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The Jackson Laboratory: The Mouseion at the JAXlibrary
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    75291 research outputs found

    Pursuit of precision medicine: Systems biology approaches in Alzheimer\u27s disease mouse models.

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    Alzheimer\u27s disease (AD) is a complex disease that is mediated by numerous factors and manifests in various forms. A systems biology approach to studying AD involves analyses of various body systems, biological scales, environmental elements, and clinical outcomes to understand the genotype to phenotype relationship that potentially drives AD development. Currently, there are many research investigations probing how modifiable and nonmodifiable factors impact AD symptom presentation. This review specifically focuses on how imaging modalities can be integrated into systems biology approaches using model mouse populations to link brain level functional and structural changes to disease onset and progression. Combining imaging and omics data promotes the classification of AD into subtypes and paves the way for precision medicine solutions to prevent and treat AD

    Hippocampal and thalamic afferents form distinct synaptic microcircuits in the mouse infralimbic frontal cortex.

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    The selection of goal-directed behaviors is supported by neural circuits located within the frontal cortex. Frontal cortical afferents arise from multiple brain areas, yet the cell-type-specific targeting of these inputs is unclear. Here, we use monosynaptic retrograde rabies mapping to examine the distribution of afferent neurons targeting distinct classes of local inhibitory interneurons and excitatory projection neurons in mouse infralimbic frontal cortex. Interneurons expressing parvalbumin, somatostatin, or vasoactive intestinal peptide receive a large proportion of inputs from the hippocampus, while interneurons expressing neuron-derived neurotrophic factor receive a large proportion of inputs from thalamic regions. A similar dichotomy is present among the four different excitatory projection neurons. These results show a prominent bias among long-range hippocampal and thalamic afferent systems in their targeting to specific sets of frontal cortical neurons. Moreover, they suggest the presence of two distinct local microcircuits that control how different inputs govern frontal cortical information processing

    Mean-Variance QTL Mapping Identifies Novel QTL for Circadian Activity and Exploratory Behavior in Mice.

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    We illustrate, through two case studies, that mean-variance QTL mapping -QTL mapping that models effects on the mean and the variance simultaneously-can discover QTL that traditional interval mapping cannot. Mean-variance QTL mapping is based on the double generalized linear model, which extends the standard linear model used in interval mapping by incorporating not only a set of genetic and covariate effects for mean but also set of such effects for the residual variance. Its potential for use in QTL mapping has been described previously, but it remains underutilized, with certain key advantages undemonstrated until now. In the first case study, a reduced complexity intercross of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice examining circadian behavior, our reanalysis detected a mean-controlling QTL for circadian wheel running activity that interval mapping did not; mean-variance QTL mapping was more powerful than interval mapping at the QTL because it accounted for the fact that mice homozygous for the C57BL/6N allele had less residual variance than other mice. In the second case study, an intercross between C57BL/6J and C58/J mice examining anxiety-like behaviors, our reanalysis detected a variance-controlling QTL for rearing behavior; interval mapping did not identify this QTL because it does not target variance QTL. We believe that the results of these reanalyses, which in other respects largely replicated the original findings, support the use of mean-variance QTL mapping as standard practice

    A Computational Systems Analyses to Identify Biomarkers and Mechanistic Link in Psoriasis and Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

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    Psoriasis is the most common and chronic skin disease that affects individuals from every age group. The rate of psoriasis is increasing over the time in both developed and developing countries. Studies have revealed the possibility of association of psoriasis with skin cancers, particularly non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC), which, include basal cell carcinoma and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). There is a need to analyze the disease at molecular level to propose potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in comparison to cSCC. Therefore, the second analyzed disease of this study is cSCC. It is the second most common prevalent skin cancer all over the world with the potential to metastasize and recur. There is an urge to validate the proposed biomarkers and discover new potential biomarkers as well. In order to achieve the goals and objectives of the study, microarray and RNA-sequencing data analyses were performed followed by network analysis. Afterwards, quantitative systems biology was implemented to analyze the results at a holistic level. The aim was to predict the molecular patterns that can lead psoriasis to cancer. The current study proposed potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for psoriasis and cSCC. IL-17 signaling pathway is also identified as significant pathway in both diseases. Moreover, the current study proposed that autoimmune pathology, neutrophil recruitment, and immunity to extracellular pathogens are sensitive towards MAPKs (MAPK13 and MAPK14) and genes for AP-1 (FOSL1 and FOS). Therefore, these genes should be further studied in gene knock down based studies as they may play significant role in leading psoriasis towards cancer

    Reprogramming of bivalent chromatin states in NRAS mutant melanoma suggests PRC2 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy.

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    The dynamic evolution of chromatin state patterns during metastasis, their relationship with bona fide genetic drivers, and their therapeutic vulnerabilities are not completely understood. Combinatorial chromatin state profiling of 46 melanoma samples reveals an association of NRAS mutants with bivalent histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and Polycomb repressive complex 2. Reprogramming of bivalent domains during metastasis occurs on master transcription factors of a mesenchymal phenotype, including ZEB1, TWIST1, and CDH1. Resolution of bivalency using pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 decreases invasive capacity of melanoma cells and markedly reduces tumor burden in vivo, specifically in NRAS mutants. Coincident with bivalent reprogramming, the increased expression of pro-metastatic and melanocyte-specific cell-identity genes is associated with exceptionally wide H3K4me3 domains, suggesting a role for this epigenetic element. Overall, we demonstrate that reprogramming of bivalent and broad domains represents key epigenetic alterations in metastatic melanoma and that EZH2 plus MEK inhibition may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for NRAS mutant melanoma patients

    Composition and predictive functional analysis of bacterial communities inhabiting Chinese Cordyceps insight into conserved core microbiome.

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    BACKGROUND: Over the past few decades, most attention to Chinese Cordyceps-associated endogenous microorganism was focused on the fungal community that creates critical bioactive components. Bacterial community associated with Chinese Cordyceps has been previously described; however, most studies were only presenting direct comparisons in the Chinese Cordyceps and its microenvironments. In the current study, our objectives were to reveal the bacterial community structure composition and predict their function. RESULTS: We collected samples of Chinese Cordyceps from five sites located in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and used a high throughput sequencing method to compare Chinese Cordyceps-associated bacterial community composition and diversity quantitatively across sites. The results indicated that for the Chinese Cordyceps-associated bacterial community there is no single core microbiome, which was dominated by the both Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Predictive functional profiling suggested a location specific function pattern for Chinese Cordyceps and bacteria in the external mycelial cortices involved in the biosynthesis of active constituents. CONCLUSIONS: This study is firstly used high throughput sequencing method to compare the bacterial communities inhabiting Chinese Cordyceps and its microhabitat and to reveal composition functional capabilities of the bacteria, which will accelerate the study of the functions of bacterial communities in the micro-ecological system of Chinese Cordyceps

    The Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laboratory Quarterly

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    CD226 Deletion Reduces Type 1 Diabetes in the NOD Mouse by Impairing Thymocyte Development and Peripheral T Cell Activation.

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    The costimulatory molecule CD226 is highly expressed on effector/memory T cells and natural killer cells. Costimulatory signals received by T cells can impact both central and peripheral tolerance mechanisms. Genetic polymorphisms in CD226 have been associated with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune diseases. We hypothesized that genetic deletion of Cd226 in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse would impact type 1 diabetes incidence by altering T cell activation. CD226 knockout (KO) NOD mice displayed decreased disease incidence and insulitis in comparison to wild-type (WT) controls. Although female CD226 KO mice had similar levels of sialoadenitis as WT controls, male CD226 KO mice showed protection from dacryoadenitis. Moreover, CD226 KO T cells were less capable of adoptively transferring disease compared to WT NOD T cells. Of note, CD226 KO mice demonstrated increased CD8+ single positive (SP) thymocytes, leading to increased numbers of CD8+ T cells in the spleen. Decreased percentages of memory CD8+CD44+CD62L- T cells were observed in the pancreatic lymph nodes of CD226 KO mice. Intriguingly, CD8+ T cells in CD226 KO mice showed decreased islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)-tetramer and CD5 staining, suggesting reduced T cell receptor affinity for this immunodominant antigen. These data support an important role for CD226 in type 1 diabetes development by modulating thymic T cell selection as well as impacting peripheral memory/effector CD8+ T cell activation and function

    James Ebert Oral History

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    Cerebellar Kv3.3 potassium channels activate TANK-binding kinase 1 to regulate trafficking of the cell survival protein Hax-1.

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    Mutations in KCNC3, which encodes the Kv3.3 potassium channel, cause degeneration of the cerebellum, but exactly how the activity of an ion channel is linked to the survival of cerebellar neurons is not understood. Here, we report that Kv3.3 channels bind and stimulate Tank Binding Kinase 1 (TBK1), an enzyme that controls trafficking of membrane proteins into multivesicular bodies, and that this stimulation is greatly increased by a disease-causing Kv3.3 mutation. TBK1 activity is required for the binding of Kv3.3 to its auxiliary subunit Hax-1, which prevents channel inactivation with depolarization. Hax-1 is also an anti-apoptotic protein required for survival of cerebellar neurons. Overactivation of TBK1 by the mutant channel leads to the loss of Hax-1 by its accumulation in multivesicular bodies and lysosomes, and also stimulates exosome release from neurons. This process is coupled to activation of caspases and increased cell death. Our studies indicate that Kv3.3 channels are directly coupled to TBK1-dependent biochemical pathways that determine the trafficking of cellular constituents and neuronal survival


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