigger values for suspended sediments, nutrients and some herbicides (CBWC, 1999). While there are many land uses in these areas that contribute to the resultant water quality, of particular concern for the grains farming industry is the widespread detection in rivers of chemicals used by their industry, namely atrazine and metolachlor. A comparison of Hodgson Creek catchment (South East Queensland, Australia) herbicide data with national water quality guidelines shows that trigger values are frequently exceeded. That water quality trigger values are exceeded is expected for a highly modified catchment such as Hodgson Creek, and the Australian New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) (2000) guidelines make provision that in such catchments, locally derived targets should be set. Natural resource managers therefore require skills in linking planned management with their ability to set or meet targets. The opportunity suggested itself for using catchment modelling to set realistic targets for water quality based on the adoption of best management farming practices. This study investigated the suitability of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to fulfil this modelling role in an Australian context of land use management. To test the suitability of SWAT to fulfil this role, the study aimed to determine the feasibility of using the model to explicitly depict farm management practices at a paddock scale to estimate resultant catchment water quality outcomes. SWAT operates as two distinct sub-models. A hydrologic response unit (HRU) (the paddock scale model) generates runoff and constituents, and the output of many HRU are summed and routed through a stream network. The method for calibration of SWAT proposed in the user manual (Neitsch et al., 2001) is to calibrate against streamflow before calibrating sediment and then herbicides. The logic of testing in a process dependent order is sensible, however the method proposed by Neitsch et al. (2001) assumes that the HRU processes are reliable and calibration only need consider catchment scale processes. A review of the literature suggested that there had been limited testing of HRU process in studies where SWAT had been applied. Data available for model testing came from both paddock and catchment studies. The effects of cultivation management practices on runoff and erosion have been well characterised for the study area by Freebairn and Wockner (1996). Atrazine dissipation in soil and loss in runoff was available from a study of a commercial farm in the Hodgson Creek catchment (Rattray et al, 2007). An ambient and event based water quality monitoring for suspended sediments and herbicides provided data for the Hodgson Creek catchment for the period 1999 to 2004 (Rattray, unpublished data). The model required minimal calibration to achieve good predictions of crop yields and surface cover for winter crops. However, testing of summer cropping component revealed structural problems in SWAT associated with the end of a calendar year. Testing also revealed that perennial pastures and trees are modelled with unrealistic fluctuations in biomass and leaf area index. The model was able to represent hydrology well across a range of scales (1-50,000 ha). Catchment scale runoff data was well matched for a range of tillage treatments. The model was found to be able to attain a good prediction of monthly runoff at the catchment scale. This is consistent with the finding of most other SWAT studies. The model was able to represent average annual erosion reasonably well using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) when tested at the HRU scale (1 ha) against a range of tillage management data. When tested at the catchment scale the model was found to be able to match average annual sediment loads for the catchment however annual variability in sediment loads was poorly matched. Testing of the herbicide model for SWAT found that model compared poorly with paddock scale trial data. The reason for poor model performance can be attributed to an inadequate representation of processes and model output was unrealistic compared to our understanding of herbicide transport processes. When the model was tested at a catchment scale it was found to compare very poorly with catchment scale observations. This can be explained in part by the deficiencies of the HRU herbicide model, but is also due in part to difficulties in parameterisation of spatial and temporal inputs at the catchment scale. While SWAT provides a model with detailed physical processes, the capacity to apply the model is let down by an ability to practically determine the spatial and temporal extent of the farming practices (i.e. where and when are tillage and herbicides applied in the catchment). The challenge to applying SWAT is that farming practices in Australia vary markedly from year to year. SWAT requires the user to input crop practices in as a fixed rotation while Australia’s highly variable climate with unreliable seasonal weather patterns results in opportunistic farming practices. Hence this is a major limitation in the models ability to predict catchment outcomes, particularly for herbicides where off site losses are highly dependant on application timing. In attempting to validate herbicide losses at the whole of catchment scale it became apparent that uncertainty in the temporal variation of farm operations within the catchment poses a major limitation to accurately reproducing observations at the catchment outlet. It is concluded that that there is limited usefulness of SWAT for investigating the impacts of land management on catchment scale herbicide transport for Australian conditions
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