229 research outputs found

    Prognostic value of clinicopathological parameters in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a prospective analysis.

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    The prognostic weight of histological and biological factors was compared with that of known clinical prognostic factors in a population of 108 consecutive previously untreated patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Parameters studied were: tumour vascularisation, mitotic index, histological differentiation, nuclear grade, keratinisation, desmoplasia, growth pattern, inflammation, tumour emboli in peripheral vessels, keratins 6, 13, 19 immunohistochemical expression, cytofluorometric ploidy and S-phase. In multivariate analysis (Cox), only age and nodal status had a significant impact on the overall survival, whereas T stage was the only significant factor associated with locoregional failure. The cumulative incidence of metastases was correlated not only with age, T and N stage, but also with histological differentiation. All the other histological and biological factors studied failed to provide further prognostic information. These findings may help to select patients with high metastatic risk

    Rethinking the social impacts of the arts

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    The paper presents a critical discussion of the current debate over the social impacts of the arts in the UK. It argues that the accepted understanding of the terms of the debate is rooted in a number of assumptions and beliefs that are rarely questioned. The paper goes on to present the interim findings of a three‐year research project, which aims to rethink the social impact of the arts, with a view to determining how these impacts might be better understood. The desirability of a historical approach is articulated, and a classification of the claims made within the Western intellectual tradition for what the arts “do” to people is presented and discussed

    A novel stochastic method for reconstructing daily precipitation times-series using tree-ring data from the western Canadian Boreal Forest

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    Tree ring data provide proxy records of historical hydroclimatic conditions that are widely used for reconstructing precipitation time series. Most previous applications are limited to annual time scales, though information about daily precipitation would enable a range of additional analyses of environmental processes to be investigated and modelled. We used statistical downscaling to simulate stochastic daily precipitation ensembles using dendrochronological data from the western Canadian boreal forest. The simulated precipitation series were generally consistent with observed precipitation data, though reconstructions were poorly constrained during short periods of forest pest outbreaks. The proposed multiple temporal scale precipitation reconstruction can generate annual daily maxima and persistent monthly wet and dry episodes, so that the observed and simulated ensembles have similar precipitation characteristics (i.e. magnitude, peak, and duration)—an improvement on previous modelling studies. We discuss how ecological disturbances may limit reconstructions by inducing non-linear responses in tree growth, and conclude with suggestions of possible applications and further development of downscaling methods for dendrochronological data

    Soil Buffering Capacity Can Be Used To Optimize Biostimulation of Psychrotrophic Hydrocarbon Remediation

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    Effective bioremediation of hydrocarbons requires innovative approaches to minimize phosphate precipitation in soils of different buffering capacities. Understanding the mechanisms underlying sustained stimulation of bacterial activity remains a key challenge for optimizing bioremediation—particularly in northern regions. Positron emission tomography (PET) can trace microbial activity within the naturally occurring soil structure of intact soils. Here, we use PET to test two hypotheses: (1) optimizing phosphate bioavailability in soil will outperform a generic biostimulatory solution in promoting hydrocarbon remediation and (2) oligotrophic biostimulation will be more effective than eutrophic approaches. In so doing, we highlight the key bacterial taxa that underlie aerobic and anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation in subarctic soils. In particular, we showed that (i) optimized phosphate bioavailability outperformed generic biostimulatory solutions in promoting hydrocarbon degradation, (ii) oligotrophic biostimulation is more effective than eutrophic approaches, and (iii) optimized biostimulatory solutions stimulated specific soil regions and bacterial consortia. The knowledge gleaned from this study will be crucial in developing field-scale biodegradation treatments for sustained stimulation of bacterial activity in northern regions

    Tree rings provide early warning signals of jack pine mortality across a moisture gradient in the southern boreal forest

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    Recent declines in productivity and tree survival have been widely observed in boreal forests. We used early warning signals (EWS) in tree ring data to anticipate premature mortality in jack pine (Pinus banksiana) - an extensive and dominant species occurring across the moisture-limited southern boreal forest in North America. We sampled tree rings from 113 living and 84 dead trees in three soil moisture regimes (subxeric, submesic, subhygric) in central Saskatchewan, Canada. We reconstructed annual increments of tree basal area to investigate (1) whether we could detect EWS related to mortality of individual trees, and (2) how water availability and tree growth history may explain the mortality warning signs. EWS were evident as punctuated changes in growth patterns prior to transition to an alternative state of reduced growth before dying. This transition was likely triggered by a combination of severe drought and insect outbreak. Higher moisture availability associated with a soil moisture gradient did not appear to reduce tree sensitivity to stress-induced mortality. Our results suggest tree rings offer considerable potential for detecting critical transitions in tree growth, which are linked to premature mortality

    Expression and function of proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors in inflammatory pain

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Chronic inflammatory pain, when not effectively treated, is a costly health problem and has a harmful effect on all aspects of health-related quality of life. Despite the availability of pharmacologic treatments, chronic inflammatory pain remains inadequately treated. Understanding the nociceptive signaling pathways of such pain is therefore important in developing long-acting treatments with limited side effects. High local proton concentrations (tissue acidosis) causing direct excitation or modulation of nociceptive sensory neurons by proton-sensing receptors are responsible for pain in some inflammatory pain conditions. We previously found that all four proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are expressed in pain-relevant loci (dorsal root ganglia, DRG), which suggests their possible involvement in nociception, but their functions in pain remain unclear.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>In this study, we first demonstrated differential change in expression of proton-sensing GPCRs in peripheral inflammation induced by the inflammatory agents capsaicin, carrageenan, and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). In particular, the expression of TDAG8, one proton-sensing GPCR, was increased 24 hours after CFA injection because of increased number of DRG neurons expressing TDAG8. The number of DRG neurons expressing both TDAG8 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) was increased as well. Further studies revealed that TDAG8 activation sensitized the TRPV1 response to capsaicin, suggesting that TDAG8 could be involved in CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain through regulation of TRPV1 function.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Each subtype of the OGR1 family was expressed differently, which may reflect differences between models in duration and magnitude of hyperalgesia. Given that TDAG8 and TRPV1 expression increased after CFA-induced inflammation and that TDAG8 activation can lead to TRPV1 sensitization, it suggests that high concentrations of protons after inflammation may not only directly activate proton-sensing ion channels (such as TRPV1) to cause pain but also act on proton-sensing GPCRs to regulate the development of hyperalgesia.</p

    Institutional creativity and pathologies of potential space: The modern university

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    This paper proposes the applicability of object relations psychoanalytic conceptions of dialogue (Ogden, 1986, 1993) to thinking about relationships and relational structures and their governance in universities. It proposes that: the qualities of dialogic relations in creative institutions are the proper index of creative productivity; that is of, as examples, ’thinking’ (Evans, 2004), ’emotional learning’ (Salzberger-Wittenburg et al., 1983) or ’criticality’ (Barnett, 1997); contemporary institutions’ explicit preoccupation in assuring, monitoring and managing creative ’dialogue’ can, in practice, pervert creative processes and thoughtful symbolic productivity, thus inhibiting students’ development and the quality of ’thinking space’ for teaching and research. In this context the paper examines uncanny and perverse connections between Paulo Freire’s (1972) account of educational empowerment and dialogics (from his Pedagogy of the oppressed) to the consumerist (see, for example, Clarke & Vidler, 2005) rhetoric of student empowerment, as mediated by some strands of managerialism in contemporary higher education. The paper grounds its critique of current models of dialogue, feedback loops, audit and other mechanisms of accountability (Power, 1997; Strathern, 2000), in a close analysis of how creative thinking emerges. The paper discusses the failure to maintain a dialogic space in humanities and social science areas in particular, exploring psychoanalytic conceptions from Donald Winnicott (1971), Milner (1979), Thomas Ogden (1986) and Csikszentmihalyi (1997). Coleridge’s ideas about imagination as the movement of thought between subjective and objective modes are discussed in terms of both intra- and inter-subjective relational modes of ’dialogue’, which are seen as subject to pathology in the pathologically structured psychosocial environment. Current patterns of institutional governance, by micromanaging dialogic spaces, curtail the ’natural’ rhythms and temporalities of imagination by giving an over-emphasis to the moment of outcome, at the expense of holding the necessary vagaries of process in the institutional ’mind’. On the contrary, as this paper argues, creative thinking lies in sporadic emergences at the conjunction of object/(ive) outcome and through (thought) processes
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